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India Archaeological 
Survey 





ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

ARCH/EOLOGICAL SURVEY 
OF INDIA 



1921-22 



D. BRAINERD SPOONER, O.B.E., Ph.D., F.A.S,B„ 

Officiating Direclor-Gtneral of Anhaology In India. 




SIMLA 
GOVERNMEliT OF INDU 
1924 

Price Rupees Tweaty-four and Annas Blgbt 



1 33 
/ 



32B952 



• • 



* 
■ • . » 

• • ■ 



« • • 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ARCH/EOLOGICAL SURVEY 

OF INDIA 



1921-22. 



PREFACE. 

IT is unfortunate that the editing of this Report should have devolved, owing to the 
absence on leave of Sir John Marshall, Director Greneral of Archseology in India, upon 
the present writer, as it is the first of the new consolidated reports. Sir John was 
able to revise practically all the contributions sent in for the Conservation Section of 
the Report, and to arrange the plates ; but otherwise the editorial responsibility rests 
upon the undersigned and Mr. Blakiston, though all concerned would have preferred 
that Sir John's riper experience should have moulded the new form throughout. 

Ever since the re-organization of the Department in 1902, it has been the rule 
for each Provincial Superintendent to issue an independent Annual Progress Report for 
the Circle of which he is in charge, the Diriector General's Report then summarising the 
year's work as a whole, and recording particulars of his own activities. So long as 
each Province bore the cost of its own Archaeological work, this arrangement was in- 
evitable, but it necessarily involved a considerable amount of repetition and duplication 
of effort. Now that Archaeology is centralised under the Reforms, and the entire coat 
is borne by the Imperial Government, it has seemed best to do away with the Provincial 
Reports, and to issue instead one joint or consolidated Report for the Archaeological 
Survey as a whole. This joint Report is naturally made up of the contributions received 
from the several Circles, put together under the editorship of the Director General, who, 
in normal years, will also contribute a record of his own work during the year. The 
method is one from which a certain unevenness is inseparable, but it is the only one 
permitting the officers of the Department to express their individuality. To emphasize 
this aspect of the Report the fullest possible use has been made of inverted commas, 
so that each officer's contribution may, so far as possible, stand alone, and rest visibly 
upon his own authority. 

Simla, 6th June 1923. 



ta6le of contents. 



SECTION I. — Conservation of Monubients — 

Northern Circle (Muhammadan and BritiBh Monuments) — 

United Provinces . 

The Punjab 

Delhi Province ........ 

Gardens in Delhi 



Page. 



1 

3 

4 

6 

Gardens in the United Provinces 6 

Gardens in the Punjab 7 

Northern Circle (Hindu and Buddhist Monuments) — 

The Punjab 7 

United Provinces 8 

Frontier Circle 9 

Western Circle 12 

Central Circle — 

Bihar and Orissa . 18 

Central Provinces and Berai 22 

Eastern Circle — 

Bengal . . 25 

Assam 28 

Indian States (Bengal) 29 

Southern Circle 29 

Burma Circle 32 

Indian States — 

Chhattarpur ........... 36 

Gwalior 37 

Kashmir .42 

SECTION II. — ^Excavation and Exploration (including Notes on Places visited) — 
Northern Circle (Hindu and Buddhist MonomentB) — 

Samath 42 

Eosam ............ 45 

Kurukshetra 46 

Almora • 50 

Frontier Circle — 

Jamalgarhi 54 

• Khanpur and Dhamtaur 62 

Shinkian, Haji Bela and Bedadi 63 

ChittiGatti 65 

Asota and Shahbazgaihi 65 

Western Circle — 

Saraspur ........... 66 

Kan ......... ... 66 

Maungya Tungya Caves 66 



Miri 



69 



11 



Lasalgaon and Chandor 

Marai in Maihar State 

Manora 

Doni in Chhattarpur State . 

Nagaur in Marwar 
Central Circle — 

Nalanda 

Eastern Circle — 

Paharpur ..... 

Tamink .... 

Gaganesvar .... 

Bharat Bhayna and Eodla . 

Sibpur and Bhandirban 

Nannoor, Bhadisvar and Faikore . 

Chittagong .... 

Bangarh 

Bahulara and DhannagaTh , 

Comilla and Unakoti . 
Southern Circle — 

Cochin ..... 

Dindigul 

Sadras ..... 
Burma Circle — 

Sameikshe ..... 

Pagan . . . . • 

Old Prome .... 

Indian States — 

Kashmir ..... 
SECTION III.— Officers on Speclal Duty— 

Note by Sir Aurel Stein 

Note by Mr. F. H. Andrews 
SECTION IV.— Museums — 

Archaeological Section, Indian Museum, Calcutta 

Delhi Museum .... 

Peshawar Museum 

Prince of Wales' Museum, Bombay 

Bijapur Museum 

Nalanda Museum 

Dacca Museum .... 

Rajshahi Museum 

Gauhati Museum 

Gwalior Museum 
SECTION v.— Epigraphy — 

Sanskritic Epigraphy . 

Burmese Epigraphy 

Moslemic Epigraphy 
SECTION VI.— Arch^»logical Chemist — 

NotiC by Mr. Sana Ullah 



Page. 
69 
69 
70 
70 
71 

73 

74 
74 
76 
V6 

77 
78 
81 
83 
84 

86 

88 
89 
89 

90 
91 
92 

92 

93 

97 

101 
108 
108 
110 
110 
111 
112 
112 
112 
113 

114 
121 
123 

124 



Ill 



SECTION VII. — ^Ancient Monuments Act — 

Effect of the Reforms . . . 

Listing of Monuments, Delhi 

Listing of Monuments, Bihar and Orissa 

Listing of Monuments, Eastern Circle . 

Listing of Monuments, Southern Circle . 

Listing of Monuments, Burma 
SECTION VIIL— Treasure Trove — 

Northern Circle (Muhammadan and British Monuments) 

Frontier Circle 

Western Circle 

Central Circle 

Eastern Circle 

Gwalior State 
SECTION IX.— Publications — 

Director General of Archaeology 

Northern Circle (Agra Office) 

Northern Circle (Lahore Office) 

Frontier Circle . 

Central Circle 

Western Circle . 

Eastern Circle 

Southern Circle . 

Burma Circle 

Indian States : Kashmir 
SECTION X.— Library . 
SECTION XL— Photographs 
SECTION XIL— Drawings . 
SECTION XIII.— Personnel , 
SECTION XIV.— Scholarships 
SECTION XV.— Miscellaneous Notes — 

Mara and his Daughter, in Gandhara Beliefs — ^by Mr. H. Hargreaves 

The Visvantara Jataka at Bharhut — ^by Mr. Ramaprasad Chanda 

Wathundaye, the Earth-Goddess of Burma — ^by M. Charles Duroiselle 

Mongol Frescoes at Pagan — by M. Charles Duroiselle 

APPENDICES 

Appendix A. — Expenditure on Office Establishments including Museums, 

Expenditure on Conservation .... 
Appendix B. — ^List of Exhibits received in the Delhi Museum of Archaeology 

list of Going received in the Delhi Museum of Archaeology . 

List of Exhibits received in the Taj Museum, Agra . . 
Appendix G. — List of antiquities found at Nalanda .... 



Excavation, 



i'AQE. 

VIC, 
126 
126 
127 
127 
127 

127 
128 
128 
128 
129 
131 

131 
IHl 
132 
132 
132 
132 
133 
133 
i33 
134 
134 
136 
138 
14' I 
141 

142 
143 
144 
]46 
14» 

149 
166 
235 
237 
239 
240 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate !-—(«) Taj Dalans, East of Sirlii Darwaza, as restored. Taj, Agra. (See page 2 of 

text). 

(6) Kotla Firoz Shah ; Entrance gateway of the mosque from inside the mosque, 
Delhi. {See page 4). 

Plate II. (a) Akbar's Tomb ; External face of compound wall near south-west corner Bur j 

(1) Wide flush pointing in rubble masonry, (2) Rod or rule pointing 
in brickwork, as done previously. Sikandara, Agra. {See page 144). 

(6) Akbar's Tomb; External face of compound wall south-west comer Burj, 
as raked out. Sikandara, Agra. {See page 144). 

(c) Akbar's Tomb ; External face of compound wall near south-west comer 
Burj (1) Wide flush pointing in rubble masonry, (2) Rod or rule pointing in 
brick- work, as repointed. Sikandara, Agra. {See page 144). 

{d) Akbar's Horse : Before removal, taken from north-west. {See page 2). 

Plate III. — (a) Tughlaq's Fort ; Breach in bastion after repair. Tughlaqabad, Delhi. {See 

page 4). 
(6) Tughlaq's Fort ; Second gateway showing chabutra and gate after repair and 

clearance. Tughlaqabad, Delhi. {See page 4). 
(c) West Gate of Qadam Sharif, Qadam Sharif, Delhi. {See page 4). 
{d) South-west wall of Qadam Sharif under repair, Qadam Sharif, Delhi. {See 
page 4). 
Plate IV. — (a) Chhatri over Asoka pillar at Sarnath, after completion. {See page 8). 

(6) Stupas to north-west of main shrine, Samath, after conservation. {See page 
8). 
Plate V. — (a) Jaulian Monastery. West wall before conservation. {See page 11). 

(6) Jaulian Monastery. West wall after conservation. {See page 11). 

Plate VI. — (a) Nalanda. Monastery No. 1. Showing original stair descent under reconstruc- 
tion, and ruined enclosure walls repaired. {See page 21). 
(6) Nalanda. Monastery No. 1. Interior quadrangle. Chabutra on east side, 
as excavated. {See page 21). 

Plate VII. — (a) Nalanda. Monastery No. 1. Sculptured slab in low chabutra exposed on 

south side of quadrangle. {See page 19). 
{b) Nalanda. Monastery No. 1. Main westem gateway before repair. {See 
page 20). 
Plate VIII. — (a) Nalanda. Monastery No. 1. Main west entrance. North wall of vestibule 

under repair. {See page 20). 
(6) Nalanda. Monastery No. lA. West wall of quadrangle showing ruined 
stylobate parapet reconstructed. {See page 22, top). 

Plate IX. — (a) Temple of Anandeswar, from north, at Lasur, District Amraoti, C. P., showing 

new facing of eastern shrine. {See page 24). 
(6) JumaMasjid, Asirgarh,Nimar District :C. P. Exterior, from S.-E,, showing 
conservation work in progress on minar, etc. {See page 24). 

Plate X. — (a) Bara Darwaza, at Chikalda, District Amraoti, C. P., showing kanguras rebuilt 

to the old shape. 
(6) Tomb of Nadir Shah, Burhanpur, C. P., showing repair of facing in progress, 
and reconstructed chabutra. {See page 24). 



11 



Plate XL— (a) Stone pillar at Kosain after excavation ; District Allahabad. {See page 9). 

ft 

(6) Math at Rajbari, Dacca, from north-east. (See page 28). 
Plate XII.— (a) Caves Nos. II, III and IV at Elephanta. After excavation. {See page 13). 

(b) Cave No. V, Elephanta. Before excavation. {See page 13). 

(c) Vishnu and Durga found in Cave No. Ill, Elephanta. {See page 13). 

(d) Cave No. V, Elephantu. After excavation. {See pfige 13). 

Plate XIII. — (a) Front of Delhi Gate, Shanwarwada, Poona. Before conservation. {See page 

13). 

(6) Front of Delhi Gate, Shanwarwada, Poona. After conservation. {See page 
13). 

Plate XIV. — (a) First Court, Shanwarwada, Poona. Before demolition of modem structures 

and excavation. {See page 14). 

(6) First Court, Shanwarwada, Poona. After excavation. {See page 14). 
Plate XV. — (a) Chalukyan Temple in Sholapur Fort. Before excavation. (iSec page 17). 

(b) Chalukyan Temple in Sholapur Fort. After excavation. {See page 17). 
Plate XVI. — (a) St. Francis Church. British Cochin. {Sec page 88). 

(6) Virabhadra Temple, east view, Motupalle, Guntur. {See page 31). 

Plate XVII. — (a) Dutch Tomb-stone of R. Van Ham in St. Francis Church, Cochin. {See 

page 89). 

(6) Old Belfry outside the Port and Customs office, Masulipatam. {See page 30). 

(c) Dutch Tomb-stone of G. W. S. Van GoUenesse and two children in St. Francis 

Church, Cochin. {See page 89). 

Plate XVIII.— (a) Royal tombs in the Fort at Mandalay. {See page 34). 

(6) Fort Duflferin, Mandalay. {See page 33). 
Plate XIX. — (a) Min-0-Chantha Pagoda, Pagan. (See page 35). 

(6) Ratanamanaung Pagoda, Myohaung, Akyab District. (See page 36). 
Plate XX. — (a) Samath. Excavations in open forecourt of Maip Shrine. {See page 42). 

(6) Stupa No. 136. Detail of N.-E. corner. {See page 43). 
Plate XXI. — (a) Sarnath. Head of Avalokitesvara. (See page 44). 

(6) Sarnath. Female chauri-bearer carved in the round. Back. {Sec page 44). 

(c) Kumkshetra. A pitcher. {See page 49). 

(d) Kosam. Yaksha figure (Sunga period) found in the excavation around the 

pillar. (See page 46). 

Pl^lTE XXII. — (a) Kurukshetra. Trenches B and C from S.-W. (See page 48). 

(6) Kurukshetra. Trench D from S.-W. (See page 48). 

Plate XXIII. — Plan showing excavation and conservation at Jamalgarhi, 1921*22. {See 

page 54-1!). 

Plate XXIV. — (a) Jamalgarhi. Four sunk water pots and small masonry pit. (See page 56). 

(6) The temptation by Mara and his three daughters. {Sec page 142). 

* (c) Relief. The approach to the Bodhi tree. (See page 59). 

{d) Relief. The nursling of the dead woman. {See page 59). 

Plate XXV. — (a) Seated Buddha with flames on the shoulders. (See page 65). 

(6) Buddha under the Bodhi tree. Mara and his daughter to left. (See page 
57). 

Plate XXVI.— Site plan of ancient Fort and temples at Kafirkot. (See page 10). 



Ill 

Plate XXVIT. — (a) Details of the Math at Kodlah from north, Khuhia. {See page 76). 

(6) Bhandisvara Siva temple from east, at Bhandirbas, Birbhum. {See page 
77). 

Plate XXVIII. — (a) Pillar with inscription of the Chedi prince Kama, at Narayanachatvara, 

P-aikore, Birbhum. {See page 78). 

(6) Broken pillar with inscription of Vijayasena at Paikore, Birbhum. (Sec 

page 78). 
(c) Image of Manasa at Bhadisvar, Birbhum. {See page 78). 

{d) Image of Narasimha, at Narayanachatvara, Paikore, Birbhum. {See page 
80). 

Plate XXIX. — (a) Stele representing Buddha with scenes from his iife at Sibpur village, 

Khulna. {See page 77). 
(6) Terracotta head from Sibbari at Devikot, Dinajpur. {See page 84). 
(c) Chaturmukha linga on the right bank of the Unakoti stream at Unakoti, 

Tripura State. {See page 87). 

{d) Image of Parsvanath in the temple of Siddhesvar, at Bahulara, Bankura. 
{See page 84). 

Plate XXX. — (a) Group of colossal Ganesa and other figures in the bed of the Unakoti stream 

at Unakoti, Tripura State. {See page 87). 

(6) Colossal rock-cut head of Siva after jungle-clearance at Unakoti, Tripura 
State. {See page 86). 

Plate XXXI. — (a) Sarai at Kari ; rear wall. {See page 66). 

(6) Early caves, Maungya Tungya, Nasik District, image on shrine of Cave 
No. 1. {See page 67). 

Plate XXXII. — (a) Early caves, Maungya Tungya, Nasik District. Sculptures in verandah of 

Cave No. 1. {See page 67). 

(6) Maungya Peak, Nasik District ; Stele in Cave No. II. {See page (>8). 

Plate XXXIII. — (a) Holkar's palace at Chandor. Fa5ade. {See page 69). 

(6) Holkar's palace. Interior. (See page 67). 

Plate XXXTV. — (a) Two fresco slabs packed into bundle as brought from Chinese Turkestan. 

(See page 98). 

(6) A bundle of fresco slabs being lifted from box. (See page 98). 

(c) Applying the first backing of plaster ; mirror below. (See page 99). 

{d) Putting final plaster coat after back has been placed in position. (See 
page 100). 

Plate XXXV. — (a) Aluminium frame used in mounting section of fresco shown in (6). {See 

page 100). 

(6) Section of fresco mounted on its aluminium frame. (See page 100). 

(c) Wall painting from shrine XII, Bezeklik, Turfan. (See page 99). 
Plate XXXVI. — Fresh acquisitions in the Indian Museum. (See page 102). 
Plate XXXVII.— Figures of the Crowned Buddha. (See page K 5). 
Plate XXXVIII. — Bronze images acquired for the Indian Museum. (See page 106). 
Plate XXXIX. — Vase found near Baghdad. (See page 107). 

Plate XL. — (a) Kurukshetra, Bronze object. (See page 49). 

(6) Bronze image of Buddha, at Kali temple, Dharmaghar (Sylhet). (See 
page 85). 

(c) Mason's Marks on Arch stone, from Pataliputra. (See page 103). 

{d) Inscribed filter vessel of the Emperor Aurangzeb. (See page 108). 

(e) Visvantara Jataka. (See page 143). 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ARCH/EOLOGICAL SURVEY 

OF INDIA 



FOR THE YEAR 



1921-22. 



SECTION I. 



CONSERVATION OF MONUMENTS. 

AS a consequence of the changes arising out of the Reforms, a certain dislocation Northern 
of work was inevitable. Thus Mr. Blakiston, Superintendent of Muhammadan and Circle. 
British Monuments in the Northern Circle, reports that : " In the United Provinces, Muhammadan 
owing to the late submission by the Provincial Government of the revised Programme of Monumerds 
Conservation works, funds could not be allotted till January, and on funds being so United Provinces. 
allotted there was almost a rush to submit * lapse statements ' under one pretext or 
another. Public Works officers finding it difficult, if not impossible, to utilise funds placed 
at their disposal so late in the year. In some cases estimates were found to be out of 
date and work in consequence could not be proceeded with. In others, the Public 
Works ' Code rules were quoted which forbid a * special work ' being commenced in the 
month of March. In some cases it was discovered that no arrangements had been made 
for the acquisition of land. As a result, in the United Provinces alone out of a total of 
Rs. 1,13,645 plus Rs. 21,593 for Departmental charges allotted to conservation, 
Rs. 31,137 were allowed to lapse. 

" In the Punjab affairs were conducted with more success. Rs. 82,885 including 
Departmental charges were allotted by the Government of India for conservation, 
and of this sum, although also received rather late in the year, only about Rs. 3,700 
were permitted to lapse. In the Province of Delhi out of Rs. 1,19,915 flus Rs. 14,085 
for Departmental charges received for conservation and maintenance of gardens, only a 
few rupees were relinquished." 



CONSERVATION. 2 

Northern In compiling the statements of expenditure given in Appendix A (1) Mr. Blakiston 

Circle. says some difl&culty has been experienced. '* Funds are allotted for the financial year 

uStedPrctlnces. (^P^^ ^®* ^^ March Slst) but in two of the Provinces in this Circle annual repairs are 

continued up to June 30th in* the case of the Punjab and July Slst in the Delhi Province. 
In consequence it will be .seen that many annual repair works are shown as ^ in progress '. 
It has been the custom Of Superintending Engineers in these Provinces when submitting 
their statement^-, of expenditure on Conservation to account for only that sum which 
has ,b<?eEt-.ex{)ended out of the year's allotment, ignoring the sum that was expended 
froiiV* the previous year's allotment during the period from April 1st to June 30th 
. . \ ; :(or July 31st) with the result that the annual reports of this Circle have never accounted 
for the expenditure in those three or four months. This year endeavours have been 
made to obtain correct figures for expenditure during the whole financial year under 
report and, as a consequence, the expenditure in some instances appears greater than the 
allotment, owing to the fact that a large sum had been spent from the previous year's 
grant during the early months of the financial year. It is hoped that in future arrange- 
ments may be made whereby grants must be expended during the financial year in 
which they are allotted, so that complications in compiling the expenditure statement 
may be avoided. 

" But notwdthstanding the failure of the Local Government to take full advantage of 

the allotment made to it, and despite other set-backs, the excellent work executed 

Agra. by the Public Works Department in Agra must not be overlooked. Khan Bahadur 

Hira Khan, the Executive Engineer, and his subordinates have earned the gratitude of 
the Archaeological Department for the manner and rapidity in which they completed the 
restoration of the colonnade along the south side of the Taj forecourt. Although orders 
to continue the estimate were not received until late in the year, they managed by 
putting their best into the work to finish it in time for H. R. H. the Prince of Wales' 
visit on 13th February at an outlay of Rs. 28,261. This now completes the restoration 
of the dalans (colonnades) which have already taken their place in the general picture as 
though they had never been missing (Plate la). The work of restoration on the east cause- 
way at Akbar's Tomb at Sikandara, Agra, is another important work which was continued 
from last year and is still in progress, and which it is hoped to complete during the 
ensuing year if suflScient funds can be made available. In conjunction with this work 
repairs to the large well attached to the causeway on the south have also been taken in 
hand. Several large trees that were growing up against it have been removed besides 
much earth and accumulated debris. The interior, too, has been cleaned out and pointed 
and the brickwork has been repaired down to the bottom ; so that the only item now 
remaining to be done is the repair of the surrounding passage and exterior. At Mariam's 
Tomb (she was the wife of Akbar) a small red stone jali was set up to prevent visitors 
falling down a dangerous flight of steps. Conservation of the little mosque kno\^^l as 
Itbari Khan's on the road to Sikandara, interesting chiefly on account of a long and well- 
executed inscription, was taken in hand and completed, and, at the same time, Akbar's 
Horse which stood on the opposite side of the railway embankment from the road (J^late 
lid) and could not be seen, was removed from its pedestal and placed on a new one pro- 
vided for it near the mosque mentioned above. The construction of bridle paths to the 
tombs of Itbari Khan, Sadiq Khan and Salabat Khan, nobles of the time of Akbar, which 
are in the vicinity of the little mosque, was also put in hand and nearly finished except for 
a portion of the pathway to Itbari Khan's Tomb, which had to be postponed pending 
certain proceedings in connection with the acquisition of land. Four red sandstone seats 



3 CONSERVATION. 

for Akbar's Tomb and four for Itimad-ud-Daulah's Tomb, intended for the convenience of Northera 
visitors, were made from designs supplied by the Archaeological Superintendent. In Circle. 
the Fort at Agra special repairs to the marble chajja in the Moti Mas j id were carried out. untodP Winces 
The stones had in some instances become loose or broken on account of the iron dowels Agra.f 
and cramps being eaten away by rust. The Delhi Gate in the Fort also received atten- 
tion, the work there comprising, among other things, the renewal of broken or decayed 
stone, pointing and cleaning. At the Kanch Mahal at Sikandara a commencement was 
made in the construction of a tube well and engine house with pumping plant. This 
work is being undertaken by the Sanitary Department and is designed to supply water 
for the area outside the main entrance to Akbar's Tomb, which, when water is made 
available, is to be planted with grass and trees. The only other works of importance in 
the United Provinces were at Lucknow where certain repairs were undertaken both at Luchnow. 
the Chhatar Manzil and at the Residency. At the latter monument surkhi was spread 
on the roadways and marble tablets with inscriptions describing the position of certain 
historical spots were erected and some extensions were made to the iron railings partly 
surrounding the grounds. 

" In the Punjab Lahore was the centre round and about which most conservation of X'*^ Pun|ab. 
Muhammadan monuments was undertaken during the year. A very considerable 
amoimt of work was executed at Shalamar against the visit of the Prince of Wales in 
March, The white marble work of the water courses was repaired and cleaned, and the 
floors and ceilings of the baradaris were also repaired and their walls distempered ivory 
white. Improvements were made to some of the fountains by increasing the size of the 
jets from | inch to f inch, and silt deposited by the canal was dug away from the irriga- 
tion channel in front of the main entrance gate. A pair of handsome new doors designed 
in the office of the Superintendent, Muhammadan and British Monuments, was construct- 
ed and hung in position in place of the old rotten ones in the entrance gateway. The 
bronze studs and bolts for it were made in the Mayo School of Art under the personal 
supervision of the Principal, who is always most obliging in undertaking works of this 
description for the Archaeological Department. In addition, a new counter has been 
purchased for the pumping engine and will shortly be fixed. The foot path from the 
Grand Trunk Road through the Gulabi Bagh Gateway to Dai Anga's Tomb was 
completed, and also the special repairs to the Chauburji Gateway which were in 
progress from the previous year. The chief item at the latter was the erection of a fence 
round the buildings. At Shahdara, the roadways in the Akbari Sarai have been 
reme tailed and a new notice board provided at the tomb of Nur Jahan. The works 
in connection with the conservation of Asaf Khan's Tomb adjoining the Akbari 
Sarai are now almost completed. The estimate for this improvement amounted 
to Rs. 38,549 and this has been gradually dealt with during the past three years. 
During the year under review work has been confined chiefly to repairs to the old brick 
causeways, which after removing the earth with which they had become almost 
completely covered, were found to be badly dilapidated. Certain levelling and grassing 
was also done. Arrangements for irrigating the grass have yet to be made and the 
fixing of a pump for that purpose is in hand. The conservation of the gateways, 
dedans and walls around the Akbari Sarai has been in progress. Work here consisted for 
the most part of underpinning brickwork and repairing, pointing and edging plaster, 
while some marble inlay-work on the gateway leading to Jahangir's Tomb requires yet 
to be attended to. At Nawakot, a village a couple of miles outside Lahore, repairs 
were commenced and works executed on the outsides of walls and to the two remaining 
comer pavilions. Much remains to be done here as the gateway and paviliona, which are 



CONSERVATION. 



Northern 
Circle. 

Agra Office. 
The Punlab. 
Lahore. 



Hissar. 



Rohtas. 



Thanesar. 



Hasart Abdal. 



Chilliantvala, 



Delhi Provfaice. 



decorated with coloured tiles, have for many years been occupied by the villagers as 
habitations, with the result that they have got into a very bad state of repair. In 
the centre of the village is a tomb ascribed locally to Zeb-un-Nissa, the learned 
daughter of Aurangzeb, but since it is known that she was buried in Delhi, the 
identity of the person buried in this tomb remains a mystery. 

" Outside the Lahore area the chief work in progress was the conservation of Firoz 
Shah's palace at Hissar, where tons of earth have had to be removed in order to expose 
the ancient walls and dalans ; part of the roof too has been concreted and some of the 
walls secured. In the Phillaur and Nakodar Tahsils in the J allandar District all the 
Kos Minars along the old Mughal highway have been repaired, and at Rohtas, Sher 
Shah Sur's ancient stronghold in the Jhelum District, special repairs have just commenced 
on some of the gateways and walls. Much of the walling of this large Fort is far too 
ruined to justify repair, and attention is therefore being concentrated on those parts 
which are still fairly intact or of special interest. Among other monuments in the Punjab 
which were under repair were Sheikh Chilli's Tomb and the small stone mosque at 
Thanesar in the Kamal District. Work at the former had only just commenced when the 
financial year closed, but at the latter repairs, which for the most part consisted of 
laying stone paving in the courtyard, providing a new stone jcdi screen and odds and 
ends of repairs to walling, were completed. The sarcophagus from Lala Rukh's Tomb 
at Hasan Abdal has been brought from the site to Agra for repairs by a firm of stone 
masons. Most of the funds provided for this work were expended in quarrying the abri 
stone which is only obtainable at Jaisalmer in the centre of Rajputana, and bringing it 
thence over 100 miles across desert country by camel to the railway. Special 
repairs which had been started in the previous year to the memorial obelisk on the 
battlefield of Chillianwala were completed." 

" In the Delhi Province " Mr. Blakiston reports, " the conservation of various struc- 
tures in Firoz Shah's Kotla, which had been in progress for some time past, has now been 
practically completed, the chief task still remaining to be done being the grassing of the 
newly levelled areas. The principal items of work executed during the year were under- 
pinning of enclosure walls and bastions, and of the main entrance gateway, dalans, baoli, 
mosque and buildings in the elevated courtyard (Plate 16); the removal of earth and debris 
from along part of the enclosure wall, the roof of the baoli, the dalans and the elevated 
courtyard to the south of the mosque, and the levelling of a large area at the southern end 
of the Kotla from which a large amount of earth had to be excavated. Besides these 
measures, buildings were made watertight, old plaster was edged and various walls and 
remains of buildings exposed. At Tughlaqabad the conservation of Ghiyas-ud-din's Fort 
was also continued, the main tasks achieved being the underpinning and strengthening of 
crumbling pillars on the inside of the fort,, the waterproofing of wall tops, the reconstruc- 
tion of the flight of steps up to the front gateway (Plate III a and b), and the purchase and 
demolition of some huts which encroached on the walls. Another useful improvement 
taken in hand this year was the conservation of the walls of Qadam Sharif, a building of 
Firoz Shah's period, where earth and debris were removed from the outside walls, and the 
walls themselves were underpinned, while repairs were also carried out to the terrace floors 
behind the parapets, to "the kanguras, andportions of the walls (Plate III c and d). Besides 
many graves there is a village in the interior of this enclosure, so that at present it is 
quite impossible to attend to the inner sides of the walls, but it is hoped that later on this 
work also can be taken up. At Sher Shah's Gateway and at the Khair-ul-Manazil opposite 
the Purana Qila a good start was made in the removal of accumulated debris, the roadway 



5 CONSERVATION. 

leading through the gate and dalans on both sides being cleared as well as part of the Northern 
northern side of the gateway. The courtyard of the Khair-ul-Manazil, which is Circle, 
a mosque built by Maham Angah, the foster mother of the Emperor Akbar, was entirely ^^!!J| 2iL 
cleared of debris and earth, and underpinning and repairs were begun on the dalans on 
the north and south sides. At the mosque at Khirki earth to the extent of some 
eight feet in depth and fifteen feet in width has been excavated from the four sides of 
the structure, and the cells around, previously hidden to view, have been exposed. 
Special repairs were undertaken at the palace of Bahadur Shah II, the last king of 
Delhi, known as the Zaflar Mahal, in the village of Mehrauli. The building is of no 
great architectural value, being interesting only on account of its historical associations. 
Repairs mainly consisted of the removal of earth and debris from the courtyard and 
rooms, underpinning in patches, relaying one roof and removing another which was 
past repair, edging plaster, making the tops of broken walls watertight and clearing 
up the palace generally. An item of great utility was the provision of an electric 
pump at the tomb of Safdar Jang for irrigating the grass on either side of the 
approach, the necessary feeder and pipe lines also being laid down. Among the 
smaller works undertaken during the year may be mentioned a pair of new 
teak doors provided for the Tah-Khana beneath the Rang Mahal in the Fort and 
the construction of a stable for the bullocks used in the Fort gardens, and a small 
godown. Some small repairs were also undertaken at the rear of the Diwan-i-Amm, 
and an inlaid black marble panel at the back of the throne was repaired. At 
Purana Qila the small Devi Temple inside the Fort was put into a proper state of 
repair. Certain badly undermined places that had appeared in the north-west 
wall of the Begumpuri Mosque were underpinned at short notice to save that portion 
from possible collapse ; and repairs of a petty nature were undertaken at the Chauburji 
and Wazirabad Mosques. Finally a commencement was made on an approach 
roadway 7-8ths of a mile in length from the Qutb Road to Hauz Khas to take the 
place of the footpath now in use. When completed the road should be a great 
convenience to visitors wishing to see the historic and interesting buildings there. 

"With the Protected Monuments the Government of India have also a^ssuraed Oardens in Delhi. 
charge of the gardens connected with them, where such have been laid out. The North- 
em Circle possesses some exceedingly good gardens, mostly of the Mughal type designed 
on formal lines, such for example as those of the Taj Mahal and Itimad-ud-Daulah's 
Tomb at Agra, Safdar Jang's and Humayun's Tombs at Delhi and Jahangir's Tomb and 
the Shalimar Garden at Lahore. The Qutb and Delhi Fort Gardens are also formal in the 
main, but an attempt has been made to show the positions of ancient buildings no 
longer in existence by means of additional shrubberies. With the exception of those at 
Delhi, funds for the upkeep of all these gardens have this year been provided by the 
Provincial Government of the Province in which they are situated, as Budget arrange- 
ments had already been made. The expenditure in connection with these has therefore 
been shown separately in the Appendix. It is by no means an inconsiderable sum. We 
hope, however, that the cost of maintaining these gardens can be gradually reduced by 
developing their revenue-producing possibilities. Although none can be said to be self- 
supporting at the present time, some at any rate do bjing in some small income to Gov- 
ernment through the sale of grass or dead trees, plants and flowers, etc., while at 
the Taj Mahal a fairly substantial sum is realised from licences to vendors for the sale of 
photographs and curios. At the Delhi Fort, where a small fee of two annas is charged, 
the handsome sum of Rs. 13,792-6-0 was realised against an expenditure of Rs. 6,839 



CONSERVATION. 



6 



Northern 
Circle. 

Agra Office, 
Delhi Province. 



for the pay of the Caretaker and his staff. The specially severe heat during the summer 
of 1921 did great damage to all our gardens and many shrubs and trees died. The 
question of water supply is a very difficult one everywhere and nearly all the Super- 
intendents of Gardens have something to say on that subject in their reports. At 
Delhi the lack of sufficient good water is seriously felt and several schemes for the 
improvement of the gardens are held up on that account. This is specially true in the 
case of Humayun's Tomb, where hardly any fresh water is available and it is necessary to 
use the salt-impregnated water from the wells, which is practically useless for shrubs and 
flowers. At the Qutb, although there are two good wells worked by bullocks and another 
worked by an engine, there is an insufficiency of wat^r to keep the gardens in as high a 
state of efficiency as is desired. The little garden at Hauz Khas, to which a roadway 
from the main road is now in course of construction, is an exception and always looks 
green and well attended to. At Purana Qila over 16 acres of land had to be regrassed 
during the monsoon and trees were kept alive throughout the summer with water 
brought from outside. Firoz Shah's Kotla sadly needs a better wat^r supply. There 
is a quantity of grassing to be done there, but it is useless to do anything until better 
watering arrangements are available. The Delhi Fort is always green, though here, too, 
the great heat of the summer of 1921 killed off nearly half the Grevillea trees. But the 
Superintendent of the garden is to be congratulated on the excellence of his shrubberies, 
which afford a beautiful setting to the palaces and other buildings. The garden was 
looking at its best at the time of H. 11. H. the Prince of Wales' visit in February. 
Conditions at Safdar Jang have improved since the introduction of two electrically driven 
pumping plants provided during the previous year, and in consequence the new scheme 
for the layout can now be proceeded with. 



Gardens in the "In the United Provinces the garden at the Taj is, of course, the most important. 

United Provinces, rpj^.^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ water, which though nearly always available also introduces a con- 
siderable amount of imdesiral^le mud and silt and on that account is not without its 
objections. A scheme for pumping dean water from a large well in the Bagh Khan-i* 
Alam for the foimtains and water channels was commenced two years ago, but on the 
assumption of the charge of archaeological buildings by the Central Government the work, 
which had been started by the Provincial Government, was stopped and no funds for its 
resumption have since been forthcoming. In parts of the garden the shrubberies 
have become somewhat tliin and ragged-looking, but steps are being taken to plant 
a quantity of new flowering shrubs of various descriptions. At the Ram Bagh the 
scarcity of water is very seriously felt. There are two wells in use but they are insuffi- 
cient for the needs of the garden, which is an old Mughal one chiefly planted out with 
fruit trees. The garden has been sadly neglected of late and whereas, if properly looked 
after in spite of the shortage of water, it should have shown a profit, it has come to 
entail an annual loss to Government of several thousand rupees. The new Superintend- 
ent of Gardens is pajdng particular attention to the Ram Bagh with a view to making 
it both more presentable and more paying. The garden connected with the Tomb 
of Itimad-ud-Daulah also lacks wat^r, an oil-engined pump in one corner being the sole 
means for supplying water. It may be remarked also that the price of oil has risen consi. 
derably of late and that this extra expenditure is rather seriously affecting the limited, 
financial resources of all gardens dependent on oil engines. A scheme has been prepared 
for improving the shrubberies at the Tomb of Itimad-ud-Daulah, which are by no means 
good, and incidentally restoring the old causeway around the edge of the garden. 



7 CONSERVATION. 

Likewise at Akbar's Tomb at Sikandara steps are being taken for the improvement of Northern 
the shrubberies, for which many flowering plants have already been struck in the Circle. 
nurseries, and for restoring the whole of the south-east quarter of the garden more or less ^^'^ -^ tk 
to its original state, by removing winding roadways and earthen water channels and in Uy^^ii^^ Prmnces. 
their place providing pathways with proper water channels according to the Mughal 
principles of garden design. However, the question of water again arises and much 
work will have to stand over till arrangements can be made for a regular and sufficient 
supply. Work has already been taken in hand on a large well near the Kanch Mahal 
outside the Tomb compound, but this well will only be used for the lawns outside the 
main south entrance, which will be laid out when the well is in working order. It 
should be mentioned here that proposals have been submitted to Government for the sepa- 
ration of the budgets of Provincial and Archaeological Gardens at Agra but providing that 
the Garden Superintendent and his headquarters staff shall be common to both. The 
garden known as the Khusru Bagh at Allahabad, in which are situated the Tombs of 
Khusru, the son of Jahangir, and of his mother, is still under the control of the Provincial 
Government. If it is decided to take it over as an archaeological garden, it is evident 
from the statement showing expenditure and income that something radical will have 
to be done, as we should hardly be prepared to face an annual loss of some Rs. 10,000. 
The only other garden of note in the United Provinces is that of the Residency at 
Lucknow. This, like the other archaeological gardens, is looked after by the local 
Superintendent of Gardens. It is fairly well kept, but it is considered that with a little 
more attention it could be made more tidy and the flowers be improved. The caretakers 
here are very untidy, not having been provided with uniforms for the past three or four 
years, and it is hoped that steps will be taken to rectify the omission as soon as possible 
since without official uniform their efficiency is much reduced. 

" In the Pimjab the gardens at Jahangir 's Tomb, Shalimar and Hazuri Bagh are the Gardois in the 
most important. These are all quite well looked after but the grass is of a poor nature, Punjab. 
there being, it seems, considerable difficulty in making the good dub grass grow properly in 
Lahore. Funds for the upkeep of these gardens were provided by the local Government 
in 1921-22, but it is presumed that in future the Central Government will take over the 
responsibility as the monuments connected with them are already in that Government's 
charge." 

Of the Hindu and Buddhist monuments in the Punjab Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Northern 
Sahni says eight only came under special repairs. '* At the temple at Amb the principal Circle, 
item was the partial reconstruction of the core of the massive basement, which had been (^^J^^^ ^^ 
brought to light in the preceding year. The new masonry has been executed in old j^ionuments) 
blocks obtained from the site similar in all respects to those used in the^ original structure ; Punjab, 
and pathways have been provided from both temples up to the walls of the fort. Amh. 
I found that the excavation provided for in the original estimate fell short of the 
actual requirements as the original floor lies about three feet below the level reached 
in the previous year's operations. A fresh estimate amounting to Rs. 2,601 had there- 
fore to be framed providing for the completion of the excavations, besides the construc- 
tion of a concrete floor on the top of the basement and the drainage of the precinct. 
The work imdertaken in the hill fort at Kangra consisted mostly of petty measures, Kangra. 
such as the removal of undergrowth, repairs to the entrance gate and the making of an 
approach way to the temple. A small temple was also excavated and freed from debris. 
At the Baijnath temple in the same district further progress was made with the scraping 



CONSERVATION. 8 

Northern off of the whitewash which concealed valuable carvings in the main sanctuary, and one of 

Circle. the pilasters in the entrance to the mandapa was also taken out and re-set in its original 

Panfab. position. Shrine No. 4 in the northern portion of the enclosure which had been badly 

damaged in the earthquake of 1905 was dismantled and rebuilt with the old material, 
while the Dharmasala attached to the main temple underwent further repairs. At 
the ancient temple in the Nurpur Fort the large basement which was buried under 
enormous masses of debris was completely laid open on the east, south and west sides. 
The retaining wall is composed of small chisel-dressed blocks of stone in lime mortar, 
but it is much decayed and will have to be reconstructed at many places. It should 
be observed that the excavation along the south side disclosed the original flight of 
steps behind the broad staircase constructed in modem times. The temple itself does 
not stand in need of repairs, but the floor of the Jagmohan, which had sunk in part, was 
taken up and relaid in its original position." 

United Province?, Among Hindu and Buddhist monimients in the United Provinces attention focussed 

on the Buddhist remains at Samath. on the ancient pillar at Kosam, and on certain 
monuments at Mahoba in the Hamirpur District. The total expenditure on these 
works amounted to Rs. 9,383-8-4 of which Rs. 8,114-13-4 was devoted to the conserva- 
tion and excavation work at Samath, Rs. 861-8-0 to Kosam, and the balance to 
Mahoba. The operations at the first two places were carried out imder the personal 
supervision of Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, who says : — " At Samath the Public 
Works Department completed the construction of the stone pavilion over the stump 
of the Asoka Pillar at a cost of Rs. 1,189 (see Plate IVa). The repairs executed 
by the Archaeological Superintendent pertain chiefly to the mediaeval monastery 
brought to light in 1917-18 to the west of Kittoe's monastery, to a number of 
stupas round about the Jagat Singh stupa and north-west of the Main Shrine (Plate 
IV6) and to various structures excavated by me during the course of the year in the 
extensive fore-court of the Main Shrine. For want of bricks of the old patterns it was 
not possible to undertake large measures of conservation in the northern or monastery 
area, where much work still remains to be done. I succeeded, however, in carrying out 
some urgently needed works at monastery No. I which I propose to identify with the 
Dharmachakrajinavihara built by Kumaradevi, the Buddhist queen of King Govinda- 
chandra of Kanauj. The area in front of the entrance to the principal block of this 
building, which is composed of accumulated earth and other debris, was in a very pre- 
carious condition, and to prevent further erosion a solid retaining wall fifty-four feet in 
length and twelve feet high has been provided. The new wall is built throughout with 
old bricks of the Gupta period collected from the site and is not obtrusive (Plate Va). 
The area between this building and the earlier monastery No. Ill stood sorely in need of 
drainage, as did also the interior of the latter building ; for though it had its usual outlet, 
rain water could not escape on accoimt of high foundations on three sides and a bank 
of unexcavated earth on the side of the jhil. In ancient times the drain of monastery 
No. Ill referred to above continued in a westerly direction where the monastery No. I 
was erected in later times. The only course open, therefore, was to provide a new 
channel along the entire length of the west wall of monastery No. Ill right up to the 
edge of the lake. Another improvement has been made in this area by filling up the 
large pit about sixteen feet in depth which disfigured the south-west comer of the first 
forecourt of monastery No. I. The filling comes up to the level of the floor in the fore- 
court referred to and has been consolidated and levelled up. Time was also found to 
complete the clearance of the long subterranean passage to the west of monastery No. I, 



9 CONSERVATION. 

the greater part of which had been excavated in the year 1918-19. The difficulty of Northern 

draining the area to the east of the Main Shrine was luckily solved by the discovery this Circle. 

year of the original drain several hundred feet in length which has been cleared in ^^ ^nlt^^Piwl ces. 

entirety. All conservation work on this site has hitherto been carried out with old 

bricks found in the excavations. They are, however, now completely used up and 

arrangements are being made for the manufacture of new bricks of the variou* dimensions 

required." 

At Kosam, Mr. Sahni took up the task of excavating and re-erecting the famous old Kosam. 
pillar which must have been lying in its present inclined position at least since before the 
days of Akbar. " From the excavation made around it-s base it now appears that the 
existing portion of the pillar is 34 feet 6 inches in length of which the base, 1 foot 9 inches 
in height, was meant to be buried in the ground and therefore neither smoothed nor 
polished like the upper portion (Plat-e XIa). The excavation also brought to light two 
broken pieces measuring A'-Q" and 2' -3" respectively, which constituted the upper end of 
the column and which though noticed by General Cunningham about the year 1862 
had again become buried. Another fact disclosed by the excavation is that the pillar 
has sustained somewhat serious injury by the separation, from its lower portion, of a piece 
lO'-S" in length with a segment of 2'-9", which must have occurred when the pillar fell 
down. What strikes one as so surprising about this pillar is the kachclia nature of its 
foundations, clearly the cause of its downfall; for whereas the other ancient pillars 
such as those at Rampurva, Samath, Sanchi, etc., were erected on strong stone slabs or 
on the natural rock and imbedded to a depth of some six feet or more in a heavy mass 
of solid masonry, this one at Kosam was set up direct on the soil, with a thin brick plat- 
form around it, which was bound to give way the moment the pillar began to subside. 

*' As to the re-erection of the pillar, two courses are open, either t-o re-erect it on its 
original site or to lift it out of the trench and set it up on the present ground level. 
After careful consideration it has been decided to adopt the former alternative, mainly 
because it will be less expensive. The separated portion at the lower end will, of course, 
have to be securely fastened by means of strong iron collars, and a strong masonry 
platform about ten feet square be constructed around the pillar. The new platform will 
be high enough to conceal the lower damaged portion of the pillar but will leave about 
twenty-four feet of the shaft exposed to view. The area around the pillar will then be 
levelled up flush with the top of the platform. A search will also be made for the capital 
of the piHar which presumably lies hidden on the south side where no excavation has so 
far been attempted." * 

In addition to the works summarized above the budget of this circle for the Bilsar, 
past year included a provision of Rs. 2,000 for the exploration and preservation of the 
Gupta relics at Bilsar in the Etah District. This project was to have been executed 
under the direct supervision of the Superintendent, but, as the land required for the 
purpose could not be acquired up to the end of the year, the money was reappropriated 
for work at Sarnath. 

The programme of works in the Frontier Circle provided for various measures of Frontier 
conservation at Bilot in the Dera Ismail Khan District, at Takht-i-Bahi and Jamalgarhi Circle. 
in the Peshawar District, and at Jaulian in the Hazara District. Work at the two first 
mentioned sites was to be undertaken by the Public Works Department and at the other 
two under the direct control of the Superintendent, Mr. Hargreaves, whose report follows. 

* Ste further page 45 below. 



CONSERVATION. 



10 



Frontier Circle. " A grant of Rs. 13,900 was placed by the Government of India at the disposal of the 

Superintendent, Frontier Circle, for the conservation and maintenance of monuments, 
and of this sum Rs. 11,943-15-5 was expended as well as Rs. 1,003-13-6 from the special 
grant for excavation. Rupees 6,900 was also allotted to the Public Works Department 
for works under their control, but of this sum only Rs. 1 ,987 was spent. The cost of the 
paths to the two Kafirkots was met from the Public Works Department funds, and not 
from the Archaeological budget. 



BiUji. 



Northern Kafir- 



Takhi-i-Bdhi. 



*' A revised conservation note for work at the Bilot monument was issued, but it w^as 
impossible to give effect to the recommendations of the note as the Secretary to the 
Chief Commissioner, North-West Frontier Province, Public Works Department, recom- 
mended that no work should be started at Bilot in 1921-22 in view of the condition of 
affairs in the Dera Ismail Khan District, which rendered the execution of civil works a 
very difficult matter. As works here have been continuously postponed for many years, 
it is all the more regrettable that when money was available it should have been found 
impossible to carry out conservation. A necessary preliminary to conservation at the 
Bilot Kafirkot and its counterpart, the Northern Kafirkot, is the construction of good 
paths to the sites, for without these, material for conservation cannot be brought to the 
monuments. When it was realized that the conservation of the Bilot Temples could not 
be attempted, enquiries were made of the Deputy Assistant Director, Military Works, 
Dera Ismail Khan, whether he could at least do something to improve the pathways 
leading to the two Kafirkots from the bank of the river Indus, and as he was of opinion 
that it could be undertaken, details of the proposed paths were forwarded to him with 
a request that estimates might be draw^n up and submitted for approval. The Personal 
Assistant went to Bilot on the 19th November to meet the Garrison Engineer, Dera 
Ismail Khan, and to accompany him to the two monuments, but the latter officer saw 
only the one more readily accessible, and did not visit the Northern Kafirkot, stating 
that pressure of w^ork necessitated his presence at headquarters, and he could not spare 
the time. The Deputy Assistant Director, Military Works, Dera Ismail Khan, reports 
that he has carried out improvements to the pathways at Bilot and the Northern Kafir- 
kot at a cost of Rs. 1,001-14-0 and Rs. 500-8-0 respectively, but it is not known how^ far 
these conform wdth the proposals submitted, for no estimates were sent for countersig- 
nature, and the work w^as carried out without any information being sent to the Superin- 
tendent. The sites will be visited during the coming touring season, but until the Frontier 
is more settled it seems unlikely that any serious attempt at conservation can be made in 
the Dera Ismail Khan District. 

'*The plan of the Northern Kafirkot referred to in paragraph 2 of the last report 
of the Frontier Circle is illustrated in Plate XXVI of this report. 

**TheDeputy Assistant Director, Military Works, Nowshera, forwarded an estimate 
for Rs. 2,721 for conservation of the Takht-i-Bahi Monuments. Of the various items 
detailed in the estimate only one was completed at a cost of Rs. 1,987-0-0, this being the 
restoration of a large revetment on the west of Court XX, i,e,, the high retaining wall of 
the courtyard which contains the three preserved stupas. This wall had collapsed on 
account of the excessive winter rains. The engineers report that the original foundations 
were mere rubble, and that the filling behind the wall was loose, and required consolida- 
tion. The revetment has been inspected since its restoration, and appears to have been 
most successfully restored. The remaining items of the estimate are to be executed 
during the year 1922-23. 



1 1 CONSERVATION. 

" The wall in Court T XIX, which had been dismantled and re-erected in 1920-21 , fell Frontier Circle. 
in a violent storm of wind and rain. There is a conflict of opinion as to the cause of the 
collapse. It is not proposed to restore this wall immediately, and in any future restora^ 
tion some courses at least should be set in lime mortar. 

'* Conservation atJaulian in the Hazara District was started on the 8th December Jawfe'an. 

1921, and was carried on continuously under my personal direction until the 1st March 

1922. Interruptions were numerous, the weather being unusually wet rendering outdoor 
work impossible for several days every week. My only assistant was the office drafts- 
man, to whose intelligent interest I desire to express my indebtedness for the successful 
execution of the work. Masons were obtained principally from the village of Mora 
Maliar, about four miles away, close to the ancient city of Sirkap, and many of them 
were intelligent and clever workmen, taking a lively interest in the work, and able to 
meet successfully the various difficulties that arose. Conservation proper was limited 
to the monastery area, to the west and south walls, and to certain of the cells, the west 
wall being out of plumb, with part of it missing, and the long south wall being in a 
similar condition (Plate Va). 

** The stones were numbered with chalk, and the walls photographed in sections 
before being dismantled. After dismantling, the back of each stone was numbered with 
coal-tar, and the stones arranged in order, ready for replacement. By means of the 
photographs the restoration of the stones to their original positions was rendered 
comparatively easy. The top course of the walls was set in lime mortar to render 
them watertight. The condition of the walls after conservation may be so.en from 
figure 6 of Plate V. 

" Several of the dividing walls of the cells received attention, and many of the small 
infilling stones of the diaper masonry were restored, being set in invisible lime mortar. 

*' All the stone for conservation was obtained from the spoil of the previous excava- 
tion. The woodwork of the various chapels was given two coats of Solignum and 
certain portions of the woodwork protecting the stupas and sculptures were coal-tarred. 

** While dismantling a portion of the south wall the following were found in the 
debris : — One copper bell, diameter 3", one copper ornament, a five petalled flower, 
diameter 2^, and the copper base of a lamp-stand 5^"- 5^". These were sent to the 
Archaeological Museum, Taxila. 

"A good path, nowhere less than 6' wide, was made from the terminus of the motor 
road across the nala up the hill to the entrance of the Stupa Court, and will prove of great 
convenience to the numerous visitors to this sit^. 

" The total cost of conservation at this monument, including the path, was 
Rs. 5,827-13-6. 

'' It is regrettable to have to report that on the evening of the 11th of April 1921 
some ill-disposed persons forced open the doors protecting the little chapel on the left 
of the entrance to the monastery at Jaulian, and deliberately smashed the 
beautiful stucco Buddha image which had so miraculously escaped the des- 
truction which overtook this religious establishment about the fifth century. The 
offence was immediately reported to the authorities and the Chief Commissioner, North- 
West Frontier Province, personally interested himself in the matter. The Deputy Com- 
missioner, Hazara, took up the investigation but despite the offer of a reward of Rs. 1,000 
for information which would lead to the discovery of the perpetrators of the outrage 
and the endeavours of the police, the culprits have not yet been brought to justice. 



CONSERVATION. 12 

Frontier Circle, "The very numerous fragments of the broken image were carefully collected and, 

under the personal direction of Sir John Marshall, who was then at Taxila, the 
image was restored. In consequence of this outrage it has been necessary to increase 
the number of chow kidars at the site and to strengthen the doors of this chapel and those 
of the three other small shrines within the monastery. 

Jamalgarhi. ** It had been hoped that conservation at Jamalgarhi would be started early in 

January, but the interruptions to the work at Jaulian due to bad weather rendered this 
impossible. The Personal Assistant who was to have begim clearance there, unfortu- 
nately fell while on tour and broke his left arm, so that there was no one to start and 
supervise the work until February 6th, when he began work on the still uncleared 
areas. 

" Conservation properly speaking has been limited to a very few of the structures, 
for, unlike Jaulian, Jamalgarhi is remote from any large village which can supply com- 
petent masons. A few were obtained from Sawaldher, but they came very irregularly 
and the work made little progress. The inconvenience was not very greatly felt this 
year as clearance could proceed without masons, and, indeed, is an essential preliminary 
to conservation of the remains, as well as equally necessary for the preparation of the 
complete plan of the site which is now progressing satisfactorily. Conservation proper 
was carried out in the Conference Hall, and the four-roomed structure east of the Main 
Stupa. As the operations for want of necessary masons resolved themselves into clear- 
ance rather than conservation they are described at length below under the head Explo- 
ration." 

Western Circle. M^- Rakhal Das Banerji, Archaeological Superintendent in the Western Circle, 

reports that, '' During the year under review one lakh and ten thousand rupees were allot- 
ted for the conservation of ancient monuments in the Bombay Presidency. This figure 
compares favourably with the sums granted in the previous year, when eighty thousand 
rupees w^ere received from the Government of Bombay and eighteen thousand from the 
Government of India. But since 23 % on estimates had to be paid to the Public Works 
Department of Bombay for current repair and special repair works undertaken by that 
Department, the actual amount available for expenditure was reduced from Rs. 
1,10,000 to Rs. 98,252. Out of the total grant, Rs. 31,600 were placed at the disposal of the 
Archaeological Superintendent, for certain urgent special repair works which were con- 
sidered to be too technical to be placed in the hands of the Public Works Department. 
These were — the excavations for ancient Nizamshahi Buildings in the fort at Ahmad- 
nagar, the excavation of the Caves at Elephanta, special repairs to the Portuguese monu- 
ments in Bassein Fort, the conservation of the Faria Bagh water-palace at Ahmadnagar 
and the excavations at and special repairs to the Peshwa's Palace in Poona. The 
balance Rs. 78,400 was placed at the disposal of the Public Works Department of the 
Government of Bombay for both special repairs and current repairs and maintenance. 
The total expenditure on conservation during the year thus amounted to Rs. 97,334, 
out of which Rs. 67,646 were utilised in special repairs, and Rs. 29,789 for current 
repairs and maintenance. 

Elephanta. *' The largest amount of work w^as at Elephanta, where Rs. 14,000 were spent in 

carrying out preliminary special repairs to the Caves on this Island. The Caves fall into 
two distinct groups. The first group consists of Cave No. 1 only, which is the largest, 
and generally known as the large Cave of Elephanta. The second group consists of six 
smaller excavations belonging to the same period, but which were totally neglected in 
the past and had become covered with jungle at the time of their excavation in the 



13 CONSERVATION. 

beginning of this year. In Cave No. 1 or the large cave the two wings were cleared of Westeffl CirdCi 

jungle and debris and the ancient drains for the drainage of rain water were exposed. Elepha)Ua. 

During these excavations the original courtyard of the left wing with a large circular 

N'andivedi, only portion of which had been visible before the excavations, was brought to 

light. Jungle was cut up to a radius of 50' from the ends of this cave and all loose stones 

and debris were removed to a distance. The removal of debris from the left and light 

wings of C'ave No. 1 has enhanced their beauty considerably. Four ugly steps built by 

the Kxecutive Engineer, Presidency District, Bombay, in 1921, on four sides of the 

temple of Siva in the main hall of Cave No. 1, which were objected to by the Director 

General of Archaeology, were taken down and rebuilt. In the second group debris was 

removed from the Caves Nos. 2, 3 and 4 (Plate Xlla) and during the removal a new 

cave was discovered by the side of Cave No. 4. The removal of jungle and debris in 

front of these caves has now made it possible for visitors to go and examine them 

closelv. Cave No. 2 was a small shrine by the side of the left wing of Cave No. 1 

which does not appear to have been completed. Caves Nos. 3 and 4 are excavations on 

a verv large scale and were Saiva shrines ; the arghapatta, and in one case the huge 

li^iga is still in position in spite of two centuries of Portuguese possession, when most 

of the other images were broken to pieces and desecrated. Fragments of these images 

were discovered during the excavations (Plate XIIc). In order to make these caves 

easilv accessible to the public, a roadway was constructed from the existing roadway 

in front of Cave No. 1 to the front of Cave No. 4. Two other caves of the same group 

are to be found on the adjoining hill, which were never easily accessible to the public. 

A footpath was constructed from the military road on Fllephanta Island to Caves 

Nos. 5 and 6. Debris was excavated from the interior of Cave No. 5 and its original 

plinth-lines exposed. This cave, like Cave No. 4, was originally a Saiva shrine, but was 

appropriated to the use of the Christian Church during the rule of the Portuguese in 

Bombay. The accumulation of water in the main hall of Cave No. 5 was drained off 

and the interior cleared (Plate Xllfe and d), 

"At Shan war Wada in Poona City His Excellency the Governor of Bombay paved Poono^ 
the way for effecting certain urgently needed restorations and repairs by raising sub- 
scriptions. The Delhi Gate, or the main entrance to the palace of the Peshwas, was being 
used by the Department of Land Records as one of its attached offices (Plate XIII). 
These offices were removed according to the orders of His Excellency, and the old Naqqar- 
khana on the top was restored to its former condition by paving it with stone, removing 
modern additions and alterations and clearing whitewash. The railing on the southern 
face of this fine Naqqarkhana had been demolished when the Land Records Office was 
placed in it and could not be found, but this difficulty was rectified by removing a portion 
of a similar carved wooden railing from a palace nearby, called Konkar's Wada, which 
belonged to one of the nobles of the Peshwas. The removal of this carved wooden rail- 
ing from Konkar's palace to the Naqqarkhana of the Shan war Wada Palace was kindly 
approved by His Excellency. The pavement of the ground floor inside the gateway was 
renewed at places, and a fine series of fresco paintings on the walls of the ground floor 
was revealed after the removal of coats of whitewash applied over these paintings. 
These frescoes belong to the early eighteenth century and possess a marked affinity to the 
Rajput School of painting. The subjects depicted can be recognised even now. On the 
northern wall of the southern portion of the main gate we find Vishnu lying on Sesha, 
Ganesa and Brahma, and on the side walls the ten incarnations of Vishnu and some inci- 
dents from the life of Krishna. From the money raised by His Excellency from the Ruling 



CONSERVATION. 14 

Western Circle* Chiefs of India the northern part of the garden in the interior of the walled enclosure of 

the palace was repaired and restored. The ancient stone paved way from the Delhi Gate 
to the terrace in front of the main building was repaved. The retaining wall on the 
northern, eastern and western sides of this terrace was rebuilt up to its original height, and 
the area turned into a grass plot. This terrace contained two cisterns with copper foun- 
tains in it. The copper fountains could not be restored in time for the Prince of Wales' visit 
though the water supply is still adequate to make them run. The main staircase leading 
from this terrace to the first court of the palace was repaired by renewing missing treads, 
and the plinth of the interior of the first court was repaired wherever stones were found 
to be missing (Plate XIV). Similarly a small court to the west of the first court of the 
palace was also repaired, enabling people to go through the first court to the small court, 
and then to the court of the thousand fountains, discovered during the previous year. 
The terrace-garden along the eastern wall was partly repaired. An ancient staircase 
leading from the first terrace in this area to the second was rebuilt, and portions of the 
stone fountains in the second terrace were replaced in position. In all Rs. 18,000 were 
spent from the funds raised by His Excellency the Governor, by subscriptions among 
the Ruling Chiefs for repairs to this portion of the Shan war Wada palace, and Ks. 10,800 
spent on urgently needed repairs to the inner walls of this fortress. The walls had 
collapsed at certain places and at other places were on the verge of collapsing. All 
of these portions were repaired on the lines of the old construction. All of these 
repairs were carried out before the visit of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales to the Shanwar 
Palace on the 19th November 1921. Expenditure on current repairs and maintenance 
to the Shanwar Wada, including the pay of the Police guard, amounted to Rs. 1,665. 

Bassein^ '*The principal Portuguese remains inside the fort at Bassein lie to the south of a 

road running east to west through this fort. Nearly one- third of the area enclosed by 
the old fort is in the charge of the Revenue Department of the Government of Bombay, 
and is cultivated. The remaining area is covered with dense jungle and the ruins of the 
principal buildings of the Portuguese in India. In 1917 the remains inside the fort were 
so thickly overgrown with jungle that it was impossible to examine them at close quar- 
ters. In 1919 the Executive Engineer, Thana District, was provided with funds to 
remove this jungle in order to make the preparation of conservation notes possible. 
The work of jungle cutting was done very carelessly at that time, only the branches of 
trees being cut off. The trees grew rapidly again, and at the beginning of this year the 
jungle was almost as thick as it had been in 1 91 7. Attention had to be devoted, therefore, 
in the first instance to the removal of large and small trees with their roots from both the 
citadel and the fort walls. During the year unde review more than half of the length 
of the fort walls, both inside and outside, was cleared of large and small trees. The roots 
of big banian and pipal trees enveloping the fort walls at places had hid more than 40' 
to 50' from view. These root^s had to be chiselled out from cracks and joints of the 
masonry. As an experimental measure, small ends of roots were treat-ed with a mixture 
of asaphoetida, lime and molasses in order to prevent future growth. The platform on 
the top of the rampart had swelled up at places on account of the ingress of water and 
the penetration of very long and thick roots of pipal and banian trees. These swollen 
patches were dug up and the roots were extracted from the interior. The work svas in 
progress throughout the year. 

'* The fine barrel vault of the Dominican Church, which had partly collapsed on 
account of continued neglect, was demolished, as no suitable means could be found for 
its preservation. The only course left was to dismantle the vault entirely and to rebuild. 



15 CONSERVATION, 

'' The total expenditure on special repairs in Bassein fort amounted to Rs. 4,000/* Western Circle. 

Mr. Banerji further reports that " The Water Palace of The Nizamshahi kings oi^^'^^^^^^^ 
Ahmadnagar, now called Faria Bagh, is a two-storied octagonal structure neatly 
planned and built on an elevation inside a square tank. The tank itself is surrounded 
by a terraced garden on all four sides. Formerly this tank was fed by water brought 
into it through channels from reservoirs on the higher plateaux which surround 
the depression in the centre of which the City of Ahmadnagar had been built. This 
water supply is at present utilised to irrigate the fields of the Army Remount Depart- 
ment at Ahmadnagar, and consequently the tank is always dry. The bed of the 
tank as w^ell as the terrace was paved with lime concrete which is still remarkably well 
preserved at places, and if the cracks in the bed of the tank are repaired then even 
the scanty rainfall of Ahmadnagar would prove sufficient to keep the tank of the 
Faria Bagh palace full throughout the year. Unsightly modern additions and alter- 
ations made in this palace by the Army Remount Department were removed, and the 
top of the platform on which the palace stands was excavated revealing nine orna- 
mental tanks and cisterns which formed part of the lay-out of the ground floor four 
hundred years ago. The continued use of this building as a cattle-shed had made this 
once gorgeous palace extremely dirty and evil smelling. Marks of cow-dung and other 
dirt and squalor were removed as far as possible. Trees growing in the bed of the tank 
and on the sides were removed to prevent further damage to the concrete terraces on the 
outer side of the tank. Some years ago the arched roof on the top collapsed at four 
different places, and stones and debris from it were lying on the domes just below it. 
These domes were relieved of this extra weight by the removal of this debris. The 
urgently required underpinning of the jambs of doors and arched openings was imder- 
taken and some missing stone steps of the staircases leading to the second floor of the 
palace were replaced. In all Rs. 2,800 were spent on special repairs to the Faria Bagh 
palace. 

'' In Bijapur the work of erecting a compound wall around the open space surround- Si/apur, 
ing the Gol Gumbaz, which was taken up in 1919-20, was almost entirely completed, 
the sum of Rs. 6,353 having been spent on it. The work could not be entirely completed 
because the Revenue Department has not as yet acquired the land in private possession 
which lies in this open area. Until these plots of land are acquired and the houses on it 
demolished it will not be possible to complete this compound wall. The breach in the 
city wall to the east of the Gol Gumbaz, through which the modem road to the Station 
used to pass, was completely closed, as this road has been diverted through another gap 
in the city wall ; and the bridge over the moat was also dismantled to prevent people 
passing through the gap 

" Special repairs to the Gagan Mahal, an ancient durbar hall of the Adilshahi Sultans 
of Bijapur, were undertaken during the current year. The Gagan Mahal palace consists 
of a large hall in the centre with two small side rooms and a larger open verandah in 
front. The royal seat was placed in the large hall in the centre over which was a 
structure supported by four massive pillars of wood. The ladies of the court used 
to sit in the upper balconies. In front of the main hall was a verandah running 
along the entire length of the building where the nobles and other court attendants were 
accommodated. The Gagan Mahal and the Sangit Mahal are the only two remaining 
examples of the durbar halls of the Adilshahi Sultans. The hall of the Gagan Mahal 
was taken up for special repairs according to the directions of Sir John Marshall, who 
had inspected it in February 1921. A large amount of underpinning and pointing wjs 



CONSERVATION. 16 

Western Circle, carried out in the main building. The open chases in the masonry, formerly occupied by 
Bijapur. wooden beams, posts and brackets, were filled in with stone and lime concrete. Re- 

inforced concrete lintels were provided to the heads of door openings. C-racks in the 
walls of the building were properly grouted with cement and finished with lime pointing. 
At certain places the ancient plaster was repaired and in all Rs. 5,100 were spent on the 
Gagan Mahal. 

*' Two separate pillars of stone were built under the verandah in front of the main 
hall of the Sangit Mahal at Navaraspur to support the overhanging roof of this verandah. 
Stone and debris were removed from the main hall and the verandah, exposing the former 
floor to view. The tops of walls were also made watertight. The Sangit Mahal, after 
the Gagan Mahal, is the second existing instance of the palaces of the Adilshahi kings. 
It consisted of a huge octagonal enclosure surrounded by a high wall of stone in the 
centre of which stood a palace partly two-storied and partly three-storied. In plan the 
palace consists of a large open verandah with a huge arch in front, running along the 
entire length of the building. Behind the verandah is a large hall with another huge 
arched opening in front. The floor of this hall was higher than the floor of the verandah, 
and on each side of it were two small rooms of the same height as the main durbar hall. 
Behind the hall were a net-work of chambers connecting the durbar hall with another 
large hall as long as the palace itself. On the top of the durbar hall and of the second hall 
as well there were a net- work of small rooms most probably used as living rooms. After 
the downfall of the Adilshahis this palace fell into decay, and during the British period the 
land inside was farmed to a Deccani Brahmin who diverted the waters of a small 7iala 
to the interior of this building. The water of this nala annually conveys a huge amount 
of silt and has buried the line garden with tanks and foimtains which once surroimded 
this noble structure. Trial pits were dug at places proving that there were huge paved 
cisterns with fountains both in front and at the back of the palace. Proposals have 
been submitted for the acquisition of this area, which is now cultivated, so that the silt 
may be excavated and the original garden exposed to view. 

'' Among miscellaneous special repairs undertaken during the year at Bijapur may be 
mentioned the reconstruction of a section of the fort wall near the Malik-i-Maidan bastion 
which was rebuilt in order to keep this monster gun from sinking. Similarly the rear part 
of the first water pavilion at Kumatgi, which lies at a distance of ten miles from 
Bijapur City, was rebuilt. Rupees 1,433 were spent in acquiring the land for the extension 
of the compound of the tomb of Ibrahim Adilshah II, popularly known as Ibrahim 
Rauza, and Rs. 759 for acquiring land for the diversion of the public road to the Station, 
it having originally passed through the area of the Gol Gumbaz. The Inspector employ- 
ed to keep the ancient monuments in Bijapur City clean, succeeded in removing prickly- 
pear for a length of more than two and a half miles from the city walls without incurring 
any additional expenditure. This work was done by the caretiikers under the supervi- 
sion of the Inspector. Less than one-fourth of a mile of the city wall now remains to be 
cleared of prickly-pear, as some work was done in 1920-21. The charges for current 
repairs and maintenance in the District of Bijapur amounted to Rs. 8,204. 

Champaner. " The dome of the porch of the Lila-Gumbaz-ki-Masjid and the Minars attached to 

the Bohra-ki-Masjid or Shahar-ki-Masjid were partly repaired. Special repairs to 
the seven-storied palace of the Sultans of Gujrat, in front of a waterfall on Pavagadh 
Hill, were begun during this year. On account of continued neglect and want of funds 
this building collapsed in 1918 leaving only the basement. This basement, which pro- 
vides a fine view of the waterfall, stood in need of very urgent repairs which consisted 



17 CONSERVATION. 

in providing a buttress along the narrow rook face in order to prevent the heavy weight Western Circle^ 

of the basement from pressing it down into the pit below, providing tie-rods to the room 

on the basement, repairs to the steps and removal of debris. Ra. 3,486 were spent on 

repairs to the Lila-Gmnbaz, Bohra-ki-Masjid and the seven-storied palace on Pavagadh 

Hill. The plinths of the Kevda Masjid, Lila-Gumbaz, Khajuri Masjid, Nagina Masjid* 

Kamani Masjid and Baba Man's Masjid, which had been buried out of sight, were exposed 

at a cost of Rs. 2,399. The cost of current repairs and maintenance at Champaner and 

Pavagadh amoimted to Rs. 1,810. 

** At Ahmedabad the special repairs to Rani Sipri's Masjid and tomb were com- -4A*^*«^«*^ 
pleted at a cost of Rs. 605. The pillars of the gateway of the compound wall were pro- ^f^^fca- 
perly rebuilt and a collapsible gate was provided. At Dholka in the same district repairs 
to the minaret on the south pylon of the Khan Masjid, which possesses the distinction of 
being the highest masjid in the whole of Gujrat, were begun. A reinforced concrete 
platform was built to support the weight of the minaret on one side and the two missing 
pillars were rebuilt. Rupees 2,797 were spent on this monument. The Khan Masjid 
at Dholka stands on the bank of an ancient tank the sides of which are covered with 
stone steps, and lies within a stone's throw of Dholka Railway Station. The masjid 
originally consisted of a large portico in front supported by three tall arches about 50' 
in height from the ground level. This portico collapsed during an earthquake. Behind 
it are three large separate chambers with three huge domes of brick all of which were 
more or less on the point of collapsing when repairs were commenced. The dangerous 
portion of the masonry of the original portico has been dismantled and the front part of 
the main masjid (i.e., the rear wall of the portico) has been rebuilt and made perfectly 
safe. The cost of current repairs and maintenance in the Ahmedabad District amoimted 
to Rs. 2,267. 

''At Sholapur finishing touches were put to the sides of the pit from which the SAo/a/}wr. 
Chalukyan temple was excavated in the rampart of the inner fort wall (Plate XV). 
The earthen ramp temporarily built for workmen was removed, and a dry rubble wall 
with stone pitching on the slope above it was built all round. Steps were provided at the 
end of the old rampart just in front of the ancient temple for the convenience of visitors. 
The fort wall near the north-eastern corner of the Chalukyan temple was under- 
pinned. The breach in the fort wall made by the British in order to allow transport 
wagons to enter the fort was closed up entirely, and all modern buildings in the fort 
were demolished and their remains carted away. 

" The work of special repairs to the caves at Bhaja was almost entirely completed Bhaja. 
during the year, including the dry-stone compound wall of the rampart and 
a self-closing gate was provided in front. The votive stupas exposed to the destructive 
influence of the weather were covered with a roofing of stone-slabs in iron frames. A 
flight of dressed stone steps was provided to the north side of the main chaitya cave in 
order to enable people to gain easy excess to the first floor. Support pillars were built 
under the overhanging portions of the roof in order to prevent it from collapsing. The 
cost of these measures came to Rs. 843. 

'' Inside the Ahmadnagar Fort excavations were carried out in front of the Brigade AAmadnagar 
OflSce as well as behind it in search of ancient remains of the Nizamshahi period, and a ^^' 
sum of Rs. 1,353 was spent for this purpose. Continuous stone steps were exposed 
behind the Brigade Office and in front of them there was a small square tank probably 



CONSERVATION. 18 

Western Circle, intended for a fountain. The ancient plinth of the old gate {vide plate No. Ill, Annual 

Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of India, Western Circle, for the year end- 
ing 31st March 1920) was exposed. In the area outside the Brigade Office, the old arched 
drain, which was broken at different places, was repaired and the excavated areas both 
inside and outside the old gate were filled in as required by the Military authorities. 

Salyan-jo'Than, " At Rohri in the Sukkur District of Sind special repairs to the Satyan-jo-Than were 

completed at a cost of Rs. 1 ,349. The modem huts near the oldest masjid in Sindh were 
removed and the old residential quarters of the Mujawar built in an angle of the old 
platform were repaired. The plaster of the tombs and the platforms roimd them was 
repaired by filling in cracks and grouting. Tiles and bricks damaged by alkaloids were 
replaced. The north wall of the platform of the tombs had collapsed at places. This 
portion was entirely rebuilt with old bricks and made safe. The Satyan-jo-Than was 
once an island in the bed of the river Indus but has now ceased to be so. On it stands 
an ancient Nathapanthi temple, the upper part of which has been utilised for the tombs 
of Muhammadans. The eternal light (ananta-jyotih) of the Nathapanthis is still kept 
biiming in the underground chambers of this temple by the Muhammadan Mujawars 
who have forgotten everything about Nathism and now tell an absurd story regarding 
seven sisters. The upper part of this temple was converted into an open platform on 
which some old tombs stand. Some of these tombs belong to the reigns of Akbar and 
Jahangir. The tombs are made of yellow Jungshahi stones or covered with enamelled 
tiles and on the whole present a very pleasing appearance to the visitor. To the west of 
this island stand the majestic ruins of the once impregnable fort of Bhakkar and the 
sister shrines of Sadhubela and Zindapir, and between these and the Satyan-jo-Than flows 
the river the current of which is always very swift between Sukkur and Rohri gauge. 
Males are not allowed to visit the shrine in the underground room where the eternal light 
is kept burning. Such Nathapanthi shrines are common in Sindh, e.g.^ the Lai Shahbaz in 
the Larkana District and Uderolal in the Hyderabad District, and at all of these places 
the attendants of the light are Muhammadans. Kanphata yogis of the Nathapanthi sect 
are not seen in Sindh though they still come as far as Jeysulmer from Nepal.'' 

Indian Slates in The Political Agent, Sorath Prant, Kathiawar, reports that the Junagadh State 

^^J^^*^- spent Rs. 2,215 in conserving the Uparkote Masjid during 1921-22 ; while the Resident 
Kdfiapur. a-t Kolhapur states that Ambabai's temple at Kolhapur as well as Niu'khan's Dargah at 

Shirol were conserved and maintained in good order by the Kolhapur State, but more 

detailed information is not available. 

Central Circle, Mr. Page reports that in the Central Circle a sum of Rs. 33,084 in all was expended 

on the Conservation of Ancient Monuments. Of this amount Rs. 1 3,475 were spent in 
the Province of Bihar and Orissa, viz., Rs. 9,215 on Special Repairs (non-recurring ex- 
penditure) and Rs. 4,260* on Annual Repairs and maintenance (recurring expenditure) ; 
and a sum of Rs. 19,607 in the Central Provinces and Berar, where Rs. 13,080 were 
devoted to Special Repairs and the remainder Rs. 6,527 to Annual Repairs. 

With the exception of the operations at Nalanda, which were carried out by the 
Archaeological Superintendent direct, all conservation work was done through the agency 
of the Public Works Department of the Local Government concerned ; an additional 
charge of 23 % on the estimated cost of the works being paid for this service. 

On his recent winter tour in the Central Provinces it was apparent to Mr. Page that 
" In many cases the special considerations demanded in the conservation of an old fabric 

* Includes the ezpeDditure on Nalanda detailed in Appoidix. 



1 9 CONSERVATION. 

are not adequately appreciated by the Public Works Department subordinate in imme- Central Circle. 

diate charge of the work, such as the suitable treatment of pointing, when applied to the 

open joints of an old structure, to make it harmonize with the weathered appearance of the 

old work ; the treatment of broken patches of plaster on an old surface ; and the need of 

maintaining the distinctive character of old rubble masonry in any new repair. Such 

items may, perhaps, be deemed negligible in themselves, but are, indeed, very far from 

negligible in their disastrous effect on an old structure when badly carried out ; for the 

preservation of the natural beauty and mellow charm of an old monument is of equal 

importance to ensuring its structural security. However, with the appointment of a 

number of Conservation Assistants (which it is hoped will be sanctioned shortly) actively 

to assist in the work of conservation while in progress, a considerable improvement in 

this respect should become manifest — an improvement which will increase with their 

experience in this special branch of building work ; for the men appointed will require to 

be specially trained before satisfactory results can be expected of them." 

The only " special repair " works executed by the Public Works Department in Bihar Bihar and Ortesa 
which call for notice were those carried out in the Orissa Circle. Here a sum of Rs. 966 was ^^^^^^^' 
spent on the conservation of the Black Pagoda at Konarak, in the Puri District, a struc- Konarak, 
ture dating from the 13th century. " The work," Mr. Page says, " involved the removal 
of sand heaps accumulated to the west of the temple and on the paving and platforms of 
the shrines ; the collection and arrangement of scattered sculptures in the vicinity and 
the removal of others to the adjacent Museum ; while damaged corbels and lintels in the 
Mahadevi shrine were supported on iron rails and dry-ashlar piers. The work, which 
was commenced in the previous year, has now been completed. At Jajpur, in the same Jajjnir. 
district, the repair of the old Mahratta bridge known as the Tentulimul bridge — reputed 
to have been erected by the early sovereigns of Orissa, before the Mughal conquest of 
that province, was completed at a total cost of Rs. 975. This work, which had been 
commenced in the previous year, included the dismantling and rebuilding of disturbed 
pier and arch masonry, and the replacement of missing portions of the face walls ; 
earthwork in making up hollows near the bridge ; the removal of pipal trees in its vicinity 
and of jungle growth from the structure itself ; the erection of parapets formed of laterite 
posts connected by galvanised iron tubing for the security of traffic over the bridge, and 
the provision of wheel guards to prevent damage to the old structure." 

The work done at Nalanda by the Archaeological Superintendent during the cold Nalanda. 
season of 1921-22 did not commence until late in December after Mr. Page had taken 
over charge of the Central Circle, and in consequence has been somewhat limited in its 
extent. "Activities were principally confined," Mr. Page says, '* to the conservation 
of the fragmentary remains already disclosed, such excavation as was attempted being 
merely incidental to this conservation work, and limited to the clearance of debris-strewn 
areas and the sinking of foundations for new piers, etc., to support the old structure. 
Nevertheless, the clearance effected was instrumental in bringing to light the remains of 
an early brick pavement, and a curious plastered chabiUra-like feature projecting into 
the courtyard of Monastery No. 1 from its south side. In the chabutra was found inset 
a couple of long low duplicate panels carved in basso-relievo with a representation of 
bird-bodied human figures revering a lotus plant, dating from the 6th or 7th century 
A. D. (Plate Vila.). This brick-paving is some 3' 6" below the level of the courtyard 
which, from the evidence afforded by the copper plate inscription discovered by Pandit 
Hirananda Sastri last year, may be assigned with some probability to the early 9th 
century. The accumulation of earth between these two levels may not unreasonably be 



CONSERVATION. 20 

Central Circle, assumed to account for a period of some two to three hundred years, thus indicating the 
Nalanda, q^}^ qj. 7^11 century A. D. as the approximate date of the brick paving now come to light. 

* ' Since the highest level attained by the subsoil water in the rains, as indicated in 
the original well in the N.-W. corner of the courtyard in the monastery, comes only some 
4' below the level of this paving, the probability of earlier structures existing at a still 
lower level is discounted. However, trial pits will be sunk next year with a view to 
exhaust the possibilities of the site in this direction. 

** Yuan Chwang in speaking of the succession of princes who founded monasteries at 
Nalanda, makes mention of the names Baladitya and Buddhagupta ^ ; and if these 
personages are to be identified with the Gupta rulers of those names who are recorded 
to have been reigning in the years 490 and 484 A. D., respectively, it is conceivable that 
the lowest brick paving now disclosed is to be associated with them, and may thus be con- 
sidered to date from about the end of the 5th century A. D. Certain it is that no fewer 
than eight different levels - and distinct periods occur at the Monastery site No. 1 ; and in 
conserving these fragmentary remains the Superintendent is making it his aim to preserve 
a definite portion of each stratum. The fact that each succeeding monastery adheres 
to one and the same plan necessarily restricts the area of each stratum that can be main- 
tained as such, and increases the difficulties in the carrying out of requisite measures of 
repair. However, by dealing with the different periods systematically it is hoped to 
make them intelligible to the interested visitor, and to preserve intact the internal 
evidence which each of them contributes to the history of the Nalanda site. With this 
purpose in view, it is intended to preserve, as far as possible, the stratigraphic evidence 
afforded by the earth through which the excavations have been sunk ; and a substantial 
mound of earth left undisturbed by Dr. Spooner to this end in the S.-W. comer of the 
courtyard of Monastery No. 1 has been cut back cleanly to a slight batter (photo. No. 
2166) preparatory to erecting around it a permanent shelter to protect it from erosion 
by the weather. The stratigraphic evidence contained in this feature is of imusual 
interest, as it discloses with extraordinary clearness the vicissitudes through which the 
successive structures have passed from the period of the original foundation of the 
monastery. Layers of ashes, potsherds, heavy brick debris, more ashes, and finally 
natural earth accumulation are most clearly defined, and serve at once as an indisputable 
record of fire and destruction, and of the abandonment and subsequent reoccupation of 
the site. 

" As to the structures that have been imder repair during the year, the principal work 
done was in Monastery No. 1, where the ruined north wall of the main west entrance- 
vestibule (Plate VII6. and Villa.) was built up to match its fellow on the south with 
its simple brick niche. The shattered portions of the brick fa9ade8 in the N.-W. corner 
of the courtyard here were also rebuilt in conformity with the old remains, and an ori- 
ginal concrete parapet, of which a few traces fortunately remained, was reconstructed 
to protect the tops of the enclosing walls of this courtyard from the weather. 

" The ruined central stupa-feature previously disclosed in the courtyard was support- 
ed at its base on an earthen ramp, with a view to revealing the high level of its founda- 
tions in relation to the lower level of the earlier courtyard around it. The exposed brick 
face of an inner stupa contained within this one was also provided with necessary support 
on a frankly modem wall in which weep-holes have been left, both for structural reasons 
and to proclaim at once its modem origin in distinction to the old work above. 

(1) Vide Cunningham, A. S, /?., Volume I (1861-62), pages 28—30 ; Waiter's Yuan Chwang, Volume II, page 164 
et seg. Duffs Chronology, page 288 and V. A. Smith's Early History of India, page 281. 

(2) Two of these are illustrated in the small central stupa in the quadrangle. 



21 CONSEKVATION. 

" The plain dressed-brick facing along the eastern exterior fa§ade of the monastery Central Circle. 
was also built up in accordance with the indications of the old work in situ Nalanda. 
approximately to the level of the remaining hearting of the wall ; while the full 
height of this external wall was opened up to view in front of the central projecting bay, 
and a imif orm slope formed in front of it to negociate the difference between the level of 
the earlier foundations and the general level of the ground along this front. A feature of 
interest here is the way in which a later brick casing has been applied to an earlier one. 
In order to support the former in position after the earth had been reduced below the 
level of its bottom course, recourse was had to the temporary expedient of strutting it 
with wooden poles. This temporary wooden construction will eventually be replaced 
by rail-iron cantilever supports which will be more enduring and less conspicuous. Diffi- 
culties created by the recent railway strike prevented this method being adopted in the 
first place. 

" A similar temporary arrangement has also been erected to support the overhanging 
brickwork of a third and still later facing of the ruined stupa in the internal courtyard 
previously mentioned, which will also be replaced by the neater rail-iron cantilevers 
when these can be obtained. 

'* The upper half of an original brick stair (Plate Via.) leading down from the 
lowest of the three separate pavements at the top of the monastery is being built up 
again to give access, as originally, to the courtyard below. By repairing and making 
use of this original feature it will be possible to remove the modern stair-descent 
built in the yddth of the inner verandah on the south side of the monastery which, 
though at present a most necessary addition in the absence of the original stair, is inevit- 
ably misleading in any attempt to visualise the old plan. 

" In clearing the interior courtyard of this monastery my aim has been as stated 
above to maintain intact a definite portion of each successive level as disclosed by the 
excavations. Thus, the ground about the foot of the original stair-descent above 
referred to has been maintained at this level over approximately a quarter of the court 
yard, in which area is also located the upper structure of the well in the north-west 
comer, the cave-like structure contiguous to the north wall of the court, and the brick 
facing of its high enclosing wall ; all of which would appear to be contemporary. In the 
N.-E. quarter of the courtyard the level has been reduced some 3' 6" below this last 
down to that of the bottom course of the projecting chabutra of an earlier open-colon- 
naded verandah (Plate VI6.) assumed to be contemporary with the copper plate 
inscription of Devapaladeva referred to above. On the ruined remains of this verandah 
the high brick wall previously mentioned was afterwards erected. Along the south 
side of the courtyard, between its enclosing wall and the central stupa, the still earlier 
brick paving, 3' 6" lower and 22' 0" below the topmost parapet, has been left open to 
view. 

*'*In the extreme S.-W. corner of the same courtyard is the mound of earth referred 
to on page 20, which it is proposed to shelter from the weather and maintain intact, in 
view of the important stratigraphical evidence it affords and the three separate upper 
pavements which it supports. 

'* The only other structure which was under repair was the monastery denominated 
No. 1-A, situate to the immediate S.-W. of Monastery No. 1. Here the concrete parapet 
of a low verandah wall enclosing the courtyard was reconstructed between the rough 



CONSERVATION. 22 

Central Circle, base-stones still in situ, which formerly supported the pillars of an open colonnade (Plate 

VIII6.). By carefully recording in plan the precise positions of such few of these 
rough stone-bases as still remain, it has been possible to work out the intervals 
originally separating the columns, thus enabling the positions of the missing pillars to be 
indicated on the site. 

" The ruined remains of the western wall of the north entrance vestibule of this 
monastery were built up to the level of the corresponding and better preserved wall 
on the opposite side, the lower portion of the simple brick niche extant here 
being repeated in the new work. Some excavation was also necessitated along the 
external edge of the south enclosing wall of this building to disclose the position of the 
outer wall-face, which was recovered some 6 feet or more beneath the surface of the 
ground. 

" Conservation work on the site has up to the present been impeded by the necessity 
of utilising such of the larger fragments of the old bricks as could be recovered from the 
excavated debris, which have necessarily to be dressed to an even face to conform with 
the old work in situ. This operation of cutting and dressing old bricks has been a very 
slow process, owing to the scarcity of suitable labour in the Jocality. It is, however, 
hoped to experiment in the manufacture and burning of new bricks locally, with a view 
to obtaining the large siz6s averaging IS^XO^XS" used by the Gupta builders, and so 
necessary for the appropriate repair of the old walls. There is some doubt as to the 
possibility of matching the exact colour of the old bricks, but unless suitable new bricks 
are forthcoming in sufficient quantities it is obviously impossible to push on with the 
work of conservation." 

The cost of the works above described was Rs. 2,859, of which amount Rs. 1,000 
were spent from funds placed at the Archaeological Superintendent's credit with the 
Local Government, and the remainder from a separate grant received from the Director 
General of Archaeology in India direct. An additional sum of Rs. 560 was spent on the 
upkeep of the Nalanda monuments — a recurring charge ; while other incidental disburse- 
ments made in connexion with this site will be found detailed in Appendix A (page 159) 
of this report. A list of finds made at Nalanda during the year is given on pages 259 
and 260. 

Central Provinces In the Central Provinces and Berar, the principal conservation works undertaken 

and Berar. . r x j u i 

were those enumerated below : 

Pali, " In the Bilaspur District, on the Mahadeo Temple at Pali, an elaborately ornamented 

shrine of the mediaeval period, a sum of Rs. 92 was spent in the correction of certain 
defects due to a former repair ; blocked-up windows in the Mandapa were opened up 
and the precarious masonry of the jambs and head supported on new ashlar piers and 
iron joists. The removal of mortar once promiscuously smeared over the old structure 
and the general tidying up of the site are further items in this work still remaining to be 
done, the estimated cost of which amounts to Rs. 121. 

Arbhar Temple. " On the preservation of the ArbLar Temple in the same district (another mediaeval 

structure, of which however practically only the sculptured door jambs and lintels now 
exist) a sum of Rs. 240 was spent ; the sculptural fragments of the ruin being considered 
of sufl&cient interest in ther. rives to warrant it. The works in progress comprise the 
erection of neat masonry buttresses behind the old piers and the underpinning of two 
columns near the entrance, as well as the jambs of the doorway. Holes in the existing 



23 CONSERVATION. 



concrete are to be filled and the floor of the interior laid with paving stories. Earth Central Circle. 

Cent 

ces. 



accumulation will be removed and jungle growth eradicated. The estimate for the ^"*"*** ''®^*"' 



work amounts to Rs. 365. 

" The Kanthi Dewal Temple at Ratanpur in the same district, a late mediaeval Ratanpur. 
structure reputed to have been built by the Haihaya kings, was also under repair, a sum 
of Rs. 219 being spent against an estimate of Rs. 349. The work embraces the dismant- 
ling and re-erection, with the old stones, of the balcony windows projecting on the south 
and west sides of the structure ; the filling of cracks in the domed ceiling internally, and the 
weatherproofing of the top with concrete ; the grouting of hollows and open joints in the 
walls, and the repair of the floor. The surrounding platform is also to be made good, 
and jungle growth, both on the shrine and in its immediate vicinity, eradicated. 

'' The needs of the old Fort of Rajnagar, in the Damoh District, which is ascribed to Rajnagar, 
the Gonds, were also attended to, and a sum of Rs. 102 spent on the clearance of dense 
jungle growth from the walls. 

" The Fort at Rahatgarh, in the Saugor District, built by the Sultan Muhammad /JoAo/^arA. 
Khan of Bhopal in the 18th century, was also taken in hand. Here, again, the work 
principally consisted of the removal of trees and heavy jungle from the walls and the 
structures in the interior ; though the conservation of these latter was not undertaken as 
the Public Works Department considered them past repair. In this connexion it may be 
noted that Mr. Blakiston in a memorandum on the fort, dated 1913, remarks that most 
of these buildings are not more than 150 years old, and that the walls and bastions are 
the most interesting feature of the place. A sum of Rs. 1,258 was spent on this work, 
which is reported to have been completed. 

*' On the conservation of the old mommients at Khimlassa in the same district, a sum Khimlassa. 
of Rs. 1,000 was spent. This group comprises the Dargah of the Panch Pirs, the Nagina 
Mahal, and an old well, all inside the Fort, as well as the entrance gateway thereof ; 
and the Idgah and a three-domed mosque outside the village walls, these two last dating 
from Jahangir's reign. The estimate for this work amounts to Rs. 2,436 in all and the 
principal items are those for the Panch Pirs Dargah, the walls of which are formed of 
beautifully perforated screen work. The work on this tomb, which was badly damaged 
by lightning a number of years ago, when the dome covering it collapsed, included the 
replacement of the broken pieces of chajja on all four sides, the renewal of a broken jali 
panel, as well as a couple of fractured lintels ; and the removal of modem rubble walling 
above the eaves of the structure, and substitution of plain ashlar stone to match the 
original. The broken top of the tomb was made watertight with concrete, and jungle 
growth removed. 

" The Nagina Mahal is reported by the Public Works Department to be past repair ; 
and work on other monuments of this group will be limited to the clearance of jungle 
growth and the erection of notice boards warning the public of the penalties under the 
Ancient Mommients Preservation Act, for damage to the remains, 

" On the repair of the Jami Masjid, Asirgarh, in the Nimar District a structme Asirgarh, 
erected in the reign of Shah Jahan, a sum of Rs. 839, on a revised estimate of 
Rs. 9,792, has been spent. The mosque had formerly been used as a barrack during the 
military occupation of the Fort by the British, and the works in hand aim at the reclama- 
tion of the structure to its former state. The work involved the dismantling of a modem 
structure erected on the roof ; the removal of alien window frames from the mihrab 



CONSKRVATION. 



24 



Burhanpur. 



Central Circle, recesses in the west wall, and the making good of damaged plaster, as well as the dis- 
C«fitrai Provifi- mantling and rebuilding to the old design of the southern minar, which was in a very 

precarious condition (Plate 1X6.) ; all of which items had been practically completed in 
the previous year. In the year under report the replacement of fallen chajja stones and 
their supporting brackets, both along the east front and in the flanking minars, was taken 
in hand at the cost already stated. A further sum of Rs. 864 was also spent on the initial 
removal of the dense jungle growth from the walls of the Asirgarh Fort, for which a 
special repair estimate of Rs. 1,551 has been sanctioned ; while the repair of the com- 
pound wall of the Tomb of Shah Gohar in the vicinity was completed at a cost of Rs. 118. 

** At Burhanpur, in the same district, a sum of Rs. 507 on an estimate of Rs. 1,680 
was spent on the execution of the more urgent works required to preserve the remaining 
fragments of the ruined old fort ; undermined walls along the river front being under- 
pinned and missing wooden lintels replaced by new" ones of reinforced concrete. A low 
breast wall to enclose the dangerously ruined portions of the terrace along this front was 
also erected. In the same town, work on the Tomb of Nadir Shah (? Nasir Khan 1399 — 
1437) of the Faruqi dynasty of Khandesh, was continued, and a sum of Rs. 858 expended 
on a revised estimate totalling Rs. 9,775. The conservation of this monument in volved 
the re-facing with coursed rubble of the high chabutra platform on which the tomb is 
raised, and the paving of its top surface with stone to match the old fragments still 
remaining in situ. The re-facing with plain dressed ashlar masonry of the ruined exterior 
walls of the tomb was also taken in hand ; while the interior will be re-paved with dressed 
stone. No new carved decoration will be executed in the re-facing of this tomb, the work 
being strictly limited to the provision of plain ashlar masonry, in which the main offsets 
and projections alone will be repeated (Plate X6.). 

** On the conservation of the old buildings in the Fort at Deogarh in the Chhindwara 
District a sum of Rs. 978 was spent out of a total estimate of Rs. 1,841. The structures 
affected were the Naqqarkhana and its entrance gate, the royal seat in the ruined throne 
riK^m, and the Badal Mahal, — buildings which are attributed to a Gond Chief, Bakht 
Buland, who was converted to the Moslem faith about the beginning of the 18th century. 
The work here was practically confined to the removal of the dense jungle growth 
covering the fort walls and the buildings contained within them ; roofs were made water- 
tight with concrete, simple imderpinning executed, and, in the case of the Naqqarkhana, 
certain of the missing cornice stones were renewed to match the old ones in situ, the loose 
masonry being secured, and broken plaster protected with a fillet of mortar run around 
the edges. 

'* On the conservation of the Fort at Gawilgarh (photo. No. 610-c.) in the Amraoti 
District, a stronghold, tlie present structure of which is recorded by Firishta to have 
been built in the year 1425 by Ahmad Shah Wali, ninth king of the Bahmani Dynasty, 
a sum of Rs. 332 was spent, principally on petty repairs designed to keep the old remains 
weather-proof : while at Lasur, m the Siime district, the conservation of the ruined 
Temple of Anandeshwar (Plate IXf?.), a structure reputed to have been built by 
Hemadpanth, the 13th century Brahmin counsellor of the Yadava kings of Deogir 
(after whom the Hemadpanthi architectural style is named), was continued, a sum of 
Rs. 875 being expended. The work consisted chiefly in the replacement of the missing 
upper course of a high stepped chabutra on which the triple-shrined temple is elevated, 
the main work of reconstructing the fallen external facing of the ruined shrine itself, for 
which an estimate of Rs. 12,851 was sanctioned in 1914, having been carried out in 
previous years. 



Deogarh, 



Oiunlgarh, 



Lasur, 



25 CONSERVATION. 

" The Namalla Fort, in the Akola District, the present fortifications of which also Central Circle. 
probably date from the time of the Bahmani king Ahmad Shah Wali, who is stated by ^^^^^ Provio- 
Firishta to have repaired them in 1425, also received attention during the year, Rs. 1,777 Namdla Fort 
being spent on its conservation out of a total estimate of Rs. 3,111. The works xmder- 
taken comprised the clearance of dense jungle from the several more important gates of 
the Fort, as well as from a small mosque in the interior, where whitewash has also to be 
removed, A couple of platforms previously built to support old guns have also been 
stripped of their obtrusively modem cement-plastering, and the joints in the exposed 
masonry have been suitably treated. A bulging parapet on the Shah Nur Gate is to be 
dismantled and rebuilt with the old stones, and some loose masonry of the interior 
vaulting made good. 

" The following monuments omitted from the Public Works Department's revolt Ghogra-Khapa. 
are also said to have received attention during 1921-22 : — 

" The Mahadeo Temple at Ghogra-Khapa, in the Nagpur District, where a sum of 
Rs. 388 was spent on completing the repairs for which an estimate of Rs. 911 had been 
sanctioned. This temple, an early mediaeval type, and attributed to Hemadpanth, is 
a plain structure of massive stones and devoid of any sculptural ornament. The work on 
it consisted chiefly in securing disturbed facing masonry, in building up fallen quoins, 
replacing missing roof slabs, and repairing the paving in the interior. The existing iron- 
post and stretched wire railing was also strengthened and a new gate fitted to it, the 
immediate vicinity of the temple being cleared of loose stones and debris on the com- 
pletion of the work. 

" At Sirpur, in the Raipur District, a sum of Rs. 2,539 was spent on finishing the Sirpur. 
work of constructing a shelter for the protection of the sculptures, Buddhist, Saivite, 
Vaishnavite, some 200 in all, recovered from the surrounding jimgles and collected in 
the vicinity of the Lakshman Temple there, the latter being an early structure of finely 
cut bricks reputed to date from the 9th century. The shelter is a structure of brick 
piers roofed with concrete on brick jack-arches between R. S. beams, and has been 
erected on an old pakka platform measuring some 70 feet by 35 feet. The total cost of the 
work, which was commenced in the previous year, amounted to Rs. 4,249." 

In Bengal Mr. Dikshit reports that ** The most important enterprise undertaken Eastern Circle. 
was the special repair of the temples at Vishnupur, a work which was executed directly bengal. 
imder the supervision of the Archaeological Department, at a cost of Rs. 4,000. The 
temples at Vishnupur form a fine group ranging in date from the sixteenth to the eight* Vishnupur. 
eenth century, and represent a distinctive type of architecture developed in Bengal 
along with the rise of Vaishnavism, under the royal patronage of the Rajas of Malla- 
bhum. The more ornate and better preserved of the Vishnupur temples were taken 
in hand several years ago, but there were some which though protected had not had 
their share of attention. Pre-eminent among these stands the Ras Mancha, a dilapi- 
dated structure but one of great historical and architectural interest. It is reputed 
to have been built by Bir Hambira, a contemporary of the Emperor Akbar and the first 
among the Vishnupur Rajas to embrace the faith of the Vaishnavas which later on 
became the State religion of Mallabhum. The building was intended for use at the 
Rasa festival, when all the idols of the Vishnupur temples used to be brought here. 
In plan the temple is unique, its design being due perhaps to the necessity of accom- 
modating an unusually large concourse of people attending the festival. It takes the 
form of a square shrine quite small in itself, (9 ft. sq.), but surrounded on all sides by 



CONSERVATION. 26 

Eastern Circle, three galleries with an open verandah, and with a sloping pyramidal roof, 4»ulminating 
Bengal. [j^ ^ squat dome over the shrine and a Bengali curvilinear roof over the facade arches. 

Vishnupur. rpj^^ soundness of a building of such dimensions (plinth area 100 ft. sq.) necessarily de- 

pends upon the strength of the supporting pillars. Unfortunately the hearting of the 
pillars in the Ras Mancha consists of nothing but mud and rubble and is so weak that 
one wonders why any part of the building has survived at all. As a result, some of 
the pillars had collapsed, cracked, or bulged out ; the roof had fallen in at several places, 
notably in the northern and western galleries and in the ante-chamber, and was leak- 
ing seriously, especially in the eastern galleries. The main task that confronted the 
Department here was to strengthen the pillars as they stood and water-proof the 
roof without adding extra weight. All disintegrated and bulged out surfaces of pillars 
and w^alls were renewed after dismantling, wherever necessary, an operation which 
necessitated the temporary insertion of brick piers to support the adjoining roof. A 
large amount of grouting was also done to the cracked surfaces of the pillars and walls ; 
the decayed plaster and debris from the top of the roof were picked up and the roof 
was thoroughly repaired, the brickwork of the pyramidal portion of the roof, which 
rises in tiers or steps, being renew^ed in cement mortar ; the part between the pyramidal 
and the curvilinear cornice portions of the roof, w^hich drains the roof, was terraced 
with 3" concrete ; the tops of pillars and walls exposed to the weather were made water- 
tight by bedding the upper courses in lime mortar ; and the stucco facing of the arches in 
the facade of the eastern gallery was properly secured to the body of the pillars, where- 
ever it had begun to flake off. On the whole, a new lease of life has been given to the 
Ras Mancha and it is hoped that apart from annual maintenance, little will be needed 
at least for some years to come for the preservation of the structure. 

" The Radha Vinod Temple in the Khar Bangla quarter of the town of Vishnupur 
was another monument taken in hand during the year. It derives special interest 
from its beautifully moulded brickwork as well as from the fact that it illustrates a 
transitional type of temple architecture evolved in Vishnupur, standing midw^ay between 
the single-cell type represented by the Mallesvar Temple and the fully developed four- 
verandah type of the Madan Mohan and other temples. The monument was added 
to the list of protected monuments in 1911 at the instance of Dr. Spooner, but it was 
not found possible to include it in the curtailed programme of works during the last 
few years. The condition of this building which was far from satisfactory, has now 
been considerably improved. Debris that had accumulated for years in front of the 
temple owing to the collapse of the eastern half of the spire and the verandah roof has 
been cleared away, and the eastern or main entrance has been thrown open to the public 
for the first time since the building fell into disrepair. The southern entrance, which 
had been blocked up by the pujari, has been reopened and the improvised opening in 
the western wall has been duly closed and the original face of the wall restored. A 
particularly difficult undertaking in connection with these repairs was the dismantling 
and rebuilding of the south-western corner, which had uneven cracks from top to 
bottom. The exposed hearting of the spire was treated with cement pointing to prevent 
water from penetrating into the masonry and the sloping roof on the sides w^as terrac- 
ed with fresh concrete. The bare walls of the verandah were strengthened by grouting 
the cracks and decayed bricks in the walls were replaced by new ones. The platform 
round the temple has now been renewed and proposals have been made to acquire more 
land on the north and east so as to permit of the erection of a wire fence. It is a 
matter for congratulation that the repairs to this monument were practically finished 



27 CONSERVATION. 

during the cold weather of 1921-22 ; otherwise the exceptionally heavy rains of June Eastern Circle. 
1922 must inevitably have added to the ruin. Bengal. 

" The third temple at Vishnupur where work was carried on this year was the Murali 
Mohan temple in the town of Vishnupur. It is built in laterite and its architectural 
interest, as noticed by Dr. Spooner, lies in the fact that unlike the majority of Vishnu- 
pur temples, it has no rooms at the corners of the verandah, the shrine being surround- 
ed by a continuous arcaded verandah with four columns on each side. The most 
urgent and difficult item here was the dismantling and rebuilding of the south-east 
comer of the verandah. The ground at this point having settled, the comer pillar 
has simk, threatening to bring down with it the stones forming the roof and lintels 
on either side. Great care was taken in rebuilding to ensure that every stone was set 
in its original position. Flat iron bars used in the original building for supporting the 
stone lintels were found broken and were replaced by new ones. All cracks were 
grouted and missing stones in the spire were reset. The plinth on which the temple 
stands, which was damaged beyond recognition, has also been repaired. When the 
wire fencing now in hand is completed, stray cattle will be effectually kept out. 
Repairs to other temples at Vishnupur are included in the programme for 1922-23, 
and it is hoped that the whole of this remarkable group of Hindu monuments will soon 
be restored to a structurally sound condition. 

'' Among the monuments conserved through the agency of the Public Works Depart- Oaur. 
ment, the Gumti Gate and Darasbari and Chamkatti Mosques at Gaur deserve promi- 
nent mention. The Gumti Gate is a beautifully ornamented little gateway in the 
south-east comer of the citadel at Gaur, built by the early independent Sultans of 
Bengal about the 15th century. In the seventeenth century, this gate was superseded 
by the Lukachuri gateway, a short distance to the north, and subsequently fell into 
neglect and disrepair. It is now proposed to remove all the debris from the building, 
grout the cracks in the dome, reset missing bricks and coloured tiles wherever possible, 
water-proof the top and enclose, the whole within a wire fence. An allotment 
of Rs, 2,000 was provided for completing this work during 1921-22, on the basis of 
a prewar estimate, but the revision of the estimate necessitated by the present high 
rates as well as the difficulty of obtaining fencing material from Calcutta, owing to 
the East Indian Railway strike, made a partial postponement of the work necessary. 

*' The Darashari Mosque is situated near Mehdipur in the midst of thick bamboo 
jungle at a distance of about a mile to the west of the main road passing through Gaur. 
It is believed to have been built by the independent Sultan Yusuf Shah in 884 A. H. 
(1479 A. D.). It measures 112' X 66' and must at one time have been a rather imposing 
structure somewhat similar to the small golden mosque at Gaur. It had a central 
chamber with a row of three pyramidal or ' barrel vaulted ' domes, and two side rooms, 
each with three bays and nine domes in three rows, supported on stone pillars. It has 
now completely lost its roof, but the walls are still standing and the beautifully moulded 
brick- work in the western mihrabs richly deserves preservation. Out of an estimate 
of Rs. 2,175, a sum of Rs. 855 has been spent during the year. The inside of the 
mosque has been cleared of debris, and bamboo clumps that had encroached on the 
structure have been destroyed, while such of the stone pillars as are still in situ in a 
reclining or recumbent position have been re-erected. The walls have been completely 
cleared of all vegetation and the top courses have been bedded in cement mortar to 
prevent the penetration of water to the hearting of the masonry. Other measures, 



CONSERVATION. 



28 



Katra. 



Eastern Circle, including repairs to cracks, demarcation of boundaries, erection of a wire fence and 
Bengal construction of an approach road, are still in progress. 

*' The Chamkatti Mosque, situated on the main road near the 10th mile post, is 
another monument ascribed to the reign of Yusuf Shah, but differing widely bom the 
Darasbari Mosque both in plan and in construction. It is a neat little mosque consist- 
ing of only one room roofed by a dome and provided with a verandah and three doors 
in the front and one on each of the sides, in these respects resembling the well-known 
Lattan Masjid, the most lavishly decorated mosque in Gaur, The main items pro- 
vided for in the estimate are the renewal of the concrete and the grouting of cracks in the 
dome, underpinning the disturbed stone- work of pillars, filling gaps in the brick-work 
of the arches and relaying the floor, besides the usual jungle clearance, wire fencing, 
etc. This estimate has only been partially dealt with during the year imder review. 

'' The mosque at Eatra near Murshidabad, is the oldest extant monument at the 
last capital of Bengal, its construction being ascribed to the foimder of that city, Nawab 
Murshid Kuli Khan, who lies buried below the entrance to the mosque. The mosque 
is a simple five-domed structure with little ornamentation, but the surrounding cloisters 
with the towers at the south-west and north-west comers add to the dignity and 
impressiveness of the building. Repairs here were urgently needed to the cracked 
arches of the tower entrances, and to the cloisters which were in a sorry state of 
dilapidation. These and other repairs, such as the edging of existing plaster with lime 
fillets, filling cracks in the body of the main building, clearing and levelling the com- 
pound, etc., were undertaken during the current year, and were still in progress when 
the year came to its close, the expenditure incurred being Rs. 573. 

*' The only other special works in Bengal were certain additional repairs to the 
Masjidbari Mosque in Bakarganj District, conserved in 1918, and a few minor works 
at the Math at Rajbari in Dacca District The latter monument (Plate XI6) is typical 
of a class of monuments found mostly in Deltaic Bengal, which consist of a single 
cell with a high tower, built in conmiemoration of a deceased relative. The Rajbari 
Math is ascribed to Chand Ray and Kedar Ray, two local potentates who lived in the 
16th century, and serves as a valuable landmark for miles round owing to its situation 
at the junction of the great rivers Meghna and Padma." 

As regards the programme of works in Assam, Mr, Dikshit reports a striking im- 
provement, thanks to the Local Government having deputed a speciaUy selected subor- 
dinate of the Public Works Department for archaeological works. " One of the main 
difl&culties in the repair of ancient buildings in Assam," Mr. Dikshit says, " is the absence 
of intelligent and competent artisans. In modern house-building in Assam masonry 
work has practically been eliminated, the roofs being either thatched or corrugated 
and the walls made of ' ikra ' and plastered with mud, owing to the frequency of seismic 
disturbances and the heavy rainfaU. In the old days the Ahom kings and their nobles, 
who were great temple builders, depended mostly on masons imported from the 
Gangetic Valley. This deficiency of good local masons and contractors has retarded 
the completion of the special repairs to the Bardole temple at Bishnath in Darrang 
District which had been begun in the previous year. The work was estimated to cost 
Rs. 1,912 and the whole of it would easily have been completed within the year, but 
for the fact that, in spite of frequent and careful instructions, the contractor (reported 
to be the best man locally available) failed completely over the plaster and stucco 
work. It is hoped that the defects will be remedied as far as is now possible during the 
current year. The lesson learnt at Bishnath will not be forgotten when the more 



Masjidbari 
Mosque. 



Assam. 



Bishnaih. 



29 CONSERVATION. 

extensive works on the monuments at Sibsagar come to be taken in hand. At the Eastern Circle. 

latter site a small beginning has already been made toward what will eventually ^■"'* 

develop into a comprehensive campaign at this important centre, by the erection of 

concrete platforms for seven pieces of old Ahom cannon in the Kutchery Compound, 

and the execution of some special repairs to the Ahom palace at Garhgaon, the grounds 

of which have been levelled and dressed, the hoUows in the ground floor filled up, the 

flights of steps leading to the upper stories repaired and the terraced floors relaid, so 

as to prevent the percolation of water into the interior. ParentheticaUy it may be 

noted that this is the first time that chaukidars have been employed to look after the 

monuments in Sibsagar. 

'' The scheme of collecting at the Municipal park all the sculptures lying about the Tezpur. 
town of Tezpur, which had been postponed during the war, has also been put in hand 
a sum of Rs. 814 being expended on building the platform on which the sculptures are 
to be placed. 

" The only other undertaking of note during the year was at the ruins of the last^Ao^par, 
capital of the Kachari Rajas at Khaspur, near Silchar in the Surma VaUey. The 
estimate for this work had also been sanctioned before the war, but was postponed for 
want of funds. The monuments conserved at Khaspur are three temples of Rana- 
chandi, the tutelary goddess of the Kachari king, a Baradtvart or audience hall, a Singh 
Dartvaza or lion gate and a bathing pavilion. The chief task at each of these buildings 
was the clearance of jungle and removal of roots, water-proofing the roof, grouting 
cracks and preserving the existing plaster of waUs. The luxuriant growth of vegeta- 
tion over these monuments, only a little more than a century old, has been very 
destructive and in one case, viz., that of the Baradwari, it has been thought safest to 
leave the existing structure as it is and not to attempt to remove the giant roots of the 
trees which hold the building in their embrace. 

" No reports about the conservation of monuments in the Indian States connect- Indian States, 
ed with the Eastern Circle have been received. It may be mentioned, however, that {^^^9^)' 
at the Unakoti hill in the Koilashahar division of the Tripura State, the rock-cut 
sculptures and stone images are known to have been cleared of jimgle and made acces- 
sible during the year". A conservation note on the monuments in the Udaypur and 
Koilashahar divisions in the Tripura State, which were visited by Mr. Dikshit, is now 
in preparation. 

During the absence of Mr. Longhurst on long leave out of India, Pandit Hirananda Southern 
Shastri has been officiating as Superintendent in the Southern Circle, and the follow- Circle* 
ing accoimt of the maintenance and repair of monuments in the Madras Presidency 
is from his pen. 

" In the Southern Circle Rs. 28,574-14-10 were devoted to conservation of which Masulivatam. 
Rs. 17,931-13-0 went to Special and the residue to Annual repairs. In the Kistna 
District the Bandar Fort at Masulipatam came in for its share of conservation, 
and substantial progress has been made during the year in carrying out Mr. Longhurst 's 
instructions. This fort is connected with the early struggles of the Dutch, the 
French and the British in India and contains some of the last memorials of the 
former greatness of Masulipatam. As described by Captain Albert Harvey in his 
Ten Yean in India the fort had an Arsenal which was the entrepot of stores 
supplied to the troops in the Hyderabad and Nagpur subsidiary forces, as well as 
the whole of the Northern Division of the army. It contained necessaries of every 



CONSERVATION. 



30 



Southern 
Circle. 



Penukonda, 



Chandragiri, 



0%ng$e, etc. 



Anjengo. 



description and was kept in first rate order by the Commissariat and the many 
warrant officers attached to the establishment. The curious old records kept in 
it gave an idea of how things were managed in those times. Owing to neglect it feU 
into decay. The Dutch magazine and some of the old European barracks passed 
into private hands. The old hospital, which is now roofless, is said to belong to the 
Nizam. The St. John's Church had been ruthlessly puUed down and the Belfry 
was very much neglected. Mr, Longhurst inspected the fort and drew up a note sug- 
gesting necessary repairs. At his recommendation, aU the three important structures 
in the fort were taken up for conservation, namely, the Armoury including the Arsenal ; 
the Belfry, Plate X VII (6), and the Powder Magazine. The Armoury, which is now used 
as Customs and Port Office, consists of a quadrangular enclosure with rooms and 
godowns built round it, and a large gateway. The enclosure is divided into two open 
courts by a narrow block of buildings in the centre. Mr. Longhurst during his 
subsequent inspection found that the measures he had proposed, had been executed 
satisfactorily. In the Armoury some of the walls which were broken have been re- 
built, the old and damaged lintels of the doors have been renewed and the terrace, 
which leaked badly, has been repaired. At the Belfry, the damaged parts of the com- 
pound wall were renovated, plastering done where necessary, and general clearance 
effected. At the Powder Magazine similar measures were taken to arrest decay. 

** Penukonda, the headquarters of the Taluk of the same name in the Anantapur 
District, is famous for having been the residence of the Vijayanagar kings within an 
easy reach of the capital at Hampi, and for its fort, which gave shelter to Sadasiva 
and his court after the disastrous battle of Talikota in 1565. The citadel of this 
fort and the remains of other structures in it, including the northern gateway 
with its interesting inscriptions, and the watch-tower (which is a quaint old structure 
built upon a square bastion in the Indo-Saracenic style adopted by the later Vijayanagar 
kings), have all been under repair during the year and have been provided with doors 
and windows where necessary and generally tidied up. At Chandragiri, to which 
place Ranga, the son and successor of Tirumala, who murdered Sadasiva, the puppet 
king of the Vijayanagar Dynasty, transferred his capital shortly after 1575, both 
the Fort and the Palace received attention, and much has been done to clear the 
surroundings and effect general tidiness. Both these buildings are remarkable for 
the excellent quality and wonderful tenacity of the cement and mortar used in their 
construction, particularly in the highly interesting series of flat arches and cof- 
fered ceilings. At several other forts, such as Gingee, Gurramkonda, Sankaridrug, 
the Vellore Fort, which is one of the most beautiful specimens of military archi- 
tecture in Southern India, and the weU-known fortress of Dansborg at Tranque- 
bar, founded by Ovo Gedde on behalf of the Danish East India Company in 1620, 
much has been done to remedy structural defects and clear away exuberant vege- 
tation. Yet another fort which came in for repair is that at Anjengo which was 
built in 1695 on a sandy piece of land first acquired by the East India Company in 
1684 from the Rani of Attengal for the purpose of trade in pepper and spices. During 
the Camatic wars this fort was used as a depot for military stores and was the first 
signalling station for vessels arriving from England. Over two centuries ago it was 
equipped with a council and a garrison subordinate to Bombay. It is associated with 
several historical personages. Robert Orme, the historian, who was the earliest 
chronicler of the story of Anglo-Indian progress, was bom here in 1728. This monu- 
ment, of so great historical interest and value, was crumbling into ruins when 



31 CONSERVATION. 

Mr. Longhurst first inspected it in 1918. Much has been done this year towards Southern 
its preservation ; the tops of the parapets and gun embrasures have been repaired ; Circle, 
a new flight of steps has been built in the north-east comer of the enclosure for the 
convenience of visitors, and sundry other measures have been taken. The palace at 
Tanjore, which came into existence about 1550 A. D., contains a bewildering series of Tanjore. 
large and rambling buildings, one of which is an eight-storeyed tower, about 190 feet 
high and designed like a temple gopuram. On the east side of the inner quadrangle 
in the palace is the Telugu Durbar Hall of the Nayakkar kings called the Statue Hall 
on account of the fine marble statue of Saraboji, the last but one Raja of Tanjore, 
which it contains. Both these structures and the Schwartz Church in the Little Fort 
with its memorial, (representing Saraboji's visit to Schwartz, the founder of the Church, 
a very fine work of art that any church might be proud of), have all undergone a variety 
of structural repairs. 

" Another important monument in the Southern Presidency which received 
attention this year is the Chola Temple of Virabhadra standing at Mottupalle in the Mottupalle. 
Gimtur District. Though an ordinary village shrine of the usual type, Plate XVI (6), 
it is of a special historical value on account of the inscriptions it contains. The most 
important of these records is an epigraph engraved on one of the pillars of the mandajKiy 
forming an abbayasasana issued by the Kakatiya King Ganapatideva-Maharaja in the 
Saka year 1166, which granted immunity, excepting the usual customs duty, to all 
foreign traders whose vessels might be wrecked on the coast ; as theretofore, the whole 
cargo of such ships had been forfeited to the state. This epigraph further shows the 
extent of Kakatiya power in the Telugu land and refers to taxes on articles of export 
and import at the harbour of Motupulle alias Desyu3ryakkondapattana. The north- 
western wall of this sanctuary has been rebuilt, a damaged part of the terrace renovat- 
ed, the flooring mended and much grouting carried out to the gopuram and other parts 
of the structure. 

** Among monuments noted particularly for their architectural importance, 
several came in for their share of conservation during the year. The village of 
Undavalli in the Guntur District, which may easily be reached by crossing the Kistna Undavallu 
from Bezwada, possesses some rock-cut temples of the early Pallava period. Of these 
the one which lies around the hill in a recess towards the south and faces north is the 
largest and the best. It is a five-storeyed excavation having all the upper storeys set 
back one above the other. As is shown by the colossal image of the reclining Vishnu, 
about 17 feet long, which is cut out of the rock in the third-storey, and by representa- 
tions of some of the avatdras, it must have had a Brahmanical origin. The excavation 
belongs to about the 7th century A. D. and furnishes an interesting example of early 
Pallava architecture. It stood in need of urgent repairs which have been efi^ected 
during the year by renovating certain much dilapidated pillars, filling crevices in 
the roof, pointing where necessary, and general clearance. A flight of steps has also 
been added to the monument to give access to the south end of its first floor. 

" In the Hospet sub-division of the Bellary District further headway has been 
made in the campaign of work that has been going on for many years among the famous 
group of monuments at Vijayanagar. In the Vitthala Temple, which is the yijayanagar 
most splendid building at Hampi, the two cracked pillars in the Kalyana mandapa were (^^^J^)- 
supported by iron straps, the flooring was relaid and pointed where it had been disturb- 
ed, stone buttresses were provided and a new approach road constructed ; the 



CONSERVATION. 



32 



Conjeevercm. 



Southern entrance of the Sarasvati Temple has had its facing reset in plumb and a new stone 

Circle. lintel inserted ; in the Ranga Temple the top of the main mandapa and the two small 

mandapas, standing close by, have been plastered, voids grouted and pointed and 
the main entrance provided with fresh lintel stones in place of the broken ones. 
The Hazara Rama Temple, which is one of the most perfect specimens of Hindu 
temple architecture of the Vijayanagar period, had the top of its verandah 
waterproofed, the fallen compound wall at the south side reconstructed, a masonry 
pillar provided to support a broken architrave in the west verandah, and displaced 
Mahdboivpwram. stones reset where necessary. At MahabaUpuram in the Chingleput District, so very 

famous for its fascinating group of rock-cut temples, measures were taken to keep the 
monuments tidy, repair the approach roads and plant avenue trees. Yet €mother 
sanctuary which has been an object of care during the year in this District is the old 
Matangesvara Temple at Conjeeveram, standing in a field at a distance of a few 
furlongs to the south-west of the Kailasanatha Temple. In style it belongs to the 
later period of Pallava architecture which was started by Rajasimha about the 
beginning of the 8th century A. D. Temples of this style are built in stone with some- 
times a brick superstructure covered in plaster and decorated in stucco. On plan the 
shrine is a small square cella surrounded by a circumambulatory passage and faces 
the east. Externally, the lofty tower, rising in tiers which diminish in size as they 
approach the sunmait, is built over the central shrine in front of which is a small porch 
leading into a large pillared hall or mandapa. The bases of the pillars are decorated 
with conventional lions with their tails curved up. Over the lion is to be seen an 
ornamented band with polygonal necking, a large projecting capital and a square 
abacus above. The back of the porch has pilasters with figured panels on each side. 
This temple has been repaired by filling the cracks and pointing the joints in the 
gojmram as well as the terrace, and exuberant vegetation has been removed, especially 
from its gopuram. 



Coorg. 



" In Coorg the Fort and Raja's seat at Mercara and the Palace at Nalknad, 
though comparatively modem, are the only monuments possessing any feature of 
architectural interest. The Mercara Fort is small but picturesque and contains the 
palace, the Conmiissioner 's residence, and a group of modem out-houses as well as a 
church. The palace is a barrack-like structure built in the form of a quadrangle 
enclosing an open paved courtyard, with a pair of lifesize brick and plaster elephants 
set up by one of the old Rajas of Coorg. At both these monuments some measures though 
not of any special magnitude were taken to repair the walls, approach roads, doors and 
windows, to waterproof the roofs and repair the elephant figures." 



Burma Circle. 



The Superintendent in Burma, Mr. Charles DuroiseUe, sends me the following 
resum6 of his year's work in the field of conservation, a more detailed account having 
appeared in the Annual Report of the Burma Circle issued separately by that Govern- 
ment. *' The total amount spent this year on the conservation of monuments in Burma 
was Rs. 56,363 (excluding the Public Works Department charges) which is slightly 
in excess of the amount funded last year for the same purpose, viz., Rs. 53,120. The 
two principal items of work during the year were (i) the continuation of the construc- 
tion of the gardens on the platform of the palace at Mandalay ; and (it) the continua- 
tion of the special repairs to the Tilominlo Temple at Pagan. On the garden Rs. 10,998 
was expended and Rs. 12,192 on the Tilominlo. 



33 CONSERVATION. 

" The palace at Mandalay is unique of its kind in Burma, for though it was built Burma Circle. 
on the traditional plan of former palaces in this Province, it is the only one now in Mandalay. 
existence, the others built at the numerous capitals having long completely disappeared. 
The buildings on the platform were very numerous, and divided into two distinct 
parts. The eastern half of the platform contained the Royal apartments, throne- 
rooms and other appurtenances. These were the most beautiful and full of a distinctive 
historical interest ; and it is these buildings which form the palace now being conserved 
by this Department. The western half was covered with numerous small buildings 
of no particular historical or architectural interest which were the abodes of lesser 
queens, their retinues, etc. When the preservation of the palace was decided upon, 
practically all the latter buildings, of no intrinsic interest whatever, were dismantled, 
thus leaving the whole western half of the platform an arid and unsightly waste. It 
was at last decided to do away with this eye-sore by constructing a garden over it. 
The work was begun in 1920-21, and Rs. 8,013 were spent upon it ; as already said above, 
Rs. 10,998 was spent on the work this year and it is now practically completed. The 
lawns, shrubs and flowers make now a thing of beauty of what was but lately desolate 
ground. But two items of work still remain to be done in this connection ; first the 
construction of a balustrade round the enclosure and, most important in a climate so 
dry as Mandalay, the provision of water supply. This last item has received earnest 
consideration from the Garden Committee for several years past, and it has been now 
decided that in consideration of expense a pump should be located near the North 
Wall of the Palace Garden to pump water direct on to the lawns from the 
canals close at hand, and also for use in case of fii^e. The Committee have also come to 
the conclusion that, when all the works have been completed, they should also take 
over charge of the gardens outside the palace platform, which have up to now been in 
charge of the Cantonment Committee, with a view to extending the area around the 
palace, and to preserving the whole as palace precincts. 

" Besides the Palace Garden, there were no works of any moment in the Mandalay 
Division calling for special attention. There were the usual petty repairs necessary 
to a wooden building such as the palace and the minor monuments within the Fort. 
The much needed repairs to King Mindon's Tomb and to those of the Laungshe and 
Medawgyi queens near the palace have now been completed. Plate XVIII (6) shows 
the north view of Fort DufEerin, in the centre of which stands the palace. Fort 
Dufferin is a perfect square, surrounded beyond the moat by a crenelated wall one 
mile and a quarter long on each side. On the top of the walls, which are reinforced 
by a glacis on the inside, are twelve jpyatfhats or bastions on each face, that is, forty- 
eight in all. These bastions are very graceful wooden structures and very good 
examples of a distinctive feature of Burmese architecture. Each wall is pierced in the 
middle by a large gate through which the king and royal family only had access. Other 
smaller gates were for the use of the citizens living outside the walls. The bastions on 
those four principal gates and at the comers of the walls are considerably larger than the 
others. Besides the outer crenelated walls above mentioned, the palace was further 
protected by two other enclosures, not far from the palace itself. The first consisted 
of a palisade made of huge teak logs, access within which was gained by a small gate 
in each of the four faces ; and about seventy feet beyond this again, was the third en- 
closure, consisting of a brick wall slightly lower than the palisade and through which 
access was also had by a small gate in each face. It was in the middle of this third and 
laat enclosure that the palace was situated ; within it also were to be found the 



CONSEBVATION. 34 

Burma Circle, principal buildings necessary to the life of an eastern capital ; the Supreme Court of 
Mandalay. Law, guard-houses, elephant sheds, stables, the mint, etc., etc., most of which have 

by now disappeared. It is also within this enclosure, and facing the palace on the 
east, that are situated the tombs mentioned above. The bricks of the outer walls are 
set in mud mortar which is not conducive to strength and durability ; they have, as a 
consequence, shown signs of deterioration in many places ; but considering their great 
length, a scheme of repairs to them in their entirety must necessarily be spread over 
several years. The j^^oMAo^ or bastions on those walls being of wood require constant 
attention ; this year, the bastion over the eastern gate and bastion No. 6 have been 
thoroughly repaired while that on the south-east gate, which showed signs of weak- 
ness, has been propped up and stiffened. 

" Plate XVIII (o) shews the three royal tombs in Fort Dufferin, which have been 
repaired during the year under review. They stand close to one another a few hundred 
feet to the north-east of the palace. Figure 2 is the resting place of King Mindon, 
the last king but one of the Alaungpra dynasty. He abandoned the previous capital, 
Amarapura, in 1856 and founded the City of Mandalay, which was completed in 1859. 
He died in 1878, only partly aware of the bloody intrigues which were being set on foot 
during his illness to procure the succession to the prince who became King Thibaw. 
Contrary to Burmese customs, the body of Mindon was not cremated and his ashes 
thrown into the river, but was buried at the spot where his tomb now stands. This 
monument had been in a rather bad state and the repairs to it, carried out during a 
period of three years, were completed this year. Some of the plaster carvings with 
mosaic work on the several roofs of the Pyatthat above the basement, were damaged, 
while in other cases they had fallen down ; these were carefully repaired and replaced 
adhering strictly to the original models. The beautiful glass mosaics which cover the 
basement, which had in some places fallen off, were replaced. The railing round the 
edge of the plinth, which was crumbling here and there, leaving hideous gaps, has been 
replaced by railings of reinforced concrete. The staircases were rebuilt, and the finial 
above the pyatthat as well as the hti crowning it were repaired and strengthened. 
Figure 1 is the tomb of the Laimgshe Queen ; she was one of the queens of King Mindon, 
ana the mother of King Thibaw, the last king of Burma ; and died in 1881. The tomb 
commemorates the spot where she was cremated. Figure 3 is the monument raised 
on the place where the remains of the Medawgyi Queen were cremated. She had been 
the wife of King Shwebomin, and was the mother of Pagan Min (Mindon 's predecessor) 
as well as the mother-in-law of Mindon, the latter having married her daughter. Nos. 2 
and 3 are wooden buildings consisting of a multiple roof pyatthat supported by four 
posts, the space between these posts being closed in by fine filigree work ornamented with 
pieces of coloured glass forming a kind of mosaic. Some of the sculptures at the comers 
and the middle of the roofs had become loose or were broken and some had disappear- 
ed ; all these have now been repaired, or strengthened, and new wood carving substi- 
tuted where necessary. The filigree work was repaired and the coloured glass replaced 
wherever it had faUen off. 

Skwebo Divisim. '' Monuments are comparatively few in the Shwebo Division, but a sum of Rs. 823 

was spent on repairs to some of them. The two main gates of the Sinbynme Pagoda 

at Mingun were found to be loose and on the point of falling ; they were strengthened 

and refixed, the other gates being provided with wickets and turn-stile gates to prevent 

the ingress of cattle, one of the banes of old monuments in Burma. In the same loca- 



35 CONSERVATION. 

lity, the flooring of the building wherein hangs the great Mingun Bell was repaired. Burma Circle. 
Repairs also were made to the revetment wall protecting the small but fine Pondawpya 
pagoda from the annual flood of the Irrawaddy River. The Pondawpya was erected 
as the model of the enormous pagoda not far from the Mingun Bell, known as the 
Mingun pagoda, and shows what the latter would have looked like had it ever been 
completed, which it never was, 

" At Old Prome (Srikshetra) in the Tharrawaddy Division, petty repairs were Old Prome. 
carried out at a cost of Rs. 295 to the Bawbawgyi pagoda, one of the oldest monu- 
ments in Burma, and also to the Bebe and Lemyethna pagodas which probably 
antedate the buildings at Pagan. At the Bebe, the arch over the west corridor was 
in a rather bad state ; it is now supported with timber work. At the Lemyethna, 
cow-herds had dug into the walls, which have now been repaired. 

" On Hainggyi Island, in the Bassein Division, are the remains of a factory huiltBainggyi Island. 
by the Agents of the Old East India Company. It was sometime ago decided to 
erect on the spot a marble tablet with an inscription for perpetuating the memory of 
these old remains ; this has been effected at the cost of Rs. 674. 

" Pagan, owing to its numerous monuments spread over a comparatively small Pagan. 
area, is the principal centre of conservation work in Burma. Special repairs are execut- 
ed from time to time, and annual repairs to temples already conserved. At the 
Tilominlo Temple, one of the most imposing among the larger monuments, special re- 
pairs to the octagonal terrace below the sikhara have been completed, as well as repairs 
to the stair-cases leading up to the sikhara on each of the four sides, and to all the 
terraces on the second storey. The scrolls and flamboyant ornaments of the pediments 
over three of the principal porches have been carefully repaired, and cracks in the 
arches over the vaulted corridors have been thoroughly grouted and made watertight. 
During the year under review a further expenditure of Rs. 12,192 was incurred on the 
above temple. A great part of the work on the second storey and the repairs to the 
two circuit walls still remain to be carried out, and it is estimated that this will cost 
a further sum of Rs. 25,000. The special repairs to the Sulamani Temple were 
continued, and necessitated the expenditure of Rs. 3,815 ; this sum, however, was too 
small, and just allowed repairs to be undertaken to battlements, the subsidiary small 
stupas at the corners, and to the steps on the second storey leading to the sikhara. 
The ugly cement caps on the battlements, which were not an original feature of the 
monument, were removed and replaced by brickwork in conformity with the old. 

'' The Min-0-Chantha pagoda at Pagan, near the great Ananda Temple, is of un- 
pretentious size but of fine proportions. It is of the type which became later so 
familiar in Burma, that is, a solid building conical in shape. It was built during the 
reign of King Kyanzittha (1084-1112) by, tradition has it, his own son Rajakumar for 
the restoration of his old father's health, hence its name. Though it is not a protected 
monument, it is one of those in the charge of the Pagoda Durwans. This pagoda is 
seen in Plate XIX, fig. (a). It is built on two terraces, and the only access to it is 
by a flight of steps on the south face, protected by roofs ornamented with wood carv- 
ings. The wooden building with three superposed roofs on the upper terrace, is a 
prayer hall, wherein the villagers assemble from time to time to recite prayers in the 
evening. The walls of the two terraces, and the floors are in several places in a bad 



CONSEBVATION. 



30 



Bttrma Circle, state of repair. The pagoda itself is still very strong, but cracks are showing here and 

there and the facing plaster has fallen ofi in some places. A Buddhist monk of Pagan, 
U Sittara, has asked for permission to carry out the necessary repairs ; and permission 
was granted on the understanding that he would take advice from the Archaeological 
Superintendent, and carry out the repairs in consultation with the overseer in charge 
of the Pagodas at Pagan, so as to preserve the character of the old work. The work has 
already been b^un. It is pleasant to record that, in recent years in Burma, private 
enterprise has a tendency to participate increasingly in the repair of old monuments, 
the people in each instance proving perfectly willing to consult the Archaeological 
Department as to the best methods to follow. Such was not the case a few years 
ago. 



Araian. 



Indian States. 

Chhattarpur, 



** Arakan remams to the fore in the matter of private enterprise. Some of the 
monuments at Mrohaung are unique of their kind, and a few Arakanese gentlemen 
have earnestly taken in hand the repairs to some of the most important, always in 
consultation and under the guidance of this Department. Thus, with the Rs. 5,000 
generously contributed by the Local Government, and the further help of Rs. 3,000 
contributed by the people themselves, it was possible to begin the special repair works 
to the Shitthaung Temple, one of the most interesting monxmients in Burma, which had 
fallen into a lamentable state of disrepair. The Public Works Department carried on 
the work for the people. Large portions of the vaulted roof over the southern 
corridor had fallen in ; but as it was found impossible to restore it efficiently the corridor 
was strengthened and covered by a supporting arch built from inside. The roof over 
the whole building, which leaked badly, was made watertight. A portion of the north- 
west angle of the outer corridor, which had crumbled away and during the rains allow- 
ed streams of water to flow in, is now being repaired. The Public Works Department 
having, after a time, withdrawn their help, the work has now been taken up and carried 
on by the Trustees themselves who are personally superintending it. The collection 
of funds is prosecuted with commendable energy, and it is gratifying to learn that 
a further sum of Rs. 2,000 is now at the disposal of the Trustees, to whose energy and 
public spirit all lovers of the ancient arts of Burma are indebted. 

** In Plate XIX, fig. (6), may be seen the Ratanaman-aung Pagoda, which is also 
being repaired by a public spirited gentleman of Mrohaung in Arakan, according to the 
instructions given by me when I visited the place in 1920. This pagoda is said to have 
been built by King Candasuddhamma (A. D. 1652 — 1684). It is a solid structure 
entirely built of stone blocks, and octagonal from the base to the top. It is completely 
devoid of any ornamental designs, thus acquiring an air of austere majesty not to be 
seen in other buildings of this type found in Burma proper. Rs. 3,000 have already 
been spent by Shwe Tha U, the gentleman mentioned above, solely on repairs to the 
main structure, from which a certain number of stones had fallen down ; others were 
dangerously loose ; and thick roots were growing out of the joints loosening many 
more. The triple enclosing walls, which had suffered severely, are now under 
repair. When these repairs have been completed, Shwe Tha U intends preserving 
several other beautiful little monuments erected within the pagoda enclosure." 

At Khajuraho in the Chhattarpur State the work of conservation and restoration 
among the famous monuments of the Chandel Rajputs continues under the supervision 
of Mr. B. L. Dbama. The work at present is confined to the two dilapidated temples of 



37 CONSERVATION. 

Duladeo and Jatkari. At the Duladeo Temple the fallen corner dados in alto-relievo, and Indian States. 
the missing portions of the north and south projecting balconies of the Maha- Chhattarpur. 
Mandapa have been restored in outline. The precariously hanging core of the Maha- 
Mandapa roof which was a great menace to visitors has been dismantled ; and a broken 
lintel over the south bay of the Maha-Mandapa carrying part of the recessed circular 
ceiling has been supported by a suitable ashlar pillar. Besides these measures several 
other structural repairs of importance have been carried out. The work of restoring the 
Sikhara or Great Spire over the Sanctiun is in progress. 

At the Jatkari Temple the fallen portions of the south and north projecting 
balconies have been restored in outline and other structural repairs and restoration 
works are in progress. 

The expenditure on these works, which will be described more in detail in next 
year's Report, is being met by joint contributions from the Government of India and 
the Chhattarpur Darbar. 

In a resume of his Annual Report for 1921-22, Mr. Garde, the State Archaeologist in Qwailor sutc. 
Gwalior, after recording the appreciation of the Darbar for the assistance rendered 
them by Sir John Marshall and Mr. Sana Ullah, writes as follows of the conservation work 
carried out by the State during the period in question. 

" The conservation campaign started in such good earnest last year was pushed 
on with the same vigour during 1921-22. By order of the Finance Member, Rs. 7,000 
was transferred from the Budget of the Archaeological Department to that of the Educa- 
tion Department, to be handed over to the Panditdsrama Sabhd of Uj jain, which is en- 
trusted with the work of restoring and preserving the old Astronomical Observatory 
built at Ujjain by Raja Sawai Jaisingh of Jaipur. The work is being carried out 
under the direct supervision of Pandit Gokulchandji, an astronomer of Jaipur, who has 
taken a prominent part in repairing Jaisingh 's observatories located elsewhere in India. 

" The Central Mazhabi Auqdf Committee transferred Rs. 6,482-9-10 to this Depart- 
ment for conserving (1) the Bijayamandal Mosque at Bhilsa, and (2) the Khokai Monas- 
tery at Ranod, two archaeological monuments which are still being used for religious 
purposes and with which therefore both the Mazhabi Auqdf Committee and the Archaeolo- 
gical Department are concerned. 

" Apart from the annual upkeep of monuments conserved in past years at Gwalior, 
Bhilsa, Udaygiri and Surwaya, initial repairs were executed to the nine groups of 
monuments detailed below, at a total cost of Rs. 13,074-2-9 excluding the Rs. 7,000 
transferred to the Panditdsrama Sabhd , but including the Rs. 6,482-9-10 received from 
the Mazhabi Auqdf Committee. 

** I. Tomb of Muhamm^ Ghaus at Gwalior. — The major portion of the repairs 
to the principal tomb, the minor tombs, the mosques and the surrounding graveyards 
had been carried out in the previous year. The items which remained to be attended 
to in the year under report were as follows : — 

(a) Good teak wood shutters were provided for the entrance into the shrine 
proper. 

(6) Pigeons and bats entered through the jali work and infested the interior of the 
haU. To prevent these pests all the jali arches were fitted ^^^th wire screens 
from inside. 



CONSERVATIOX. 38 

Qwiiior State. ^^j ^ ^gjy j^aocha hut built in modem times in close vicinity to the stately build- 

ing, and which disfigured the appearance of the latter, was removed. 

(d) Two small rooms touching the west compound waU, known as the mtisafir- 

khana or shelter for pilgrims were totally in ruins. The roof had dis- 
appeared altogether and the walls were also dilapidated. This structure 
was thoroughly renewed for the use of pilgrims. One of these rooms is 
intended for use as a kitchen in place of the old hut referred to in (c) above. 

(e) The gateway in the west compound wall known as the Naubat-khana was in 

a half ruined state. This was repaired. 

(/) The western compound wall was continued for about 250 feet to the north 
beyond the musafir-khanay to screen the unsightly view of certain heaps of 
mins in that direction. 

{g) An iron bar gate was provided for the compound of the large mosque. 

{h) Cracks in the roofs of the verandahs of the main tomb and in that of the 
small mosque near Tansen's tomb were grouted with cement so as to 
prevent leaking in the rains. 

(i) Two of the larger trees in the compound had their roots exposed. Platforms 
of dry rubble masonry were therefore provided for them. 

(J) Last year's new filling had sunken in places owing to the first rains. The pits 
thus caused were refilled and rammed. 

'* n. Gujari-mahal (GtccUior Fort). — The additions and alterations which had been 
started last year with a view to adapt this building to the requirements of the Archaeologi- 
cal Museum, were completed in the year of report. The following work was done this 
year : — 

(a) The underground cellar in the court-yard, which consists of a massively 
built haU with galleries on all four sides, was full of debris. As many 
visitors wish to see the cellar it was freed from debris and thoroughly 
cleaned. Three of its doorways were repa^ed and iron bars were provided 
for openings between the pillars of the gaUeries to guard against visitors 
falling down, the danger being all the more serious as the place is dark. 
To prevent the pest of bats the three entrances and a window opening 
were furnished with half teak-wood and half wire-gauze doors. 

(6) There are some dark cells in the building which could be of no use for ex- 
hibiting sculptures but which only served as shelters for bats. The door 
openings of these cells were therefore closed up with masonry. 

(c) Narrow platforms touching the waUs were built n the exhibition rooms to 

serve as pedestals for sculptures. 

(d) Cracked linte's and slabs in the ceiling of one of the rooms were supported on 

rails so as to render the ceiling safe. 

(e) The inclined ramp constructed last year for carrying up sculptures proved to 

be too steep. It was therefore remodelled into a more gradual slope. 



39 CONSERVATION. 

(/) A pucca hut was constructed within the compound of the building to serve as owaiior sute. 
quarters for the Chowkidar of the Museum. 

{g) An awkward corner in the passage leading to the entrance was rectified so 
that carts, etc., now have ample turning room. 

h) To conceal from view the unsightly uneven ground on the south of the passage 
to the proper entrance of the Mahal, a row of mendi shrubs was planted. 

" III. The Garuda pillar at Besnagar (District Bhilsa), locally known as Khamh 
Babay received further attention, in that a fence consisting of iron bars passed through 
stone posts was erected in order to protect the platform and inscriptions from the Gosai's 
cattle which pass by them every morning and evening. 

" IV. Udaygiri Caves {District Bhilsa). — The fair-weather road laid out last year 
at the foot of the excavated face of the hill was washed away by the rains in some 
places during the last monsoon. To prevent similar damage in future, a small retaining 
wall was constructed near Cave No. 7, the causeway near the tank in front of Cave No. 5 
was improved, and a few drains were provided to let the water from the hill slope pass 
away without damaging the road. 

" The Archaeological Chemist to the Government of India was invited to inspect 
on the spot some of the decaying carvings and inscriptions in the caves and to suggest 
measures for their preservation. His recommendations have reached this office and are 
receiving attention. 

" V. Buddhist Caves at Bagh {District Amjhera). — The work of freeing important 
caves in the series from debris was started last year, and it is intended to 
push on with the work slowly but steadily year after year until we have reclaimed all 
that is worth preserving in the remnants of these vast caves. The work is a huge one and 
it will naturally take a number of years to finish. Cave No. 2 was cleared last year. 
This year the work of clearance was extended to Cave No. 3 and part of the debris with 
which the entrance of the cave is choked up was removed. The debris is being utilised 
to form a spacious platform in front of this cave in continuation of the platform of the last 
preceding cave. A few decorative carvings originally belonging to the facade of the 
cave, which has now collapsed, were unearthed from the debris in the course of the 
cleaning work. These have been carefully taken out and are preserved on the site. 

" VI. Koshak-mahal at Fatehabad near Chanderi {District Esagarh). — A brief 
description of this, the noblest and most important of the buildings now surviving at or 
around the town of Chanderi, was given in my last year's report. The conservation of 
this building had been nominaUy commenced that year, but the work was pushed 
through and all the items covered by the original estimate were carried out this year. The 
original estimate was framed at a time when the building was full of debris, but clearance 
has revealed further defects which it is proposed to remedy by certain supplementary 
measures next year. 

" The following items were carried out this year : — 

(a) Of the four floors which make up the building, the lower two had already 
been freed from debris. The two remaining floors have now been cleared. 
There were many big stones among this debris, and the work of carrv- 
ing these down four storeys without in jurying the building was not 



CONSERVATION. 40 

Qwaitor suta. easy. The bigger stones were let down with the help of strong ropes and 

pulley blocks. Some good carvings exposed in the clearance have been 
stacked neatly on the tops of walls. 

(6) The original top of the building having disappeared, rain water found its way 
into the inner core of the masonry and caused serious damage. As a 
provision against this source of trouble, the uppermost floors and some 
of the tops of walls exposed to the sky were rendered water tight with 
concrete in good lime spread over them and ranmied thoroughly. 

(c) Two of the eight large radiating archways over the cross-shaped passage 

which divides the building into four quadrants had been weakened owing 
to the falling away of the masonry filling, the weight of which provided the 
pressure necessary to hold the components together. The missing 
masonry filling has therefore been supplied so as to render the arches safe. 

(d) The staircases and the cut stone facing masonry were repaired in places where 

absolutely necessary for the safety both of the building and of visitors. 

{e) Jungle was cleared to a distance of 50 feet all round the monument. 

" VII. Miscellaneous Monuments at Chanderi {District Esagarh), — There are quite 
a number of old tombs, mosques and finely built baodis, large and small, scattered all 
round Chanderi which testify to the bygone vastness and prosperity of the place. It is 
neither possible nor necessary to preserve all these structures, but a few of them that are 
architecturally or historically important have been selected for preservation. These are : 
(1) the larger Madrasa Tomb, (2) the Battisi Bdodi, (3) the smaWev Madrasa, which is 
supposed to be the tomb of an Emperor's daughter (Shdhzddi kd Rauzd), (4) the mosque 
known as Panch Madhi, (5) the Rdjd kd Maqhara, (6) the Rdni ha Maqhara, (7) the tomb of 
Nizamuddin's family, (8) the Bddal mahal gate, (9) the Akolke Bdgh kd gumbaz, (10) the 
Badhaiyon kd gmnhaz, (11) the Chakla Bdodi, {12) the Gol Bdodi, (13) the Kati-ghati, and 
(14) the Kurbani chahutra near Fatehabad. All these have been freed from jungle, 
which is one of the most destructive of agencies where ancient monuments are concerned. 

** The larger Madrasa tomb was further repaired as follows :— 

(a) Part of the masonry of the north-east corner of the plinth had fallen. This 

was made good with old stone. 
(6) Some of the dasa or coping stones over the retaining wall of the plinth were 

missing. These were supplied. 

(c) New steps were constructed giving access to the plinth. 

{d) There were large pits in the floor of the tomb. These were filled up. The 
dome having disappeared, rain- water descended directly into the interior. 
The floor was therefore made jnicm by ramming concrete in lime and 
sloping it so as to carry off rain-water through a drain which was provided 
in the west wall. The grave-stones which had been displaced were reset 
properly. 

(e) Part of the roof of the north verandah which was hanging dangerously, 

was taken down. The tops of the walls still need to be rendered water- 
tight, and the surrounding ground requires to be cleaned and fenced. 
This work wUl be done next year if possible. 



41 CONSERVATION. 

" The other monuments will be taken up for repairs at some later date. Qwaiior State. 

'* VIII. Bijayamandal Mosque at Bhilsa.-~--This mosque is built on the site of, and 
in the main with the materials of a large old Hindu temple. The plinth of the temple is 
still to be seen underneath the mosque. Most of the numerous pillars, pilasters and 
lintels used in the building are carved in the Hindu and Jaina style of the mediaeval 
period, and some also bear Sanskrit inscriptions. No doubt is thus left that the major 
portion of the materials with which the mosque is constructed were taken from one or 
more older temples. An inscription on one of the pillars mentions a temple of the 
goddess Charchika, which was perhaps identical with the demolished temple on the site of 
which the mosque now stands. The old temple, it is said, was built by Vijaya, a Baniya 
lady. This perhaps explains the reason why the mosque still goes by the Hindu name of 
Bijay mandal, which is nothing but a corrupt form of Vijayd-mandira. 

*' This is the largest mosque at Bhilsa ; but until recently it was in disuse and was 
neglected. It appears that the Musalman community have now begun to take some 
interest in the building and to say their prayers there occasionally. Probably at 
their request the Central Mazhahi Auqdf Committee consulted this Department 
regarding repairs to this monument and made a contribution of Rs. 4,377 to meet 
the cost of the repairs suggested. They were carried out under the supervision of 
the Archaeological Department, in the year imder report, the more important' items 
being : — 

(a) Jungle was cleared to a distance of 25 feet all round. 

(6) Some of the upper courses of the massive back wall of the hall had disap- 
peared altogether. The missing portion was restored and the dislocated 
portion was dismantled and reset. 

(c) The pilasters touching this wall were out of plumb. They were all restored 

to their upright position. 

(d) Some of the old beams and slabs of the ceiling had either broken or were 

missing. New ones were substituted for them. 

(e) The old concrete roof had badly cracked. The cracks were first grouted with 

cement and then a three-inch layer of good brick concrete was spread over 
the whole existing roof. A part of the roof which was altogether missing 
was renewed. 

(/) The corner minarets, composed of heavy blocks of stone piled one over 
another, were leaning westwards and had become a menace to passers by 
and also to the structure below. These were pushed back into their proper 
position and are now quite safe. 

{g) The compound wall at the north-west comer of the court-yard which had 
collapsed, was restored; and the damaged tops of walls were rendered water- 
proof with a layer of concrete. 

{h) The pits and depressions in the floor, especially of the hall of the mosque, were 
repaired so as to render the floor fit for use during prayers. 

(t) An iron gate was provided for the entrance to the courtyard so as to keep out 
cattle. 



CONSERVATION. 42 

Qwttilor Stat*. (j) The ceiling and roof of the portico had disappeared. They were restored as 

the portico is used by visitors to keep such things in as are not admitted into 
the mosque, and also to store water, etc., for ablutions before prayers. 

{k) The massive flight of steps was repaired where it had been damaged. 

(/) Immediately at the back of the frmsjid there was a large sink in the ground 
where rain-water used to accimiulate. This pool of water being close to 
the foimdations of the building was probably responsible for the movement 
in the back wall, which had to be dismantled and rebuilt. As a protective 
measure against similar danger hereafter, the depression was filled and a 
sloping bank of earth was provided at the back of the foundations of the 
plinth so as to drain away all rain-water to a distance from the monument. 

(i») A few unsightly platforms on both sides of the entrance to the mosque were 
slightly repaired so as to make them neat and tidy. 

** IX. Khokhai Mona^ery at Ranod {District Xantar). — This monument bears 
m long Sanskrit inscription from which it is seen that it is a matha or monastic residence 
of Saiva monks originally built in the 9th centur}% and extended about a century later. 
It is a two-storeved edifice built with heaw blocks of stone laid without anv kind of 
mortar. The roof is made up of huge stone slabs also laid dry. The three-storeyed 
tower which shelters the stair-case at the north-west comer of the main building, is 
covered by a single slab measuring about 14 feet long by 14 feet wide by 8 inches thick, 
which excites admiration for the builders as such an achievement is not easv even with 
the use of modem mechanical appliances. The monument is famous in the locality for 
its unconmionly massive architecture, and has in modem times become a religious centre, 
the central hall of the monastery being at present used as a temple to a goddess and a 
re%ious fair being held on the eleventh lunar day of every fortnight. It is thus a monu- 
ment of importance both to the Archieological Department and to the Religious Aucaph 
Conmiittee. and the two departments have therefore agreed to repair it with joint 
funds. 

** As the necessarv sanction to the revised estimate for the work was received in this 
office late^ the work was only nominally begun this year. Details are therefore 
reserved for next year's report.*' 

In the note sent to me by Mr. Kak, State Superintendent of Archseology in Kashmir, 
it is wcoided that the conjMvation of the Bandi Temple, commonly known as Dhatka- 
fmamdir^ or *" the ruined temple '\ which was taken in hand in 1920-21. has now been 
almcist completed. '* All that i^emains to be done '\ Mr. Kak writes. ** is to clear the site 
and carry out a few minor repairs by way of improving the appearance of the buildings." 
The temple at Fandrethan. as is well known, stands at present in the middle of a marsh 
which not cmly prevents access to the monument for a great part of the year, but also 
floods the cella. Mr. Kak reports that to remove this defect a drfun is under construction 
which it is hoped to complete before the end of the financial year. 

SSCnONIL 

EXCAVATION AND EXPLORATION, 

In tlie Xorth^n Ciitle excavations were carried out bv Mr. Dava Bam Sahni at 
three diffsKAt places, naniehp at Sainath and at Ko^^ in the United Provinces, and at 



43 EXPLORATION. 

Kunikshetra in the Punjab. The operations at Samath \a hich entailed a total outlay Samath. 
of Rs. 8,114-13-4 including the cost of conservation works, were of a comprehensive 
character and resulted in useful additions being made to our knowledge of the history of 
these remains. The biggest item of the year's work was the final clearance of large 
unexcavated portions of the extensive open court attached to the Main Shrine [Plate 
XX (a)] the real character of which was ascertaind in the year 1919-20. This court-yard 
measures two hundred and seventy-one feet in length from east to west and a hundred 
and twelve in width. The boundary wall, which is constructed mostly with brick-bats 
of the Gupta period obtained from ruined buildings on the site, is in a very dilapidated 
condition and the greater part of it on the north and south sides has disappeared. The 
structures brought to light in this court during the recent and previous excavations are 
varied in character, and belong to different periods. Some of them situated in the 
western portion of the court will be found illustrated in Sir John Marshall's Annual 
Report for the years 1906-07 and 1907-08, while a group of remarkably well pre- 
served stupas built in stone which was brought to light in 1919-20 is figured in the 
Annual Report for that year. The remains laid bare during the operations of 1921- 
22 are, as was to be expected, for the most part stupas in the usual design and 
material. ** The most striking of these", Mr. Sahni says, " are two long rows rim- 
ning parallel to each other and built upon a common platform in the northern 
portion of the court. Some of these have niches meant for the reception of images, 
all of which have disappeared with the exception of a single pedestal bearing the feet 
of a goddess which has survived in stupa No. 90. Two masonry platforms also occur 
along the southern wall of the enclosure, but they have lost most of the structures 
which they originally supported. A noteworthy feature of this enclosure is a raised 
causeway which ran along its centre and which has survived for a length of 164 feet. 
It rests upon the original paved approach which stretches from the flight of steps by 
which the court was entered up to the eastern entrance to the Main Shrine, and was 
manifestly constructed at the latest period in the history of the Deer Park, when water 
collected in the courtyard and made access to the Main Shrine inconvenient. 

** The most interesting structure brought to light inside this enclosure during the 
operations of the year 1921-22 is a fascinating stupa plinth (No. 136) built entirely in 
brick and faced with elegant carvings which in beauty of decorative detail far excel 
any other structure yet brought to light at Samath. The plinth is 8'-6'' square and 
4'-7'' high excluding smaller square plinths which project from the comers of the central 
structure. The stupa itself which rested on this plinth has entirely perished. At the 
time of its discovery, the structure lay hidden under a terraced floor which was removed. 
Some of the carvings including panels, niches, pilasters and brackets which beautify the 
several faces of the structure are illustrated in Plate XX (6). They are in typical Gupta 
style and display a variety of motifs remarkable in so small a structure. Yet with all 
this decoration there is no lack of symmetry or appearance of overcrowding. The 
niches which occur in the middle of each face must have contained Buddhist images, 
but none of these were found. 

"The floor that originally surrounded this stupa is solidly constructed in lime and 
brick concrete which has suffered little deterioration during the many centuries that 
have elapsed since it was first made. It occurs at a depth of only l'-3'' below the later 
floor level of the enclosure, and shows how small was the accumulation of debris on this 



BXPLORATION. 44 

SofnaA. part of the site between the Gupta and the mediaeval periods to which the majority of the 

structures inside the courtyard belong. 

" Close to the stupa plinth (No. 136) was foimd a somewhat later chapel (No. 137) 
37 ft. in length and 27' — 10"' wide containing two standing Buddha images with broken 
heads and bases, which were lying face downwards near the entrance. Worthy of 
note also is a plastered brick-lined reservoir or kunda with sloping sides about seven 
feet square and five feet in depth, which came to light on the outside of this court 
adjacent to the flight of steps. Such tanks are sometimes met with on ancient Buddhist 
sites as for example in some of the monasteries imearthed at Kasia. They would appear 
to have been kept filled with water with which monks and nuns could purify their 
hands and feet before entering the sacred precinct, more especially on occasions of the 
uposatha ceremony. 

" An important outcome of the last year's work in this area was the discovery of a 
well built drain 1'— O"' to 2'— 7'' in width and three feet in depth which carried oflE rain water 
from this court. It is composed of brick-bats and covered with hammer dressed stone 
slabs including architectural stones of sorts, such as fragments of lintels, posts of railings, 
umbrella tops and the like. It starts from the north-east comer of the courtyard and 
has been completely exposed for the whole of its length which measures two hundred and 
fifty-nine feet. At the distance of two hundred and forty-two feet from the starting point 
the drain nms imdemeath the foundation of the second gateway of the Monastery No. 1 , 
thus showing that the latter building must be a good deal posterior to the Main Shrine. 

" Only a few inscriptions were foimd inside the enclosure. They are short dedicatory 
records of no special interest and will be found referred to in the epigraphical resum6 
published in this report. Among sculptures found in the same area, special mention 
may be made of a pot-bellied figure carved on a brick tile ; a female chauri-bearer 
without head and feet, carved in the round [Plate XXI (6)] which might be a yakshi, an 
incomplete image of Tara with the Dhyanibuddha Amoghasiddhi in her head-dress, an 
inscribed headless image of Buddha seated in vydkhhydna-mudrd , a figure of Brahma 
which must have been installed in one of the Buddhist shrines after the abandonment 
of the site by the Buddhists, and the head of an image of Avalokitesvara [Plate XXI (a)]. 

" Among the buildings brought to light in other parts of the site, there is one which 
deserves special mention. It was disclosed to the east of the spot where the excava- 
tions of 1908 had revealed a set of railing posts of the Sunga period and proves to be 
a shrine of the late Gupta period containing a narrow rectangular chamber with entrances 
on the east and west sides. Both the entrances were provided with stone doors of which 
the jambs only have survived. In front of the eastern entrance and to the north and 
south of the shrine, my excavations laid bare pedestals of images once protected 
with stone imibrellas. One of these pedestals bears an inscription in Gupta characters 
stating that the image to which it belonged was the gift of a Buddhist monk named 
Nanala. The shrine was restored at some later date which is approximately determined 
by a terra-cotta tablet inscribed in characters of the 8th or 9th century A.D., foimd 
near the floor on the north side. The interior of the shrine yielded nothing except a 
curiously shaped kunda in the floor, which to judge by the heaps of ashes in front of 
the entrance may have been an agni-kunda erected by the adherents of the Brahmanical 
faith in the late mediaeval period.'' 



45 EXPLORATION. 

During his stay at Samath for the operations detailed above, Mr. Sahni took the 
opportunity of re-examining the generally accepted view as to the nature of the building 
designated Monastery No. I. He arrives at the conclusion that it cannot have been a 
monastery at all, first because its plan is entirely different from that of other monasteries 
which are invariably chatuhsdla, whereas this building is quite open on one side ; second- 
ly, because the structural arrangement is such as to afford little room for actual residen- 
tial cells ; thirdly because no other monastery known to us is preceded by such extensive 
courts with massive gateways as occur in this building ; and fourthly, because builders of 
monasteries seldom lavished so much ornament on their work as this edifice displays, 
Mr. Sahni infers, therefore, that this building was a temple, and suggests that it was the 
one which Kimiaradevi, the Buddhist queen of King Govindachandra of Kanauj erected 
at Samath. The construction of this temple under the name of ' Dharmachakrajinavihara' 
is mentioned in the stone inscription of Kimiaradevi found to the south of the 
second gateway of this building, but which might well have been fixed in the gateway 
itself. The building so far designated as monastery I on account of its decoration and 
boldness of design fully accords with the high sounding description of the vihdra built 
by Kimiaradevi which was " an ornament to the earth " and " like to the palaces of 
the gods.'' It is true that none of the images that were presumably installed in this 
temple by Kumaradevi, have so far been found, but as Mr. Sahni says, '' much weight 
ought not to be attached to negative evidence of this kind." 

As indicated above in the section relating to conservation, the main object of the Kosam. 
little excavation carried out at Kosam, District Allahabad, was to ascertain the condi- 
tion of the ancient pillar that stood half buried in the ancient ruined city at that place 
and which it is proposed to re-erect in a vertical position. A small area one hundred 
feet square was acquired around the pillar and excavated by Mr. Daya Ram Sahni, 
as far as the exigencies of the case would permit. The data obtained by him about 
the pillar itself have already been described {vide page 9 above). The only spot where 
it was possible to penetrate to the original level was immediately to the north of the 
column, but as this portion had already been opened by Mr. Nesbitt in the year 1870, no 
fresh objects of the earliest period were found, though it is manifest that some of the 
terracottas to be referred to presently must have been left here by him. The rest of the 
acquired area could only be examined to a depth of a few feet below the present ground 
level, as it was necessary to leave hard, undisturbed ground round about the pillar for 
setting the tackle necessary for hoisting it. It will be understood, therefore, that the 
remains uncovered during the year are relatively late as compared with the pillar itself, 
but among these remains two strata are clearly distinguishable one at a depth of 5 J ft. 
and the other of 9 ft. below the surface. The only well preserved structure is a well 
5'-y in diameter, its steaning wall being only one brick thick and composed of 
wedge-shaped bricks. The other remains comprise portions of rooms, which yield no 
regular plan, and — on the northern side — a brick built drain, fifteen feet in length. 

The minor antiquities found by Mr. Sahni in this excavation consist mostly of 
terracotta objects, earthen vessels, earthen weights and a few stone objects. * * In fabric 
and workmanship these objects resemble the antiquities unearthed by Sir John 
Marshall at Bhita. The following are typical examples : — 

(1) Terracotta tablet (height Sj"; width 2^'') representing a female figure standing 
facing with her right arm hanging down, while her left hand rests on the 



EXPLORATION. 46 

hip. She wears the usual dhoti, a short bodice, and several ornaments. 
A similar relief was found at Bhita (see the Director General's Annual 
Report Part II for 1911-12, Plate XXII, No. 18). 

(2) Terracotta toy cart similar to those foimd at Bhita and other sites. 

(3) Bust of a male figure with hands clasped before the breast the whole moimt- 

ed on wheels in the form of a tricycle. Sunga period. 

(4) A dwarfish male figure (ht. 5^") in good preservation ; wears a high conical 

head dress, a cord over the left shoulder in the manner of a yajnopavita, a 
necklace, girdle and other ornaments. As is usual with objects of this 
kind the figure was cast in halves which were afterwards joined together. 

(5) Base of a terracotta figure (width 6^) on which only the right foot of the 

image remains with the head of a buffalo lying flat on the top of the base. 
The fragment may have belonged to a representation of Durga slaying 
the buffalo demon, but this is a mere conjecture. Gupta period. 

(6) A coarsely made male figure seated on a stool (ht. 5^") of which the head and 

feet are missing. Coarse buff clay, without slip or colour. Gupta period. 

(7) A well fashioned terracotta monkey (ht. 4^") wearing a conical cap and hold- 

ing a round object in its hands. 

(8) Bust of a female figure (ht. 5^'') wearing heavy earrings and necklace. Gupta 

period. 

(9) Lower half of a steatite box with a flat base (ht. 1 J"). 

(10) Oval shaped steatite bowl, 2^" by 2" at the mouth, with two holes cut in 

the sides which suggest that it is a pan of a weighing scale. 

(11) Stone figure without head and feet, probably a yaksha. Plate XXI." 

These excavations did not yield any inscriptions but in the neighbouring villages 
Mr. Sahni succeeded in discovering a number of valuable epigraphs, the contents of 
which will be found simimarised in the Epigraphical Section of this report. Here, 
I need only notice that the Nagari inscription (page 120 below) of the year Sam vat 1246 
confirms General Cunningham's identification of Kosam with the ancient city of 
Kausambi. 

Kurukshetra. The third excavation which Mr. Sahni carried out this year was on the site of 

Kurukshetra, the scene of the Great War fought between the Kauravas and the Panda vas 
and now a celebrated place of Hindu pilgrimage. * ' The ancient history of Kurukshetra, 
as far as it is known from literary and other sources, is given in detail in General 
Cunningham's Archaeological Survey Reports, Vols. II and XIV, and in his Ancient 
Geography of India. The earliest references to this holy land are to be found in the 
Satapatha and the Aitareya Brahmanas which go back to a period long before the com- 
position of the Mahabharata. It is also frequently alluded to in the Buddhist Jatakas, 
the most prominent reference to it being in the Mahasutasoma-jataka. 

*' In the Bhagavadgita," says Mr. Sahni, " the region of Kurukshetra is designat- 
ed Dharmakshetra while in Manu's Dharmasastra it appears as Brahma varta and in the 



47 BXFLOBATION. 

Mahabharata as Samantapanchaka. All these works unanimously define it as the area Kurukshetra. 
lying between the rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati. The former river, though dry 
for the greater part of the year, is well known. The latter is identified by General 
Cunningham with a stream now called Rakshasi, while Smith recognizes it in the Ghaggar. 
General Cunningham's view appears more plausible as, according to the great epic named 
above, the Sarasvati flowed to the north of the land of the Kurus. The Mahatmyas 
of Kurukshetra contain long lists of tirthas and places connected with the great war. 
According to popular belief there are fully 360 such sites within the circuit of Kuruk- 
shetra, some of which do actually contain high mounds and brick ruins. When the 
Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Thsang visited Sthanvisvara in A. D. 634 he found here only 
three Buddhist monasteries containing 700 monks while the Brahmanical temples 
nimibered 100. About a mile to the north-west of the town he also saw a brick stupa 
of Asoka 200 ft. in height, which was said to contain a portion of the Buddha's 
relics. 

** None of these mounds have yet been explored and it is impossible to say whether 
they contain any relics of such high antiquity as is claimed for the Mahabharata War. 
A careful preliminary survey of these remains is urgently needed. The most promi- 
nent of the sites are the lofty eminence of Amin, situated about six miles south-east of 
Thanesar, the Theh Polar mound on the Sarasvati, seven miles north-west of Kaithal, 
one or two mounds in the neighbourhood of Thanesar, which General Cimningham 
proposed to identify as the stuya of Asoka, the Visvamitra-ka-tila at Pehoa, and the 
mound known as Raja Kam ka Kila distant two miles from the town of Thanesar. 
The large tlla at Amin is said to represent the remains of the Chakravyuha castle which 
was constructed with seven miraculous gates by Dronacharya when he was in command 
of the Kaurava forces from the 11th to the 15th day of the great battle, and it was here 
that Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna was slain by Jayadratha, the brother-in-law of 
Duryodhana. Although no excavations have ever been carried out at Amin two inscrib- 
ed stone pillars have been turned up here by the peasants and are now lying in the shrine 
of Thakurji on the west bank of the tank known as Surajkund. They are carved on all 
four sides and have no sockets for cross bars. They would thus appear to have sup- 
ported some sort of a platform. The inscriptions on them are in characters of the 
Kushan period, but are quite short and merely supply the names of their donors. The 
mound near Siwan which is explained by the people as a contraction of Sitaban or 
Sivaban, the forest home of Sita or Siva, is stated to be the site of a very ancient village 
destroyed before the war of the Mahabharata. Very ancient coins are said to have been 
foimd in this mound but no record of them is traceable. Pehoa (ancient Prithudaka) 
where a great bathing fair is held in March or April every year, has yielded two important 
inscriptions of the time of the kings Bhoja and Mahendrapala of Kanauj, and one may 
also see fragments of mediaeval sculptures lying about this village. The mound known 
as Visvamitra ka Tila situated about a mile above Pehoa on the bank of the Sarasvati 
is a fairly large eminence, which contains the ruins of a mediaeval temple partly con- 
structed in stone. The sculptured stone doorway now employed in the shrine of Saras- 
vati at Pehoa originally formed part of this temple and the threshold and a few other 
slabs are still lying on the mound. Half a mile higher up the bank of the stream stood 
another temple, which, to judge from the existing portion of its doorway, must have been 
dedicated to Vishnu. The site is now occupied by a modem temple with a subterranean 
chamber. General Cunningham obtained at Pehoa some excellent terracotta reliefs 
and he also mentions bricks of large size." 



EXPLORATION. 48 

Kurukiheka. The mound that was selected by Mr. Sahni for tentative exploration during the past 

year is the one known as Raja Kam ka Kila and situated upwards of a mile to the 
south-west of the holy tank at Thanesar. * * It is 500 ft. square at top and about 800 feet 
square at the base with a height of 30 to 40 feet. By the side of the moimd on the 
west is a large bdoli of the Muhammadan period, and to the same period must be assign- 
ed a large dry well, 13 ft. in diameter and 53 feet deep, sunk into the summit of the 
mound. The only other remains on the mound are a platform and two separate dwellings 
in lakhauri bricks which are said to have been constructed about fifty years ago. The 
mound was covered with densely growing brushwood and when it was being cleared, 
several minor antiquities were picked up on the surface. They consist of ancient pottery, 
copper coins, terracotta figurines and pieces of glazed pottery of the Mughal period. 
Among the terracotta objects is a small mould (height 2" ; width 2") which was used 
for the making of metal images of the goddess Sri. The back half of the mould was not 
foimd. The goddess is seated on a full blown lotus with a flower in her right 
hand. The elephants standing on both sides are pouring water over her. The image 
dates from the early mediaeval period. Another terracotta object is a well-preserved 
male figure (height 3f "') without any clothing and portrayed, presumably in the act 
of dancing. 

*' Seven different trenches " writes Mr. Sahni, " designated below as A to G were 
sunk in this mound. Those lettered A and E are near the dry well referred to above 
and revealed a wall more than 40 feet in length and composed of brickbats obtained 
from the site. The trenches B and C [Plate XXII (a)] embraced an area 124 feet by 
70 feet at the eastern end of the mound. Several feet of earth and other d6bris had 
to be shifted before the operations reached brick remains. The latter are mere frag- 
ments of what appear to be temporal buildings and they occur on three different levels. 
The uppermost stratum contains a fairly large house, part of which is built in sun- 
dried mud bricks and the rest in burnt bricks measuring 14^''X Q^XS" which appears 
to be the size of all bricks so far noticed at this mound. The northern portion of the 
house includes parts of half a dozen rooms, the partition walls being only one brick 
thick. These rooms are so small that it is difficult to conceive for what purpose they 
were intended. The portion built in imbumt brick appears to be a large hall 35 ft. 
in length by 1 6 ft. in width. The greater part of this room was filled with earthen bowls 
containing ashes lying face downwards which appear to have been funerary urns. 
Several small objects were found in this building. One of them is the lower half of a 
terracotta relief (height 2f'', width 2^"). It represents the lower portions of a man and a 
woman standing side by side, the woman occupying, as usual, the left position. Both 
of them wear loin cloths. The upper portion of the tablet was not found and it is 
difficult to say what the figures represent. We may next notice a votive terracotta 
tank of which five pieces were recovered (No. 609) similar to those found at Taxila and 
other sites. Each comer of the tank contained a figure of a musician elevated on a 
platfoi:m. Of the musicians one is playing on a pair of cymbals, while two others are 
playing on a flute and a tabor respectively. The fourth was a female but the musical 
instrument on which she played is not certain. 

" The next stratum in this trench is some three feet lower than the portion described 
above, while the earliest structure which has been brought to light on the eastern slope 
of the mound is a room 24 ft. in length by 8'-5" in width. The walls which are standing 
to a height of about three feet are composed of a single thickness of bricks of the same 



49 EXPLORATION. 

size as those mentioned above. The interior of this room was cleared and yielded a Kurukshetfa. 
small iron bell and a ladle and a tiny earthen bottle (No. 549) for antimony. 

''Among the minor objects found in the middle stratum alluded to above Jis a round 
stone ball (diameter If ; No. 509) which would appear to have been used as a weight. 
The ball has been rubbed on one side and now weighs about 7 tolas. It bears, sketched 
on it, a number of sacred symbols, including a pair of fish joined by a piece of string, 
a svdstika, a nandipada similar to the symbol which begins the Kharavela inscription, 
a rectangle with diagonals, a device consisting of two triangles joined at the apex, a 
circle, a three-pointed star and what appears to be a svastika without the fourth arm. 
The exact purpose of these symbols is not known. 

" Trench D [Plate XXII (6)] is cut in the southern slope of the mound and yielded 
portions of two separate rooms at the depth of seven to nine feet. The larger of 
these two structures is 29'-6'' long by T-Q" in width. These walls are constructed in 
the same style and their bricks are of the same dimensions as those unearthed in Trenches 
B. & C. Both these structures and another ruin which occurs a little lower down the 
slope have still to be followed up ; at present it is difficult to say anything about their 
design or purpose. The smaller antiquities unearthed in this area include a flesh rubber 
(No. 177), a terracotta reel (No. 456), a mould in the same material for printing cloth 
(No. 454) and a human head (No. 112). 

" Trench F was only 95 ft. in length and 15 ft. wide. The only structure brought 
to light here is a wall 1 8 ft. in height. It is composed of the same kind of bricks but has 
a superior bond as the width consists of a stretcher and a header instead of a single 
width. 

" Trench G covered an area just 50 ft. square and revealed part of an enclosure 
27': — 6"' in width, only one comer of which is preserved. Outside this building there is 
a small chamber constructed of sim-dried bricks. The following are some of the minor 
objects recovered in this plot : — 

(1) Bronze object flattened at the lower end and decorated with two plain raised 

bands and a row of leaf patterns. [From the photo, {vide Plate XL, 
Fig. a) it appears to be a late derivative of a * celt ' with crescentic edge. 
J. H. M.] 

(2) Earthen chdti (ht. 1' l^"') with broad mouth and round body ; plain save 

for a line of devices representing the wheel and the trident. At the time 
of its excavation the vessel was filled with charred or rotted wheat. 

(3) Earthen pitcher of the usual shape (ht. 11'') ornamented round the shoulder 

[Plate XXI (c)]. This vessel also contained charred wheat. 

(4) Earthen jug with a spout (No. 555). 

(5) Double inkpot (No. 517). 

(6) Hollow rattling terracotta flesh-rubber (No. 436). 

(7) Fragment of terracotta votive dish (No. 399). Similar to No. 609 described 

on page 48." 



EXPLORATION. 



50 



Almora. 



Chaun Kotili. 



Devidhura. 



Katdrmal. 



During the past year Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni performed an interesting 
journey through the Ahnora District on which he reports as follows. " This district is very 
rich in archaeological remains, but had received little or no attention up to the year 1913 
when Mr. Hargreaves inspected and prepared detailed conservation notes on the temples 
at D warahat and Jagesvar situated at distances of 29 and 1 6 miles respectively from the 
town of Almora. The main object of my tour was to make a search for and report 
on a certain monolithic rock-cut temple about the existence of which somewhere in the 
northern part of the district Mr. Hargreaves had been informed during his stay at Almora, 
but which he had no time to inspect. Owing to the prevalence of a severe epidemic of 
cholera in the villages, T had to abandon my enquiries about this temple, but in the 
course of a fifteen days' journey across the district, I inspected a number of other 
monuments which lay directly on my route. These are D warahat, Chaun Kotili between 
it and Almora, Katarmal six miles from Almora, Devidhura, famous for a temple of 
Varahidev' , Kheti Khan about 42 miles east of Almora, and Champa vat. None of these 
places are mentioned in General Cunningham's Archaeological Survey Reports, and 
Dr. Fiihrer's List of Monumental Antiquities in the North- Western Provinces and 
Oudh only contains a list of copper-plate inscriptions he examined at Champa vat 
and in villages around it. 

** Chaim Kotili is the name of a small hamlet on the Almora-Banskhera road. Near 
the village, immediately on the road, is a group of three well preserved siMara temples, 
two of which face eastward and the third in the opposite direction. None of them 
contain any images. One of these temples bears a short Nagari inscription in which 
only the name Sivabhata is decipherable. 

** Devidhura is a station on the road from Almora to Champa vat distant twenty-nine 
miles from the former. Here there is a well-known temple dedicated to the goddess 
Varahi at which a fair is held in June and July when goats are sacrificed in honour of 
the goddess. This temple is quite modern, but not far from it there is a small shrine 
constructed with dressed stones which is locally attributed to Jagachchandra, a Raja of 
Kumaon. The shrine is only 4' 3" square externally with a ceiling built in the usual 
Hindu style. The spire which originally crowned the structure has disappeared, but 
inside it there is an image of Siva and Parvati and another image of Mahishasuramardini. 
It is in honour of this latter image that buffaloes are every year sacrificed on a paved 
platform in front of the shrine. 

" Katarmal is the name of a small village about 6 miles to the north of the town of 
Almora and is situated on the summit of a lofty hill on the right bank of the Kosi river. 
The pathway that leads up to this village is rugged and steep and starts from a point 
about the end of the 8th mile from Almora on the Almora-Ranikhet cart-road. On a 
clear day the temple is visible from the town of Almora, only a part of it remaining 
hidden behind two large pipal trees growing in the compound. The temple was inspect- 
ed by Mr. Hargreaves on the 24th June 1915, but does not appear to have been described 
anywhere. The temple is in the charge of certain private Kdrindas or agents, who have 
refused to enter into an agreement for the maintenance of the monuments. This temple 
is locally known as the Bara Adit or the Sun God. Though comparatively late in date 
it is remarkable for more than one reason. The main temple stands at the west end of 
a large paved enclosure (Photo. No. 2841) measuring 160 feet from north to south, by 
about 100 feet from east to west, the rest of the area being occupied by some fifty subsi- 
diary shrines. The surrounding wall of the compound, if any ever existed, must have 



51 EXPLORATION. 

disappeared long ago, and the sides of the enclosure are now protected by rubble-bnilt Katarmal. 
retaining walls. The main temple which stands on a raised platform originally consisted 
of a large cella measuring 12' 6" square internally and about 24' 6" along each side on 
the outside, with a projecting portico on the east. The spire or sikhara must, at one 
time, have been an imposing structure, but its upper portion has now fallen in and the 
central faces on the north and south sides have bulged out under pressure of the heavy 
superstructure. The ceiling consists of horizontal slabs supported on two massive 
beams of stone, laid in the style of the modern wooden roof. This is also the type found 
in some of the temples at Champa vat. The image of the Sun, which must originally 
have rested on the stone-built platform in the centre of the sanctum, is now lost ; but a 
smaller two-armed seated statue of the deity, manifestly of the same date as the temple, 
is still lying in the portico. The entrance to the cella is provided with a profusely carved 
wooden door consisting of two leaves with a strong iron chain and loop. Two pairs of 
iron rings are also provided to serve as handles inclosing and opening the door. The 
carvings on both halves of the door are arranged in four panels. The subjects delineated 
on the left leaf, from top downwards are (a) Siva and Parvati, (6) Mahadeva dancing 
on a prostrate female and attended by a male drummer to his right and an animal- bodied 
figure to his left ; (c) a medallion containing a klrtimukha with a leogryph on either side, 
and (d) Narayana and Sri standing side by side under a dome. The other leaf contains 
in the same order ; (a) Vishnu and Sri (6) Mahadeva and Parvati, (c) as on the other 
half, (d) Brahma and Sarasvati. The raised framework of these panels depicts devas 
playing on pairs of flutes (still in use in the district), Nrisimha, etc. The mandapais a 
later addition, but when it was added is not known. Originally it must have had a flat 
roof of stone slabs supported on beams of the same material, as is the case in another 
temple of the Sun at Kheti Khan situated at mile 42 on the Almora to Champa vat road. 
The present roof is an ugly restoration. The northern portion of this hall contains a 
pair of wooden pillars each 1' 6" square in section and 5' 10" high. Late as these pillars 
are, their carvings call to mind some of the finest Gupta work at Sarnath and other 
places. The standing male figure on the left-hand pillar, which wears a conical head- 
dress and a short sword on the left side, appears to be the god Sun. The mandapa also 
contains a large number of stone sculptures of no special interest. There is, however, 
one sculpture which deserves more than a passing notice. It is an image in ashtadhdtu, 
i.e. , the alloy of eight metals, 4' 6" in height which like a similar image in the Jagesvar 
Temple at Jagesvar, district Almora, is supposed to represent a certain Paun Raja. The 
image is fashioned as a Kshatriya prince, with the usual tuft on the skull and clothed in a 
short dhoti and a scarf thrown over the left shoulder and across the chest. His right hand 
is raised to the chest and holds the stem of a lotus flower. In the Jammu hills, portraits 
of donors of religious places are sometimes placed in front of the deity. The Paun 
Raja at Katarmal might thus be the builder of this temple. 

The subsidiary temples are small sikhara shrines each consisting, as usual, of a small 
square cella with a portico on two pillars. The ceilings are constructed either on the 
square within the square design, or of flat horizontal slabs. The lintels have generally 
the figure of Ganapati and the jambs figures of the river goddesses. Most of these 
shrines contain pedestals suited to Vishnu images. The smaller temples are generally 
well preserved and some inexpensive repairs would prevent decay for many years to 
come. The principal temple requires larger measures of preservation, and it is much to 
be regretted that the adverse attitude of the so-called owners should prevent Govern- 
ment from carrying out the repairs which are urgently needed. 



EXPLORATION. 62 

Kheti Khan. '' Kheti Khan is a small hamlet situated at the end of mile 42 on the Almora-Champa- 

vat road, which is noted for its Normal and Middle schools. At this point the road 
from Almora to Lohaghat takes off from the Champa vat road, and about a furlong from 
the division of the roads, there is a plateau crowned with a temple built in the same style 
as the one at Katarmal, like which it faces the rising sun and must have been dedicated 
to that deity. The cella which is preceded by a fnandajHiy ten feet square internally 
is a small chamber five feet square on the inside. The front face of the sikhara has fallen 
down and the blocks are lying in the hollow chamber within it. The mandapa which 
had a flat ceiling, similar to that at Katarmal, was supported on three pairs of plain 
square pillars. The greater part of the roof and the two pillars in the front have fallen 
down, but the material is still lying near the temple and can easily be restored. The 
sanctum must have contained several images of the Sun-god of which no complete 
statue has survived. The largest fragment is a base 1' 9" in height including the tenon 
by which it was mortised into the dsana ; this apparently belonged to the principal 
image. Of the god only the right leg and left foot have remained with a well- 
preserved deformed figure of Aruna standing to the right. On the front of the base are 
carved four horses with the solar orb between them. 

** The only other monument near Kheti Khan is a covered spring or nauld about a 
furlong below the plateau referred to. As is usual with springs in the Chamba and 
other hill States, the one at Kheti Khan is also adorned with a figure of Seshctsdyi 
Vishnu. 

"I did not find any inscriptions on either of the two monuments referred to 
but was shown an inscribed copper plate by a Brahman of niauza Tapnipal distant 
two miles from Kheti Khan. The epigraph is dated on Monday the Atmvasdyd tithi of 
Vaisakha in the year Samvat 1469, Saka 1334 (A. D. 1412) in the reign of King Gyan 
Chand. It does not record the foundation of the temple described above or of any 
other temple, but, the temple at Kheti Khan is so nearly coeval with the record that a 
reference to the document here is not considered out of place. 

Champdvat. ** Champa vat is a small village lying at an elevation of 5,545 ft. above sea level 

fifty-four miles south-east of Almora. It was the headquarters of the Rajas of Kimiaon 
before they transferred their seat to Almora in the middle of the sixteenth century. 
These princes belonged to the Chand dynasty of which no complete genealogy has as 
yet been found. Dr. Fiihrer, however, gives in his Monumental Antiquities of the 
N.-W. P. & Oudh, pp. 48-49, a list of title deeds engraved on copper plates, etc., in the 
possession of the people of the villages near Champa vat. They range in date from the 
Saka year 1293 to 1727 and give the names of the ruling princes. The earliest of these 
rulers so far known was Abhayachandra whose name occurs in inscriptions engraved on 
two pillars labelled as a Virastambha and a Kirtistambha, respectively, standing in the 
enclosure around the Balisvara temple. These inscriptions are dated in the Saka year 
1293 (A. D. 1371). None of these documents unfortunately supply any information 
about the temples to be described below, but the style of workmanship displayed on 
them appears to assign them approximately to the fourteenth century A. D. These 
monuments which are situated immediately below the town are constructed, with one 
or two exceptions, in the same uniform style. They are the temples of Balisvara men- 
tioned above with a few subordinate shrines, a ruined pavilion now known as Kotval ka 
Chautara and two naulds or covered springs. A local tradition attributes the erection 
of the Balisvara temple to Bali, the brother of Sugriva, the monkey comrade of Rama. 



EXPLORATION. 54 

ChampSvat. preceded by a somewhat smaller portico. The doorway is profusely sculptured and 

supports a frieze of the nine planets with a row of musicians above it. The decoration 
on the outside consists of representations of the three principal gods on the different faces, 
a well-executed band of ornament about half-way up the wall, and a frieze of lions and 
elephants near the base now hidden under debris. 

" The fifth temple of the group, which stands between the eastern half of the Balisvara 
Temple and that of Bhairava, is a re-erection of old material and should be allowed to 
stand as it is. It is attributed by the people to Kalika, but this must be a misnomer, 
as the original pedestal of a linga is extant. 

" Lastly, there is a small shrine situated to the south-east of the Ratnesvara Temple- 
It is a tiny structure consisting of a shrine and the usual portico. The lintel bears a 
figure of Ganapati while the relief above includes one of Mahadeva. The pedestal 
attached to the back wall shows that the shrine was dedicated to some aspect of the 
goddess Durga* 

" The naw/a or covered spring referred to above stands outside the temple enclosure 
on the south. It is a perennial spring protected with a stone-built reservoir with a 
rectangular domed chamber over it, manifestly of the same date as the temples described 
above. The outer walls of the structure, which are now partly hidden under debris, 
are plain, but there is a mass of ornamental carving on the interior which does not call 
for any special remarks. 

*' This was a fairly large stone-built pavilion which stood on a square platform nine- 
teen feet along each side and 2' 9" in height. In design, it closely resembled the exist- 
ing mandapa of the Balisvara Temple and was crowned with a circular dome with a tri- 
angular projection at each comer. Only three of the pillars are standing in their posi- 
tion, and one complete pillar and two capitals, together with the central ceiling slab, 
are lying close to the platform. The rest of the material has been carried away by the 
villagers. The terrace is adorned with mouldings on all sides and on the top of it we 
notice a chess pattern sketched on one of the slabs, which shows the fondness of the 
people for this game." 

Frontier Circle. Mr. Hargreaves reports that in connection with conservation at Jamalgarhi, con- 
Jamalgarhl. siderable clearance was undertaken which resulted in the disclosure of several interesting 

structures and the recovery of a number of valuable antiquities. As the Superintendent 
was detained at Jaulian until March, the operations were started on February 6th, 1922, 
under the superintendence of the Personal Assistant Khan Sahib Mian Wasi-ud-Din, 
who was assisted by the office Photographer, Babu Mul Chand. The plan of the site 
is published as Plate XXIII. Mr. Hargreaves writes : 

" The first building to be explored (No. 6 on Plate XXIII) was the one east of the 
main stupa. The exterior of this structure had been cleared the year before, when it had 
appeared that the building had had no entrance at groimd level. Clearance of the interior 
confirmed this opinion as it revealed nothing but rough foundation walls tightly packed 
with debris. In Crompton's plan this building is shown with an entrance to the south, 
but no such entrance exists at ground level, and it is certain that access to the structure 
was bv a ladder or removable stairwav. The north-east and north-west comers which 
had fallen were restored. No antiquities were recovered in this area during the 
operations. 



EXPLORATION. 56 

Jamalgarhi. waterpots will be found behind this building. There are traces at the south-east of the 

courtyard which seem to mark the former stupa. In this area were recovered 
Noe. 2 and 6 of the antiquities recorded below. 

*' South of Area 6, and across a well marked passage are two buildings in another 
courtyard. The one to the east (No. 46), tas two rooms, facing south, and there are 
remains of a broad exterior staircase in the west. 



" The second building (No. 46) immediately west of. the one described has also two 
rooms and a verandah facing south, and a staircase on the north. The structure is built 
over an earlier building, the windows of which appear to have been only 9" above floor 
level. One of these earlier windows is well preserved, and drawings of it have been 
made for record. West of this building is a low platform with a large sunk chatti. The 
stupa lies on the east of the courtyard. 

" South of Area 7 is another courtyard with two buildings. The smaller building 
(No. 47) has one room and verandah in the south, and must have had a second storey, 
access to which was, as usual, by way of an exterior staircase on the east. In the south 
wall of this room, which has a rough pavement of slate slabs, is a neat, well-preserved 
trefoil arch which must have contained an image. The second building (No. 49) lies to 
the west and has three rooms with a raised verandah on the south, under which is a small 
square opening. This building, unlike most of this part of the site, appears to have had 
no upper storey. Behind this building, i.e., to the north, is an enclosed courtyard with 
four sunk chaUiSy the upper edge of each surmoimted by a rim of fine diaper masonry. 

• 

'' The line of chattis runs parallel to the north wall of the building. At the north- 
east of the courtyard is a small pit 3^ ' deep lined with small diaper. [Plate XXT V (a)]. It 
has now no plaster facing, but it would appear to have been likewise a pit for storing 
water. Owing to the difficulty of procuring water on the site it was impossible to 
test whether it is now watertight. A stupa and small chapels seem to have existed 
formerly on the east. There are also rooms (No. 48) at the south-east and south-west 
comers of the courtyard, the former being built over a vaulted chamber. 

" This lies on the extreme south-west of the site and partial clearance has revealed 
a three-roomed building with verandah (No. 50), lying in a large courtyard. A staircase 
exists in the west, so the building was probably double storied. The stupa was on the 
south, but only traces of it exist. In the south-east comer of the revetment is a low- 
level vaulted chamber (No. 51). 

" East of Area 8 and south-west of the main stupa is an enclosure with a three 
roomed structure (No. 35) having a raised verandah in the south. In front of the verandah 
are five recesses with flat lintels. The windows are only 15" above the present floor level. 
In the north of the building are two sunk chattis and a rectansrular pit of diaper masonry 
4' X 3' and 4' deep. The stupa was probably in the west of the courtyard. 

" Clearance around certain ruined stupas lying outside and to the south of the site 
resulted in the discovery of many sculptures and reliefs of great importance. These 
are described in detail below. Nos. 1, 9 and 10 present features of uncommon interest. 
In one of the small stupas the earthen cinerary urn was discovered firmly embedded 
in the masonry and, as it was empty, it has been left in situ. 



57 EXPLORATION. 

" The results of the operations have been most satisfactory. Not only have many Jamalgarhi. 
valuable sculptures been recovered but clearance has revealed a new form of monastic 
establishment. At Jamalgarhi is found no monastery of the usual form with cells 
arranged roimd a central square courtyard, but in its place a series of small monastic 
buildings, each in its own courtyard, and having its own little stupa. The common 
refectory (No. 11) and the Conference Hall (No. 10) lie south-east of the main stupa 
and quite separate from any of the numerous small monastic buildings, which are such 
a special feature of the site. 

" The circular procession path between the main stupa and the surrounding 
chapels was originally paved with large slabs of dark blue slate, but since its excavation 
in 1873 the villagers have removed the greater part of this useful material.* Neverthe- 
less, here and there on the southern side and at the top of the stairway traces of this 
pavement remain. Sir Aurel Stein in 1912 removed a small inscribed slab to Peshawar. 
These slabs show a large number of shallow circular depressions as, indeed, does also 
the inscribed fragment referred to above. The number and uniformity of these holes 
(dia. 1", depth 3-16" to J") excited curiosity, but their purpose remained an enigma 
until this year's clearance provided the solution. These depressions murk the spots from 
which have fallen ancient coins formerly inset in the pave^nent. 

" One fragment has been recovered still containing a copper coin of Vasudeva. f 
That a large number of coins must have been inset is plain from the fact that one slab 
alone contains 24 of these depressions. 

" The practice of insetting coins in the pavements of shrines still exists and at the 
Sikh shrine of the Panja Sahib at Hassan Abdal (the tank of the Naga Elapatra) both 
English gold coins and rupees are fixed in the marble flooring, and the modem Visesvara 
temple at Benares, the Minakshi temple at Madura and the Rameswar temple at Ram- 
eshwaram are similarly adorned. The Jamalgarhi pavement carries the practice back 
with certainty to the second century of our era, and it may well have been such an 
offering of coins which was made by that king of Swat of whom it is recorded " Dans 

le pays du Swat il y avait un roi une fois il rencontra un stupa et lui fit une 

offrande de cinq pieces de monnaieX ", for it is hardly probable that the stupa was opened 
to enable him to deposit his offering therein. There is of course, the further possibility 
that the five pieces were taken by the officiating monks. Be that as it may, the coin 
recovered gives proof of a special form of the cult of the stupa, and assists in dating 
the monument." 

Among the antiquities recovered at Jamalgarhi this season may be mentioned the 
following as being those of largest interest. The complete list of the finds is reserved 
for publication with the memoir which it is hoped Mr. Hargreaves will prepare on the 
completion of the work : — 

"1. Fragment of relief 9|" X 7|". In the centre the Bodhi tree the trunk of 
which springs from a raised, ornamented grass-strewn platform. Stand- 
ing on this platform and turning right is the tree goddess(?) (shown full 
length save for the feet) whose clasped hands almost touch the right hand 
of the Buddha, who is depicted seated in a6Aa?/a-mi/rfm on a grass strewn 
throne to the right of the tree. On the left of the Bodhi tree, Mara, his 
left arm leaning on the right shoulder of his daughter, whose face is turned 

♦ A. R., S. A. S., F. C, 1920-21, page 3. 

t Gardner PI. XXIX, 14. 

J Toucher Uarl greco-bouddhique du Gandhdra, T, /., p. 62, n. /. 



EXPLORATION. 58 

Janxcigarhi, towards him (Plate XXV6). The identification of Mara is determined by 

an attendant behind him who holds aloft in his left hand a makara 
standard. Except for the seated Buddha the arrangement is that of 
reliefs depicting the approach to the Bodhi Seat, but the action here 
is subsequent to that event. Cf. 9, infra. Area 4. 

*' 2. Sixty beads, 26 camelians, 34 bone, and one brass finger ring (dia. J) found to- 
gether in a broken pot. The camelian beads are mostly circular, but one 
is barrel-shaped and ornamented with white lines making a pentagonal 
pattern. White bone beads only roughly shaped. Area 6. 

"3. Fragment of frieze 9" X 21". Above a band of moulding of four leaves 
conventionally arranged three small ogee arches (with saw-tooth 
ornament) each with bust of a figure, the centre one a female. Between 
the arches traces of busts of smaller figures, one on left fully preserved. 
Vaulted chamber. Area 4. 

" 4. Relief (8^" X 8^'') in five pieces. The Mahdparinirvdna of the Buddha. 
On upper edge acanthus moulding. Between two trees of ornate and 
unidentifiable type the Buddha, head to left on a draped couch with 
high pillow. No halo. In front of couch Subhadra and water cooler. 
At the foot of the couch Mahakasyapa, his hand touching the feet of the 
Buddha whose robe completely covers them. At the head of the couch 
Vajrapani half naked. In background busts of two naked figures with 
upraised right hands, the one to the left wild and demoniacal in appear- 
ance. A fracture in upper centre of relief. 

Frcrni the ruined stupa south of the site. 

"5. Relief (13" X 8") from circular frieze. Sawtooth moulding on upper edge. 
Between two sunk encased panels where the usual pilaster is replaced 
by a childish yahha standing on a Persepolitan pillar base, The Dream 
of Maya. The queen is shown lying on her left side, on a couch with high 
pillow and in an alcove resembling the section of an angular-roofed vihdra. 
On a raised medallion above the sleeping queen, the little white elephant 
with trunk downward and projecting slightly over the rim of the medal- 
lion. A tall lamp stands at the foot of the couch and outside the alcove 
to right is a standing Yavani armed with a lance, and in the background 
the bust of another figure. Well preserved and of good technique. With 
4. 

" 6. Relief 3^" X 3^". The Bath of the BodhisaUva. The infant stands on 
tripod between Indra and Brahma who douche him with water from 
vessels held high above his head. Preservation ikiv, technique inferior. 
Area 6. 

"7. Triangular fragment, (12" x 7") depicting the Dipankara JdtaJca. On the 
left, female with flowers, Sumati throwing the flowers and in the f oregroimd 
the same lying on the ground on his deer-skin garment, his hair under 
the feet of the Buddha of whom only the right hand and lower part of the 
body is preserved. To extreme right the feet of Vajrapani and traces of 
base of encased Indo-Persepolitan pilaster. Technique good. Area 
No. 6. 



59 EXPLORATION. 

" 8. Fragment (10" x 6") of upper curved portion of false niche. Finial on top Jamalgarhu 
and seated parrot on edge. Fragment of three panels — 

(a) The Alms Bowl of the Buddha on canopied throne with adoring winged 
triton to right, 

(6) Buddha seated in dharmachakra-miuird on throne. Kneeling worshipping 

layman to right, 
(c) Head of Buddha between foliage and head of one other figure. 

"9. Fragment 24" x 15f", in three pieces, from rhomboidal lower portion of a 
false niche. Right side lost. The approach to the Bodhi Tree. In the 
centre the Buddha with halo (face lost) right hand (damaged) in abhaya- 
mudrd advances to left to the Bodhi Tree, which rises from grass-strewn 
ornamented throne, and from the branches of which hang streamers. 
The pipal foliage is well defined and reveals a mi-corps the tree goddess. 
The throne, or platform around the Bodhi Tree is not shown facing as 
usual but obliquely, and rising a mi-corps from the top of the throne, 
and completely hiding the tnmk of the tree, is a naked corpulent male 
figure (face damaged) turning towards the advancing Buddha. This 
figure holds in the left hand a bow (?), the open right hand is upraised, 
level with the shoulder, and the body is shown so as to expose somewhat 
his nakedness and the upper portion of his thighs. On the other side of 
the Bodhi Tree Mara and his daughter, his left arm resting on the shoulder of 
his companion. Cf. i, above. Following the Buddha a muscular lightly-clad 
Vajrapani, and adoring layman grasping flowers (?) in both hands. Above 
the head of the Buddha two flying childish yakshas who must have held 
a now lost crown, and in backgroimd traces of four other figures. In upper 
left of relief two flower-scattering devas. [Plate XXIV (c).] 

" 10. Fragment, I5iX23, in three pieces, from lower rhomboidal portion of a false 

niche. In one panel two scenes which are not separated in any marked 
manner. 

(a) To right. Unidentified Scene. In the centre a standing Bodhisattva fac- 
ing, right hand in abhaya-mudrd, left hand (broken) on hip. Above 
the head of the Bodhisattva two flying childish yakshas, holding a now 
lost crown over him. To proper right of the Bodhisattva a standing 
layman turning towards him with hands clasped in adoration and 
above in background flower-scattering figure. On proper left of 
Bodhisattva a now headless Vajrapani. Above the worshipping layman 
and in the air a naked childish figure with dishevelled hair, his face 
turned towards the Bodhisattva and holding an unidentified object in 
both hands. He is not one of the crown-bearing yakshas and, from 
his position, might appear to belong to the second scene (6) were not 
his face turned to right towards the Bodhisattva. 

(6) To left. The nursling of the dead woman. On the left the Buddha, follow- 
ed by a youthful Vajrapani advances to right with the right hand ex- 
tended in a welcoming gesture, towards a naked little child who faces 
him with clasped hands. Behind this infant is a hut-like structure 
of ashlar or bricks with a curved roof and rounded finial. This struc- 
ture is open on one side and out of this opening fall the head. 



EXPLORATION. 60 

Jamalgarhi. and bust of a woman with long hair. The proper left of her body has 

wasted to a skeleton, the right breast is fnU, rounded and life-like. The 
roof of a second similar structure is seen behind that from which the 
body of the woman projects. In the middle ground facing the Buddha 
is a layman with clasped hands and in the background two flower- 
scattering devas. The naked little figure with dishevelled hair referred 
to in (a) above is actually above the two hut-like structures and falls 
into the half of the sculpture which depicts this scene, but his hair is 
not that of the youthful Sudaya and, as already noted, his face is turned 
away from the scene under reference. [Plate XXIV (d).] 

" The technique of the relief is good. The right hand of th^ Buddha is in 
two pieces and had been held together by a small iron dowel, mark- 
ing an ancient repair. 

** The presence of Vajrapani with a bejewelled Bodhisattva as in (a) is unusual 

save in the few scenes between the Flight from Kapilavastu and the 

,' Exchange of garments with the huntsman. The relief in question 

does not appear to be one of those scenes, and the Vajrapani here may 
have resulted from that love of symmetry so marked in this school, 
and be due to the presence of his counterpart so properly depicted 
on the opposite edge of the relief. 

"11. Relief 12^'' x 10^". Between two half pilasters supporting acanthus mould- 
ing The First Sermon. The Buddha, without halo, seated under a tree, 
on a grass-strewn throne, the right hand in ahhaya-mudrd , the left grasp- 
ing the robe near the left knee. In front of the throne a twelve-spoked 
wheel supported by a dwarf Indo-Corinthian column and flanked on 
either side by a deer, couchant, regardant. To left two bhikshus seated 
on low thrones, one standing bhikshi and d£va with flowers in background. 
To right two bhikshus similarly seated, Vajrapani by the Buddha's left 
shoulder and usual deva. 

" 12. Relief 12^" X 8". On upper edge diaper of alternately incised triangles. 
The Buddha seated on a grass-strewn throne the right hand in abhaya- 
mudrd , the left grasping the robe. In front of the throne a snake with 
upraised head. On the left of the Buddha a standing princely figure 
with clasped hands turned towards the Buddha. A large snake-canopy 
over his head and springing from his shoulders proclaims him a naga-raja 
and seemingly the same who appears in animal form before the throne. 
To right two standing laymen of importance with a third in background. 
Conventional tree on right. The scene might be The visit of Elapatra, 
but the absence of monks renders this doubtful. Cf. 144 of App. V, .4. /?., 
S. A. S., F. C, for 1920-21. 

" 13. Fragment (14'' X 11'') of frieze in four pieces. Saw-tooth moulding on upper 
edge. The Buddha haloed, seated in abhaya-mudrd under a tree on a 
grass-strewn throne, left hand grasping the robe. On the left a now 
defaced layman making offering to the Buddha and head of another figure 
in background. To right a monk, with right hand upraised and first two 
J fingers ext^,nded, appears to salute the Buddha. Following the monk 



61 EXPLORATION. 

two princely figures, one with clasped hands the other in background Jamalgarhu 
scattering flowers. Behind left shoulder of the Buddha a bearded Vaj- 
rapani. 

** 14. Fragment 12" x lO'', in three pieces, from left of a relief depicting the Adora- 
tion of the Naga Kalika. On upper edge saw-tooth moulding and on left 
edge an encased panel with a female figure, standing on an Indo-Perse- 
politan base under a tree, replacing the usual pilaster. In the foreground 
a tank, ornamented with three rows of alternately incised triangles, and 
from which water escapes through a lion gargoyle on the right edge. Ris- 
ing a mi'corps from the tank the naga Kalika and his wife, both with 
hands clasped in adoration and turning right to the now lost Buddha. 
A hooded snake springing from behind the shoulders rises Uke a canopy 
over the head of Kalika and his companion. Behind the naga a stand- 
ing adoring layman, and in upper background above the tree three figures, 
one scattering flowers. - 

** 15. Fragment (ll^'^xll'') in three pieces from left side of a relief. Saw-tooth 
moulding on upper edge, encased panel with female figure standing on 
Indo-Persepolitan base replacing usual pilaster on left edge. The centre 
and right portion of the scene are lost. The part remaining shows four 
laymen in the foreground and four similar figures in upper background. 
The foremost of those in the foreground with princely head-dress ad- 
vances towards the now missing Buddha or Bodhisattva and with his 
left hand takes a handful of flowers (?) from a large basket held by an 
attendant. The attitudes of the assistants vary, one grasps some 
roundish object on the breast with both hands, another clasps the hands 
in adoration, while of those in the background one throws flowers like 
the usual deva attendants of the Buddha. 

" 16. Fragment (IS'' X 11") from right of a relief. Saw-tooth moulding on upper 
edge, and on right encased panel with female standing on Indo-Persepo- 
litan base under a tree, the right hand on the hip, left upraised grasping 
the foliage of the tree ; the part of the scene preserved shows the Buddha, 
the right hand lost, the left on the thigh. To right of the Buddha, Vajra- 
pani clad in a loin cloth only, vajra in right hand, chauri in left, and two 
princely figures with clasped hands. In upper background three similar 
princely figures. The interlocutor of the Buddha is lost, but on the upper 
edge of the relief and in front of the Buddha and lower than his head is 
part of an umbrella, so the scene must have depicted some god or (royal 
personage), visiting the Buddha. 

** 17. Fragment (12i"xI3"), in five pieces, from right lower side of rhomboidal 
panel of false niche. Standing Buddha, head slightly to left, both hands 
lost, followed by a semi-naked Vajrapani and two princely laymen, 
the nearer one headless, the second with hands clasped in adoration. 
One figure in background between Vajrapani and the Buddha. Heads 
of the Buddha and Vajrapani broken, but recovered during clearance. 

** 18. Fragment (6" X 6^") of lower portion of Mahaparinirvana scene. The Buddha 
(haloed), head to left lying on a draped couch with carved legs, thick 
mattress and pillow. In front of couch to right Subhadra with back to 



EXPLORATION. 



62 



Jamdigarhi, 



Khanpur. 



Vhamtaur, 



spectator and on left edge Vajrapani seated on the ground, the vajra in 
the right hand resting on the ground, the left hand upraised in grief. Bet- 
ween these two figures a water cooler of three rods bound at their centre, 
from the upper end of one of which hangs a flask-like object. Area 9. 

*' 19. Stucco bust of female 5^" X S^", face turned half right. Wears a flat jewel- 
led torque and large circular earrings. A long veil covers the head and 
falls over the shoulders and upper arms. Bears in right hand a handled 
jar which is supported by the left hand. A well-modelled figure probably 
from left of a donation scene. 

" 20. Fragment 12" x 9^ (in seven pieces) from right of a relief. On upper edge 
saw-tooth moulding. The Buddha with right hand raised in abhaya- 
mudrd advances to left followed by a youthful Vajrapani and a monk. 
In right background a flower-scattering deva^ in left background bust of 
a layman." 

Notes on places visitei by Mr, Hargreaves. 

The Superintendent, Frontier Circle, inspected the following sites and monuments : 
Takht-i-Bahi, Jamalgarhi, Shahbazgarhi, Asota, Chanaka-Dheri, Bala Hissar and 
Spelani in the Peshawar District ; Sirsukh, Jandial, Lai Chak, Badalpur, Jaulian, Chitti, 
Dobandi, Tamawa, Tofkian, Haji Bela, Bedadi, Chitti Gatti and Dhamtaur in the 
Hazara District. Mr. Hargreaves writes : 

" On the 27th December 1921 at the invitation of the Chief of the Gakhars I visited 
Khanpur in the Haro Valley to inspect a * topi ' which was stated never to have been 
excavated. It was found on inspection that the so-called ' topi ' was not a monu- 
ment at all, but the rounded top of a hill where the horizontal stratum had weathered 
in such a way that it bore a considerable resemblance to a ruined stupa. Information 
was obtained of several other monuments further up the Haro Valley, including a cave 
or tunnel, the walls of which were said to be carefully dressed, but a return to 
Jaulian was imperative and the examination of these monuments must await a more 
favourable opportunity. 

" Mr. T. B. Copeland, I.C.S., having sent for inspection some specimens of large but 
somewhat crude terra-cotta animal figurines which had been obtained close to the 
ziarat of Haji Shah Jamal Ghazi at Dhamtaur, the site was visited on May 18th, 1921. 
There are two modern tanks, one filled in with earth, and on one side a few large stones 
which are said to mark the site of an ancient tank which was destroyed to provide 
material for the modem one. The ziarat is built in part of ancient material, but is now 
merely a walled enclosure of no architectural pretensions whatsoever. The site was, 
no doubt, from the earliest times, a sacred spot and place of pilgrimage, and would be, 
in all probability, dedicated to some ndga, but the spring which hallowed and beauti- 
fied the spot failed some years ago after a shock of earthquake. The terra-cotta figur- 
ines were found when digging close to the tank and are of considerable age. They are 
much larger than those found usually at Buddhist sites in the North -West and are 
coarser in fabric and less skilfully modelled. Horses and elephants seem to have been 
the favourite models. 

"At Dhamtaur it was noticed that modern graves were edged by neatly cut kanjur 
stone, called locally kaniat, which is said to be quarried in the neighbourhood. The 
kanjur, it will be recalled, is the material so largely used in the ancient Buddhist monu- 
ments of the North- West as the basis of plastered columns, capitals, cornices and pilas- 
ters. In Mansehra town modern houses are still built of this kanjur. 



63 EXPLOKATION. 

'* Learning from Mr. J. Coatman, Superintendent of Police, Hazara, that ancient Shinkiari. 
remains existed near Shinkiari, eleven miles north of Mansehra, and that coins, seals, 
inscriptions and other antiquities were occasionally recovered there, an inspection was 
made on the 21st Mav 1921. 

" The first site visited was about a mile and a quart^er from the Shinkiari Rest House Haji Beta. 
and about fifty yards south of the forest path leading to Jaba. There, on a small spur 
stretching to the south, are the remains of a monastery and stupa of Kushan date, and 
built of the typical diaper masonry of that period. The stupa is seventeen paces square, 
but only fragments of the square base, of large diaper masonry, are visible on the east 
and west, though the greater part of the south wall still exists. Two large pine trees 
are growing on the stupa mound. A stairway led from the north, i.e., the side facing 
the monastery, to a circular procession path which ran round the dome, and traces of this 
path and of the first course of the masonry of the dome are still visible on the north. 
The stupa mound is now being gradually cut away to extend the surrounding fields. 
Treasure seekers have destroyed the west side of the stupa and dug very deeply into 
the centre, but with what result is unknown as nobody was present at the site, and the 
hut which stands on one corner of the monastery mound was uninhabited, and the few 
people met in the forest knew nothing of the site save its modern name, Haji Bela. Of 
the monastery, the only visible remains are fragments of wall at the south-east and 
north-west comers. The site is a particularly pleasing one and must have provided the 
monks with that privacy and peace which they so ardently desired. A stream flows by 
the site about sixty yards away, just below the south-west of the stupa, and at the time 
of inspection, a season of exceptional drought, would easily have met the needs of even 
a larger religious establishment than this could ever have been. 

" These remains do not figure in any of the lists of ancient monuments, nor are they 
referred to in' the Gazetteer of the district. They are far too ruined to be worth pro- 
tecting or excavating, but they have been thought worthy of record as throwing light 
on the position of Buddhism in this region during the time of the Kushans, for they 
add another to the already growing list of Buddhist monuments in this, as yet little 
surveyed area. 

" About a mile south of the Shinkiari Rest House, on a rocky hill, stand the remains Bedadi. 
of a stupa which has been excavated on the east side and in the centre. The villagers 
report that a ' sahib ' did this some years ago and that he found a stone box containing 
* white gems.' This report is most probably true as a reliquary with crystal ornaments 
is what might be expected to be recovered in such operations. Part of the east wall 
of the stupa, of large diaper masonry, still exists. A fragment of ancient wall lying 
about sixty feet to the east is probably part of the connected monastery. 

" North of this ruined stupa and about a hundred yards to the north-east across the 
fields stands a cultivator's hut in front of which some large empty earthen vessels were 
recovered recently. The occupants of the hut possessed some coins found in the adjoin- 
ing fields, and these were all Kushan, save one of Soter Megas. An old sepoy who acts 
as a guide at Bedadi exhibited two silver coins of the Hindu Shahis and one of Azes 
(elephant and bull type), but as he makes a business of collecting antiquities he may 
have procured these elsewhere. 



EXPLORATION. 64 

Bedadi. ** Proceeding a little to the north of this hut, a more or less level plateau is reached. 

It is some eight acres in extent and the sides to the north and east are very precipitous, 
but less so on the west, falling away in terraces to join the main hill towards the south. 
The steep sides of this area are revetted with ancient walls of coarse diaper, the surface 
is covered with fragments of coarse pottery, and coins are frequently recovered, so that 
there is no doubt that this was formerly the site of habitations. 

" The modern village of Bedadi lies about half a mile south of the area just described, 
and is likewise built on an ancient site. Many old walls are visible, of a fine type of 
large diaper, and others very neatly and substantially built of rounded boulders from 
the River Siran, the interstices filled with small flattish stones, the whole forming a novel 
form of diaper masonry or modified rubble. Existing walls of the latter type show 
a very good, smooth, vertical face with the boulders well aligned. The numerous rough 
stone walls of piled boulders which now form the boundaries of so many of the terraced 
fields near the village are but the debris of ancient walls of this type and, by their posi- 
tion, give a very correct idea of the limits of the ancient site. The crudely built boulder 
walls of the modem \Tllage mark in unmistakable fashion the inferiority of the present 
inhabitants in architectural skill and craftmanship. On the south side of the village 
a considerable stretch of this boulder-diaper still exists and in most places, 3' 3" thick, 
but at the south-east corner it is not less than 6' in thickness. 

*' About three quarters of a mile eastward stands a terraced area with a long wall of 
diaper rising in two terraces, each about 8' wide, to a level space on which stand the 
remains of what was in all probability a stupa, but of which no facing remains and into 
which a large hole has been dug at the south-east side. Of the lowest wall, some 70 feet 
exists, of the intermediate wall, a few fragments only, and of the uppermost, about 20'- 

" About a quarter of a mile further to the east is another moimd with a diaper wall 
about 36' in length and 4' in height. The top is more or less level but broken by five 
small mounds of earth and boulders. These are not, however, the remains of small 
stupas, but most likely graves. 

*' Lying outside the main town site the above two monuments mark, seemingly, the 
sites of former religious establishments. 

"East of the village of Bedadi at the end of the path leading up from the sandy 
ravine is a fragment of very fine ancient wall. It faces east and is of very large diaper, 
the stones being exceedingly well cut. 

*' At Bedadi coins of the Indo-Scythian and Kushans have been obtained as well as 
coins of Menander, and in private possession is a very fine engraved gem depicting 
a winged Eros playing two pipes, an excellent specimen of later Hellenistic art, which 
was also obtained from this spot. A stone fragment with two or three Kharoshthi 
characters, some stone household utensils and the inscribed oil measure referred to 
below were also recovered at this site. The inscription is said to be in the possession 
of a private individual in Abbottabad, but the two stone vessels have been presented 
to the Peshawar Museum by Mr. T. B. Copeland, I.C.S. 

" Bedadi is not known from any ancient record, but its position at the entrance to 
the Bhogarmang Valley and on the high ground immediately on the left bank of the 
River Siran, whose wide bed is exceedingly fertile and where there is abundant water 
even in the driest seasons, must from the earliest times, have given it considerable 
importance. Even to-day it has about twenty water-mills and the adjacent forests 
supply it with timber, firewood, pasturage and fodder. 



65 EXPLORATION. 

*' About half way between Dhudial and Mansehra, on the right hand of the voa,d Chitti Outi. 
when coming from Dhudial and just before descending into the Ichhar Nala, are the 
remains of a stupa and monastery. The stupa appears to have lost all its facing ; the 
monastery has 18' of diaper masonry on the west and traces of walling at the south- 
east corner. In the centre of the monastery area is a roughly-built square platform 
surmounted by an octagonal building with flattish dome crowned by a finial. This 
building, of poor material and technique, must date from Sikh times. The door was 
found locked but the building, which is said to contain a white stone, the chitti gatti, 
is now a Hindu shrine. People assemble here for worship on the 6th of Phagan, and 
Ist of Baisakh. We have here another example of an ancient sacred site still retaining 
its sanctity, though the religion and the object of worship have both changed. 

"On the 5th November 1921 I inspected the stone circle of Asot^ which is Asota.' 
18 miles from Mardan. To reach it, one travels 1 6 miles along the road through Shah- 
bazgarhi and then turns due north along a very bad kachcha road towards Shiva. An 
excellent description of the monument as well as an illustration is given by Sir Arthur 
Phayre m J. A. S. B., Volume XXXIX, 1870, pages 58-59. Many stones then existing 
a,re now missing from the circle, the best preserved portion being on the north-west. 
Of the outer circle of small stones referred to by Sir Arthur Phayre, there are now no 
surface traces, for since 1870 the adjacent land has been brought into cultivation, and 
on the north-east is a graveyard so that the smaller stones may have been removed by 
cultivators or broken up to be used as headstones for graves. There is one isolated 
stone, however, about 80 feet south of the main circle. It is stated that in 1870 there 
was in the centre of the circle a pillar, which once upright, was then thrown dowTi and 
half hidden with earth, and that a hole showed that the pillar had been undermined, 
probably in search of treasure. There is now no trace of this central monolith above 
ground. 

" All the larger stones incline slightly inwards which may be due to an original in- 
ward slope or to subsidence resulting from excavation in the centre of the circle. This 
inclination of the monoliths is not equal in all cases some sloping as much as one in ten. 
The people still designate the monument lakke tigge (upright stones), but the neighbour- 
ing village they call Sota, not Asota. About a quarter of a mile away and south of the 
village of Sheraghimd are two monoliths about 150 yards apart, possibly remains of 
similar stone circles. The Asota monument was declared protected under Notification 
10357-G. of 7th December 1920." 

In the garden of the Executive Engineer, Irrigation Department, Peshawar, the Buddha image 
Superintendent, Frontier Circle, noticed a well-preserved image of the Buddha with ^**^* )^»we« on rt« 
flames on the shoulders. This he obtained permission to photograph (Plate XXV a). * " ^** 
Images of this type are rare and Mr. Hargreaves states that he has knowledge of four 
only, viz., one in the Indian Museum emanating from Kabul {J. A. S. B., Volume III, 
July 1834, p. 363), a headless image in the Central Museum, Lahore, a much damaged 
one under a pipal tree in Nowshera, which is now an object of Hindu worship, and the 
one in question, which is little inferior to that in Calcutta. An endeavour will be made 
to obtain this interesting image, which is private property, for the Peshawar Museum. 

On the 5th November it was reported to Mr. Hargreaves as he was returning 4^^^^ ^g/j at 
from Asota that east of the village of Shahbazgarhi on the south of the main road and Shahbazgarhi. 
opposite milestone 8. the road menders when digging a borrow-pit had disclosed an 
ancient well. " On examination this was found to be 2' 3'' in diameter and lined by 
terracotta rings 9^" high, f thick and having on the upper edge a projecting lip l^". 



EXPLORATION. 



66 



Frontier Circle. Similar wells or drains have been found at Taxila, and several of these earthen-ware rings 

are preserved in the Museum there. The Sub-Divisional Officer, P. W. D., Mardan, 
who was present, was requested to arrange for the filling in of the excavation so that the 
well might remain undisturbed." 

Nc^es on places visited by Mr. R. D, Banerji, 
Western Circle. " This small masjid was found in the suburban village of Saraspur close to Ahmed- 



Saraspur. 



Sarai at Karii 



Maungya 
Tungya Caves. 



abad city. It is a simple structure, built partly of bricks and partly of stone. There 
are three domes which are supported by waUs at the back and sides, and by four pillars 
in front. Two solid minars rise at each end and there is a mihrab, under each arch 
supporting the domes, in the back wall. An inscription over the central mihrab records 
the erection of the masjid on the 6th of Rabia-us-Sani a Tuesday in the year 922 or 
924 A. H. during the reign of Sultan-ul-Azam abu Nasr Muzaffar Shah bin Mahmud 
Shah bin Muhammad Shah bin Ahmad Shah bin Muhammad Shah bin Muzaffar Shah, 
i.e., Muzaffar II of Gujarat who reigned from 917 to 932 A. H. The structure measures 
36' 6" in length and 9' 11" in breadth. It is now called Pir-Mancha-ki-Masjid and is 
occupied by a Fakir (Photograph No. 5581). 

" The attention of travellers on the main line of the metre gauge section of the B. B. 
& C. I. Railway is very often attracted to a brick fort which stands within a stone's 
throw of the track. It is in reality a fortified camp or Sarai, built during the early 
Mughal period, which formed the first stege of the journey from the capital of Gujarat 
to Agra or Delhi. The fortifications were necessary, though the place lies within easy 
reach of Ahmadabad, on account of the predatory habits of the neighbouring hill tribes, 
whose outrages are very oft^n recorded by travellers. The camp or Sarai is now includ- 
ed within the limits of the village of Kari in the North Daskrohi (Dasakrosi), i.e., the 
Sadar or Haveli Talnka of the district of Ahmadabad. The walls of the enclosure are 
very high and there is a round tower at each comer with gun platforms and embrasures, 
as well as loopholes for musketry. Each of these towers is two-storied with a second 
wall surrounding the inner chamber and with hiding places between the walls for sharp- 
shooters. The main entrance faces the east and the road under it is paved for the passage 
of wheeled traffic. Over this gat^e there are one large and two small chambers, access 
to which can be gained from the ramparts. A large balcony with a tmall one on 
each side, projects from the east or front of the main hall, in this second story over the 
main gate. To the north of the hall there is an open terrace for sleeping on in summer, 
with steps leading to the roof, the inner ramparts and the ground floor. On the ground 
floor there is a spacious guardroom on each side. There is a corresponding two-storied 
building in the middle of the back or west wall [Plate XXXI a]. No openings are visible 
in the north or south walls, the inner faces of which are covered with a network of 
arches which support the platform on top, 4' 6" in width, running along the loopholes in 
the kanguras, three loopholes to each kuvgvra. The arches were used as living rooms 
by common people and the soldiery. A broad platform 12' 6" in breadth, runs in front of 
the arches in the interior, along the entire lengths of the four walls. This platform is wider 
in front of the building in the centre of the western wall, where it measures 20'. In 
the centre is a spacious courtyard measuring 305' X 250' with the ruins of a central 
tank and a fountain. Paved platforms were built on each side of the main gate for shops 
and near the north-eastern corner there is a small masjid. A low wall extended from 
the bastion in the north-east comer to a well near tlie railway line. 

" To Mr. A. H. A. Simcox, I.C.S., belongs the credit of the discovery of the ancient 
Jain caves on the Maungya Timgya Hills in the Nasik District, the earliest Jain 



67 EXPLORATION. 

monuments in this Presidency [Plates XXXI h and XXXII]. These caves lie on the Ma>ingya 
western border of the Nasik District, the southern border of the West Khandesh District ^^'^9y^ Caves. 
and very close to the hill fort of Snlher belonging to H. H. the Maharaja Gaikwar of 
Baroda. The place lies far away from railway lines, in an inaccessible part of the 
country. The best route is from Manmad Railway Station to Taharabad via Malegaon 
and Satana, a distance of seventy-eight miles. The metalled road ceases four miles to 
the north of Taharabad and the foot of the hills is reached along a cart track. The 
Digambara Jains have built a Dharamsala at this place and are building steps to go 
up to the top. At the height of three or four hundred feet are two Jain caves, the 
oldest at this place, which must be assigned to the eighth or the ninth century A. D. at 
the latest. This group lies to the west of a waterfall and faces the south. The cave 
on the right has collapsed partly, as only the stumps of two pillars of the veranda are 
now visible. This veranda has now been rebuilt by the Jains with modern ashlar 
masonry, and wooden door and window frames, painted white and black. From the 
outside nobody would ever suspect that one of the oldest Jain cave-temples lies 
hidden inside the glaring whitewashed front. The back wall of the veranda is 
entirely covered with basreliefs [Plate XXXII a]. Beginning from the left one 
finds on the left wall of the veranda the mutilated figure of a seated Jina and 
below it a standing figure of Parsvanatha. To its left a female with four hands is stand- 
ing on a lotus, while to her left is the kneeling figurine of a devotee. The following 
figures are to be found in that portion of the back wall of the veranda which lies to the 
left of the doorway : in its centre (1) Parsvanatha standing, (2-3) standing female figures, 
(4) male riding on the back of a bull (Siva ?), (5-6) two kneeling female devotees, (7) 
a man riding on the back of a lion below two gandharvas, (8) a corpulent male riding on 
the back of an elephant, which stands under a tree ( ? Indra), (9-11) three Jinas, one 
over the other (12) a dvarapala holding a mace. The sculptures to the right of the 
doorway begin with (1) a dvarapala holding a mace. Then come (2) a female seated 
on a lion couchant under a tree, with a male attendant standing on each side, (3) 
Gomatesvara, with creepers entwined round his thigh, (4-5) a male and female devotee, 
both seated, with a standing female attendant to their left, and a gandharva-ipsiiT on 
each side of their heads. 

" The following figures are to be found on the right wall of this veranda : (I) a Jina 
seated in meditation and below him, under a trefoil arch, in a niche, (2) a female {Sasana- 
devi) seated, with four hands, two of which hold lotus flowers, the remaining two being 
in the postures of blessing {varada mudrd) and giving protection (abhaya), respective- 
ly ; (3) a Jina seated under this and (4-5) two more Jinas and below them again (6-7) 
two more Jinas all seated. 

" Inside the inner cave, a Jina is seated on a pedestal, in front of which a wheel is 
represented. There is a lion on each side of the wheel and a male attendant standing 
with a flywhisk on each side. To the left of his head, a gandhurva is playing on a drum 
and to the right, another with cymbals. To the left of this figure, on the back wall is 
a figure of Parsvanath seated and under him a Jina also seated, who is similar to the 
main figure. On the right of the main figure is another Jina seated on a throne, on which 
is the wheel and under it two lions. Over this figure four Jinas are seated in a row. 

"On the left wall of the chamber the following figures occur : (I) a Jina seated 
on a lion throne, with a wheel in front, (2) Parsvanatha seated under an umbrella, 
placed under a tree, (3-5) three flying figures with drum, cymbals and a conch, (6) a Jina 
standing, (7) a female standing, (8) a female seated with four hands. On the right wall 



EXPLORATTOX. B8 

Maungya there is (1) a Jina standing inside an unfinished niche. Then comes (2) a bigger figure 

Tungya Oaves, under a tree with two gandharvas on each side. 

" The other cave is to the left of this one and consists of a veranda, a large mandapa 
and an inner sanctum. The veranda has collapsed and the only remains of it are the 
stumps of two pillars in front. To the right of the doorway of the maiuiapa are the 
following figures, (I) a Jina standing followed by some worn out and indistinct figures, 
(2) a seated figure with four hands. A figure of Ganesa is to be found on the left jamb 
of the doorway and an unfinished figure of a Jina on the lintel. 

" The mandapa is a large square chamber covered with basreliefs. Two seated Jinas 
occur on the front wall, and on the left there are two rows of figures. In the first row 
are seven seated Jinas on lion thrones, with a wheel in front of each. There are six 
seated figures in the second row. Between the second and third Jinas, a female is 
standing on a bracket. There are two rows of figures on the right. In the first row, 
two Jinas are seated. Then comes a standing nude Jina, followed by four seated Jinas 
and a female seated on a lion couchant, under a tree, with a child on her lap. In the 
second row, the first part of the wall is bare. Then comes a large seated figure of a 
Jina, followed by two small ones. At the end, a male and female are to be found under 
a tree, in the branches of which is the figure of a Jina seated in meditation. 

" Two rows of figures are found to the left of the doorway of the sanctum, i.e., on the 
left half of the back wall of the mandapa. In the first row, there is a small seated Jina 
and three standing ones, the middle one of which is Parsvanatha. Last of all comes 
a seated female with four hands, holding a sword (asi) and a mirror (darpana) in two of 
them, the remainder being broken. In the second row, the following figures are to be 
found : — (1) a small seated Jina, (2) a corpulent male, seated on an elephant, under 
a tree, holding a mango in his right hand and a bag in his left (Kuvera ?), (3) Parsvanatha 
seated, (4) a male and a female standing under a tree as in the first row, (5-6) two seated 
Jinas, (7) another seated Jina under No. 6. An unfinished female figure is to be found 
under the left door jamb, under which is the dvarapala holding a mace in his right hand, 
while the left is in the posture of giving protection. The right door jamb is exactly 
similar to the left one. On the right of the back wall there are two rows of figures. 
In the first row four Jinas are seated with one or more attendants, on lion thrones. In 
the second row there are ten figures of Jinas in all, large and small. To the right of 
\ this is a large unfinished figure of a Jina. Inside the sanctum a huge Jina, 5' S'' in 

\ . height is seated on a lion throne with rows of small Jina figurines on each side. 

*'Leavingthisgroupof caves on the left, an ancient road goes up to the top of the 
hills, consisting partly of rock-cut steps and partly of galleries hewn out of the rock. 
Near the top the road bifurcates, the one to the left leading to the Maungya peak, and 
the one to the right to Tungya. Maungya is the highest peak and a narrow pathway 
hewn out of the rock, encircles it. There are several cisterns and modern temples along 
this footpath and the rockside is covered with Jina figurines in small niches. There 
are four large excavations in this group with several smaller ones, all of which are com- 
paratively modern and still used for worship. Numerous pilgrims' records, many of 
which are dated, show that the caves were in existence before the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries of the Christian era. There is a narrow and windswept shelf between the 
two peaks. The ascent to the Tungya is very dangerous because the steps are verjf 
high and worn out. The footpath round this peak has collapsed in many places. There 
are two large excavations one of which has been modernised by the use of marble for 






EXPLORATION. 70 

Marai in Maihar demon Arishta, who being deputed by Kamsa, the King of Mathura, to kill Balarama 
^' and Krishna, assumed the form of a bull. 

" On the other side of the village of Marai, a ruined temple of Siva was discovered. 
It stands on a high stone platform measuring about one hundred feet in length and 
sixty in breadth. The 7nandapa of this temple as well as its sikhara has fallen leaving 
only the garbhdgriha, which is a plain square chamber. The antarala is provided with a 
beautifully carved stone door-frame, with figures of Ganges and Yamuna on the door- 
frames and over them four superimposed niches containing amorous couples. The lintel 
bears the figures of Siva and the seven divine mothers, the nine planets as well as three 
brackets ; one at each end of the lintel and one in its centre. The bracket at the left 
end of the lintel bears the figures of Brahma, with four hands, that in the centre that of 
Siva as Lakulisa with four hands, and the bracket at the right end, Vishnu on Garuda. 
The garbhagriha is built of Kaimur sandstone, the masonry being regularly coursed 
ashlar. On the body of this garbhagriha outside there were niches flanked by square 
pilasters, one on each face, but the facing on the northern side having collapsed, the 
niche also has fallen down. There are two rows of divine figures on the exterior of this 
garbhagriha, some of which are mutilated. Interspersed among them are obscene 
groups of two or three amorous figures, as in some of the Khajuraho temples. Like the 
temples at Sohagpur and Amarkantak, the trabeate roof of the garbhagriha is supported 
by four pilasters, one in each corner. Inside it is a huge linga on a square arghapaUa, 
which has been placed on a second arghapaUa, The temple appears to have been built 
in the eleventh century A. D. 

Manora. << Manora is the name of a village on the top of a high plateau on the Kaimur range. 

The plateau was at one time thickly populated and well irrigated. The principal ap- 
proaches were also fortified, remains of the fortifications being still in evidence every- 
where. Ruins of three different temples were found on this plateau, all of which belong 
• to the same date as that of the temple of Siva at Bhumara in the Nagode Stats {Caca 
5th century A. D.). Numerous images were foimd among the ruins. One of them, an 
image of the Man-lion {Narasimha) incarnation of Vishnu, deserves special mention. 
In this image, the figure of the demon Hiranya Kashipu is not placed on the lap of the 
Man-lion, as usual in North-Indian images, but is foimd standing on the ground, to the 
right of the latter. 
DoniinChhattar- " The village of Doni, in the Chhattarpur State, is noted for its large tank. Doni 

pur State. jj^g about thirteen miles to the east of Nowgong, two miles to the south of the metalled 

road from the latter place to Banda. The tank is called Drqna-sagara by the local 
Brahmans, and covers an area of 248 local bighas. The dam which retains water in 
the tank is, at places, twenty to twenty-five feet in height from the surrounding ground 
level. Near the village there is a stone-paved platform on this dam, oblong in shape, 
provided with stone steps along three of its sides for descending into the tank. An old 
temple of Nandin stands on this platform. Three steps from the waterside, built on 
the platform lead to the level of the ruined porch of this temple. This porch was 
provided with benches having backrests. Two of the dwarf pillars which once support- 
ed the roof of the porch are standing. The main shrine faces west. The pillars which 
support the benches running along three sides of this temple are taller than the corres- 
ponding pillars of the porch. This shrine is really a mandapa, opening on all sides, which 
contained the figure of the bull only ; the linga being enshrined in a large but separate 
temple to the east of it. Similar arrangements are noticeable at the temple of Raj en- 
drachola I at Tanjore and at Pamer in the Ahmadnagar District. In addition to the 



71 EXPLORATION. 

small pillars which rest on the benches, on its sides the roof of the mandapa was supported Dofii in Chatiaf' 
by four tall pillars, at four comers of the chamber. The lintels supported by these pillars P^^^ ^^^' 
are higher than the lintels supported by the smaller ones which rest on the benches. 
The roof of the mayidapa is sloping between these parallel but unevenly placed lintels. 
A similar arrangement is to be found in the ancient temples of the period of the Silahara 
dynasty of Konkan, around the shrine of A'trdxi mala at Kolhapur. 

" To the east of this shrine of Nandin are the ruins of a large mediaeval temple which 
was the main shrine and contained the linga of Siva. It is now called the temple of 
Surajmukhi. The platform on which this temple was built, stands on a high mound of 
earth. The only portions now remaining of this magnificent shrine, are the base and 
the core of the garbhagriha. The niches on the exterior of the sanctum are now empty. 
Three stone steps on the west lead from the mound to the platform on which the temple 
stands. The floor of the ruined mandapa is 4' higher than this platform. A portion 
of the a7itarala is still existing and it was fitted with a neatl)'' carved stone door-frame. 
Three steps lead down to the floor of the garbhagriha which is now empty. There is a 
fine niche on its back flanked by pilasters. 

'' To the north of this temple is a plain temple of Mahadeva on the same mound. 
There is a very small open porch in front on four pairs of dwarf pillars with benches on 
each side. The mandapa is closed on all sides with the exception of an opening in each 
of its four walls. The front opening leads to the main entrance and that at the back to 
the garbhagriha. The openings in the centre of its side walls lead to small bays, which 
are really ardhamandapas of the same type and size as the porch in front, but enclosed 
with benches having backrests. Six pilasters along the back and front walls and two 
along each of the side walls, together with eight pillars in two rows in the middle, sup- 
port the heavy weight of the flat roof of the mandapa. The sanctum is a very small 
square chamber, its floor being slightly lower than that of the mandapa. 

"The old city of Nagaur in Marwar historically known as Nagapur, Nagadurga or Nagaur in 
Nagagadh, is situated at a distance of about l\ miles from the Railway station of that Marwar. 
name on the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway. It is 80 miles to the north-east of Jodhpur 
and 99 miles by rail from it. It is said to have been founded by Rai Visal of Pandrali 
State, under commands from Prithviraja, the last Chauhan Emperor of Delhi in 1165 
A. D. The ancient remains in and around Nagaur City were first visited by 
Mr. H. B. W. Garrick in the working season of the year 1883-84. Then a preliminary list 
of antiquarian remains in Rajputana was drawn up by this Department during 1904-10. 
The monuments of this place were described at some length in the Archaeological 
Survey of India Report, Vol. XXIII. An account of an interesting old monument 
known by the name of Shams Khan's Masjid situated near Shams Tal or Shamshi Talao, 
is given on pages 64-69 of the report. The masjid is said to have been built by Shams 
Khan who was Governor of Nagaur during the reign of Shams-ud-din Altamsh in the 
beginning of the thirteenth century A.D. It is construct-ed of stones of different varieties 
and sizes in lime mortar, and there is no doubt about the fact that the materials used 
in this building were obtained from Hindu temples. Some sculptures and carvings are 
still seen at the back of stones built into the drum of the central dome which collapsed 
long ago. The front facade of the building is pierced by five arch openings, four smaU 
ones, two each on either side of a large one in the centre. It is flanked by two tapering 
minarets and their tops are covered with conical or bullet-shaped domes. They are 
constructed on top of the terrace instead of building them from the ground level. There 
are spiral staircases inside them. Two flights of st<eps built in the thickness of the 



EXPLORATION. 72 

Nagaur in walls at the ends, lead first to two mezzanine galleries inside the masjid intended for 

Marwar. ladies, and thence to the terrace. Mr. Garrick could not account for the use of the 

galleries and he described them as ^ false floors.' Two windows light the stairs to the 
north and south walls. Access is gained to the top of the front arches by narrow open 
steps built into the inside face of the front wall and also by covered steps built inside 
the haunches of the central big arch. Of the three mihrabs inside the masjid, the central 
one is well decorated and there is a corresponding buttress outside, but the other two 
are very simple and have no buttresses outside them. The roofing is constructed of 
four small and one large domes, supported by pillars and pilasters. The south end of 
the masjid collapsed long ago and nothing is now seen on the spot. The walls are all 
plastered over and finished on top by a neat cornice with fillets and dentils. Just 
underneath the cornice a fine band of recessed cross decorations adorns the walls, and 
over it, kanguras are built. The plaster has fallen down at several places. The details 
of the masjid appeared ' curiously Gothic ' to Mr. Garrick at the time of his visit. 
They are not so and can very well be classed as middle Pathan. There are three 
entrances to the courtyard in front. The compound wall has totally disappeared with 
the exception of the two gateways to the north and east, and traces of the third one 
to the south are still visible. There are Arabic inscriptions in this building. 

'* One old mosque with peculiar features in the rear elevation is situated on the 
southern bank of the Ginani Tal or Talao. The monument is locally known as Akbari 
Masjid, and was mentioned on pages 53 & 64 of the A. S. R., Vol. XXIII. One inscrip- 
tion in the masjid records that it was built during the time of Shah Akbar in 985 H. 
Hamid-ud-din Eehani, one of the two early Muhammadan visitors to Nagaur, convert- 
ed Rai Visal to the Muhammadan faith. After his conversion from Hinduism to Mu- 
hammadanism he built a mosque. The one near the Kotwali is called Visal's Masjid. 
Mr. Garrick was suspicious about the real name of this masjid. A Hindu after his 
change of religion to Islam would naturally try to erect a mosque, if at all, with some 
distinctive features in order to draw the attention of visitors to it. It appears that 
this masjid which is quite different from usual Muhammadan mosques, was built by 
Rai Visal and not the one near Kotwali. The walls are constructed of stone in lime 
mortar and are plastered over with various patterns of lotus flowers. The front facade 
consists of three arches, two small ones on either side of a large one in the centre. It 
is flanked by two minarets built from the ground level, instead of from the terrace as 
in Shams Khan's Masjid. Behind the three outer arches in front, three small ones are 
bxiilt to lead into the three chambers of the mosque. Two spiral staircases lead to the 
terrace as well as to the top of the minars. The tops of the minars are covered with 
plain semicircular domes and not with conical domes as in Shams Khan's Masjid. The 
outer surface of the minars was decorated with blue, yellow and other varieties of tiles 
arranged in different patterns, traces of them being still visible. The back or rear wall 
is pierced by five windows, which were probably closed with jali screens. One is just 
over the mihrab in the central domed chamber and four others, two in one group are 
built in the centre line of the two side chambers. The plan of the mosque is divided 
into three squares. Two cross arches are constructed inside dividing the central chamber 
from the side ones. The three domes are constructed on four solid walls and not on 
pillars. The dome over the central square is higher than the two at its sides. Behind 
the central mihrab a projecting two-storied jharoka is built just at the sill level of the 
window above the mihrab referred to above. There are four flights of cantilever steps. 
Access is gained to the lower portion by two flights of steps from the terrace at the 



73 EXPLORATION . 

lower level, and the other two flights from the central portion lead to the top floor of Naga/ur in 
the jharoka. ^«^'^- 

" Outside the Maya gate of the city on the north, a beautifully carved lofty gateway 
stands in the middle of an enclosure containing various tombs of famous Muhammadans. 
This gateway is known as Atarkin-ka-darwaza. A description of it is given on pages 
69-71 of the A. S. R., Vol. XXIII. Atarkin was a very popular Muhammadan Saint 
and is venerated by Hindus and Muhammadans alike. According to tradition this 
building was commenced by the Saint Atarkin and finished by his heir, Khwaja Hussein 
Chisti under the guidance of an able architect. Sheikh Abdul. On the inside face of 
the wall on top of this gateway there is a Persian inscription dated 630 A. H. which 
states that it was repaired by the Emperor Muhammad, son of Tughlaq Shah. This 
magnificent structure measures 53' 4'' in height from the groimd to the top of the corner 
chhattri. Two three-storied square towers with chhajjas and kanguras and domes are 
built against the comers of the front fa9ade to the south. The top of the terrace is 
reached by six flights of steps, three on each side at the east and west ends. The third 
flight of steps is built outside for want of space. Just below these steps at both ends 
there are two doors which lead to the projecting balconies, each of which rests on four 
carved stone brackets. Only the railings on top are missing. Immediately behind the 
gateway there is a building constructed of yellow and red limestone. The plan of the 
structure is divided into two small and one large squares, the large one projecting beyond 
the two adjacent ones. The walls are finished with decorated chhajjas, and carved 
kanguras resting on stone brackets. A band of rosettes of different patterns is seen 
between the string course and the chhajja. The roofing is constructed of two small 
and one large domes, the height of the central one being more than that of the two side 
ones. There are different Persian inscription-slabs built into the front of the abut- 
ments of the arch to the north. A modem parapet wall built on top of the kanguras 
on the inside face of the main gateway looks very ugly. 

" While coming from the city towards the fort, visitors come across a three arched 
gateway locally known as Tin-Darwaza. It is situated near the fort to the south-west 
of an ancient building now utilised as a District Court and leads to an enclosed area 
in front of the fort called Jhaveri Bazar. It is a rectangular structure built of red, 
yellow and grey limestone. There are three arch openings in front and corresponding 
ones at the back, towards the fort. The middle arch is larger than the two side ones. 
Four platforms are built inside the gateway for the use of the guards, two at the ends, 
and two between the two pairs of piers of the central arches. Eight small jharokas 
are built on two long sides of the gateway. Four are in the middle of the piers on both 
sides and four in the end abutments of the small arches. The roofing is constructed of 
stone slabs and concrete and no cross arches divide the ceiling inside. 

" Of the various buildings inside the fort the elevations of two of them are shewn in 
Photograph No. 5834. The two-storied stmcture with three arch openings and a haithak 
or lounge in the centre is known by the name of a Kacheri or law court. There are two 
doors in front leading up to the first floor. The building to the right with fine jalis 
and projecting jharokas with curvilinear chhajjas is called * Ranvas ' or the Queen's 
abode." 

Apart from the incidental excavation work carried out at Nalanda in connexion with Central Circle. 
the conservation of the ancient remains previously exposed (an account of which appears ^<^^^- 



EXPLORATION. 



74 



Tanduk. 



Central Circle, earlier in this report, pp. 19-ff.) there is nothing to record under the head of exploration 

in the Central Circle during the year 1921-22. 

Eastern Circle. There was no excavation in the Eastern Circle during 1921-22. A sum of Rs. 848-9-8 
PaJiarpur. was, however, spent from the budget of the Circle for the acquisition of land at the Pahar- 

pur mound in Raj shahi District where it is hoped that excavations will be undertaken 
during 1922-23 under the direction of Professor D. R. Bhandarkar of the Calcutta 
University. The scheme is to be financed partly by the Government of India and partly 
by Kumar Sarat Kumar Roy of Dighapatiya, who by his munificent donations and 
active interest in the cause of archaeology has set a rare example to his countrymen. An 
Imperial grant of Rs. 2,000 made during the year to supplement the Kumar Saheb's 
contribution, was spent in purchasing implements for the impending operations. 

Notes on places visited by Mr. Dikshit. 

" Tamluk. — (Ancient Tamralipti, Damalipta, etc.). This ancient port of Bengal 
which is mentioned so frequently in early Buddhist and classical literature is rather 
disappointing to the antiquarian. There are few high mounds now left to mark the 
position of the ancient city, but the mound on which the Mission house is situated, 
another on which the temple of Bargabhima stands and the high land close to the river 
bed, from which a hoard of ancient coins (some of which are described below) was re- 
covered some 40 years ago, must be considered to cover some of the ground occupied by 
ancient Tamralipta. The antiquity of the Mission Mound has been demonstrated by the 
find of wood among layers of blue clay extending over several feet at a depth of about 
50 feet from the top, during the course of digging a well. The pieces of wood and 
samples of clay were shown to me by Miss Blake of the Mission house, and I have 
no doubt that they are entirely similar to the wooden remains discovered in the excava- 
tions of Pataliputra, the antiquity of Tamralipta being as great as that of the other city. 
Of the existing tanks the only ones that can claim a certain antiquity are the Khat Pukur 
to the east of the Rajbari or the Kaibartta Raja's residence, and the one adjoining the 
school. The former is nearly square and probably dates from about the 15-1 6th century. 
The other tank is oblong and must be more ancient, as a number of old brick walls are 
reported to have been discovered during its re-excavation a few years ago. The 
antiquities recovered from the high mound on the river bank referred to above are now 
preserved, at least partially, at the local High School. A collection of some 350 coins, 
mostly of the rectangular cast type was examined by me, and also some terra- 
cottas, all dating from about the Sunga period or a century or two before the Christian 
era. Two main types, described below, account for almost all the coins examined, the 
first represented by some 250, the second by some 100 specimens. 

Type I. — Rectangular cast (Ref. I. M. C, Vol. I, p. 200, coin 4). 

Obv. — Taurine, tree-in-railing, and chaitya with three arches. 

Rev. — Square cross, elephant, swastika and triangular- headed symbol. 

Type II.— Round cast coins (Ref. I. M. C, Vol. I, Pt. XXIII, 3). 
Obv. — Three arches with crescent. 
Rev. — Elephant. 

Of the terracottas, two rams with twisted horns and foliated garlands around the neck 
remind one of similar toys discovered in the excavations at Bhita {vide the Annual Report 
of the Director-General of Archaeology for 1911 -1 2, p. 73) and others acquired at Kosam 
(ancient Kausambi) in Allahabad District and now in the Provincial Museum, Lucknow. 



76 EXPLORATION. 

Another fine terracotta preserved only up to the waist, represents a standing figure with Tamluk. 
out-stretched arms, the central body line from the navel upwards being clearly visible. 
Another miniature terracotta plaque, though rather badly broken, has enough of the 
head-dress preserved to show that the style was similar to the bas-reliefs of Sanchi and 
Bharhut. The coins and terracotta leave no doubt as to the date of the find, which 
must be about the lst-2nd century B. C. 

" The most famous monument of modem times at Tamluk is the temple of Barga- 
bhima, standing on the top of a mound in the heart of the town. The place is one of the 
52 pithdsthanas of the Sakta cult, i.e., one of the holy centres, hallowed by the falling of 
one of the parts of the dead body of Sati, the first wife of Siva. The name Bargabhima 
is peculiar to Tamluk and not met with anywhere else. The shrine is small. In the 
ante-chamber, stone is used between bricks, an unusual mode of construction. The 
Jagmohan, Nat-mandir, etc., seem to have been thoroughly renewed. 

'' Gaganesvar. — This place is about 18 miles from Khargpur, 15 miles up to KesisLfi Gaganesvar. 
Thana being metalled and the rest kiUcha. There is also a kutcha road from Contai Road 
Railway Station, about seven miles distant from Gaganesvar. The name seems to 
have been derived from a temple of Siva so named, originally built in the middle of the 
fifteenth century by King Kapilesvara Deva of the Suryavamsi dynasty of Orissa, in 
whose dominions was included the southern portion of the present district of Midnapore. 
The temple stood in the centre of a rectangular cloistered stone enclosure, but was 
destroyed probably during the invasion of Orissa by Hussain Shah, the Sultan of Bengal 
(circa 1509 A. D.) when a part of the building was converted into a mosque. The latter 
has in its turn fallen into disuse and now the stone enclosure is known to the local people 
as the ' Karambera ' or * Kurumbera ' Garh, though it is doubtful whether it ever 
served the purpose of a fort. The monument was first brought to public notice by 
Mr. W. Herschel of the Bengal Civil Service in his article entitled, Description of a 
Hindu Temple converted into a Mosque at Gaganesvar, Zila Medinipur (J. A. S. B., 
Vol. XXXVII for 1868, pp. 73—76). It was subsequently included in the List of 
Ancient Monuments in Bengal published under authority in 1895, but no action was 
taken in regard to its preservation until 1920, when it was declared protected under the 
Ancient Monuments Preservation Act. On my visit to the place in April 1921, 
I found that the monument was a particularly interesting and well-preserved Hindu 
relic earlier than any other extant Hindu building in Bengal proper. The repairs 
recommended by me in an inspection and conservation note drawn up after my visit, 
have been sanctioned and are to be executed during 1922-23. In plan the building 
is oblong, measuring 262 feet in length and 175 feet in breadth externally. The walls are 
from 12 to 15 feet in height and are constructed of huge laterite blocks, laid dry as in 
other old Hindu buildings. On the inner side a pillared verandah runs along the entire 
length of the enclosure wall, excepting the gateway on the north, which is the sole 
means of access to the interior. The arches of the cloisters are of the corbelled type, 
springing from squat heavy piers of stone interspaced at a distance of about 8 feet. 
The ceiling slab of each of the cloisters is carved with a lotus, which is practically the 
only ornamentation to be found. The number of cloisters is twenty-five each on the 
longer sides and sixteen each on the shorter. Some of them have been seriously damaged 
owing to the sinkage of the pillars and the consequent displacement of the corbelled 
roof. The main wall has been breached for some length at the south-west comer and 
some of the adjoining cloisters are in a dilapidated condition. The Uriya inscription 



EXPLORATION. 



76 



Oaganesvar, 



Bharal Bhayha. 



recording the building of the * bera * or enclosure is fixed in the wall in this comer. 
The sanctum of the original temple which must have faced west is now represented by 
a well, which Mr. Herschel tells us, was dug by a pious or treasure-seeking Brahman, who 
had given out that the linga had retired there. The superstructure of the main temple 
and Jagmohan was entirely demolished by the Muhammadans, but the plinth of the 
Jagmohan, to the west of the sanctum, partly served as the foundation for the mosque. 
The latter is a small building of simple design, measuring only 23 feet by 14 feet, with 
three bays surmounted by weak spheroidal domes built of rubble masonry. All the 
domes have cracked and one has already fallen in. The peculiarities of the mosque, 
as already noted by Mr. Herschel, are the unusually small size of the door-openings and 
the existence of a true radiating arch crowning a corbelled one. 

" The stufa mound at Bharat Bhayna. — This monument is situated on the southern 
bank of the old bed of the Bhadra river in the water-logged tract of land to the west of 
Khulna, at a distance of about 13 miles from Daidatpur on the Satkhira-Daulatpur 
Road. It still stands to a height of about 40 to 45 feet above the level of the surrounding 
lands, though the local people say that before the earthquake of 1 897 it was still higher. 
It is fairly circular in shape, its circumference at the base being about 800 to 900 feet. 
It is full of bricks of large size, many of which have been removed by the inhabitants of 
neighbouring villages. A modern temple close to the mound is reported to be built 
almost wholly with materials obtained in this way. Some of the bricks here measure 
16''x 13" X 3", which bespeaks a high antiquity for the stupa. Comparing with this the 
dimensions of bricks of known periods found in the excavations at Saheth-Maheth, it 
can be safely surmised that the stupa at Bharat Bhayna dates back at least to the 
Gupta period, roughly the fifth century A. D. It is probable that this was one of the 
30 Sangharamas mentioned by Hiuen Tsang as existing in his time in the Samatata coun- 
try, in which modem Khulna must have been comprised at the time. Steps are being taken 
to bring the mound within the provisions of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act. 

M<Uh at Kodlah. ** Math at Kodlah or Ayodhya. — This is situated about 2\ miles from Jatrapur Station 

on the Khulna-Bagerhat Railway. From a fragmentary inscription in Bengali charac- 
ters over the comice it seems that the Math was built by some Brahman (the latter part 
of the donor's name is Sarma) and dedicated to Taraka (the *' Saviour," meaning probably 
Brahma). The building still rises to a height of 45 to 50 feet from the ground level and is 
a rather pleasing structure with the straight horizontal lines of its comiced spire inter- 
sected by the wavy vertical lines of the projections. It is built of fine-chiselled red 
bricks with thin joints. In plan, it consists of a square cell (measuring inside 10' 4" sq.) 
with 8' thick walls and 3 entrances, one in each direction except the north, the main 
door facing the south. The door-way arches are of the overlapping type, but the pen- 
dentive^ have pointed arches, supporting a circular roof. The exterior face is polygonal 
in plan with five recesses on either side of the central face making 6 planes and 1 1 recesses. 
The top of the tower is damaged, and the south-west comer has been undermined by a 
fi^l tree, but otherwise the monument is in fair condition, the brick ornamentation 
being of a singularly high order. The front side must originally have been profusely 
decorated, but the best work now left is on the north facade where the central band of 
the frame of the false door-way has some delicate floral designs in moulded brick-work 
[vide Plate XXVII (a)]. The date to which the monument can be assigned is about the 
sixteenth century A. D. When the necessary preliminaries are over, the building will 
be declared protected, and preserved at the cost of Government. 



EXPLORATION. 



78 



Bhandirban. 



Nannoor. 



similar to the tall pyramida sikharal type, developed in the Radha country or south- 
west Bengal, the Ichai Ghosh Temple in the Burdwan District and the Jatar Deul Temple 
in the Sunderbans being noteworthy examples, both prior in date to the present example 
by at least a century. The spire is about 46 feet high. The exterior surface of the temple 
is quite plain. The floor of the shrine is 5 feet lower than the level of the platform, as is 
the case with many Saiva shrines. The enshrined linga is a natural boulder with the 
arghya built of stone masonry. To the right is a stone image representing a four-handed 
goddess probably Durga, seated cross-legged, and holding a sword, trisula and lotus res- 
pectively in the lower right, lower left and upper left hands. At a short distance from 
the temple is a stone platform used in the dol festival of the neighbourmg Gopala 
Temple. The Bhandirban temple has been recommended to the Government of Bengal 
for protection, in case the Maharajadhiraj of Burdwan, in whose Zemindary the place 
is situated, has no objection. 

*' Nannoor. — ^Nannoor is about 5 miles from Kirnahar Railway Station on the Ahmad- 
pur-Katwa Section of the Burdwan-Katwa Railway. It owes its celebrity to its asso- 
ciation with the Bengali poet Chandi Das, whose mound, with the adjoining group of 
thirteen temples, including that of the goddess Bishalakshi, the poet's favourite deity, 
are now maintained by Government as protected monuments imder agreement with the 
owners. The temples are mostly of the single-cell pyramidal roof type, not earlier 
than the seventeenth century, and the temple of Basuli in particular has a very modern 
appearance. Repairs to these temples are being suggested and will be taken up as soon 
as funds are available. 



Bhadisvar, 



Paikore. 



" Bhadisvar. — This place is situated a little to the east of the Railway Station of 
Murarai. The image of Manasa which is lying in a hut by the side of the road is an 
excellent example of the representation of the snake-goddess so popular in Bengal. 
She has a hood of seven cobras, holds a cobra in her left hand, has a breast-band formed 
by serpents, is attended by a serpent-maid, and the vase (ghata) below her seat contains 
other cobras. The goddess is seated on a double lotus seat in the lUdsana pose and 
wears all the ornaments generally foimd on images of goddesses. [Vide Plate 
XXVm (c).] 

** Another image which lies half -buried in the groimd close to the image of Manasa, 
is that of Hara-gauri, the God Siva seated with his consort Parvati. The Crdhvalinga 
symbolizing the celibacy of Siva is a peculiarity worth noting in this image. 

" At the north end of the village is situated a mound called Shashtitala, which the 
villagers believe to have been the site of a Raja's palace. It is about 10' to 12' in height 
and 100' X 10' in dimensions. Bricks measuring about ll^''x9|'' are scattered all over 
the mound and the alignment of walls is clearly traceable on all sides. Another smaller 
mound to the north is supposed by the local people to be the site of a Siva temple. 
Judging from the remains to be found in the vicinity, the mounds must date back at 
least to the 10th or II th century A. D. As a preliminary step it is proposed to bring 
them within the provision of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act. 

''Paikore. — The most important epigraphical discovery of late in Bengal is that of 
the inscribed pillars at Paikore (first noticed in Bengali in the ' Birbhum-Biharar^^* 
Vol. II, page 10). The inscriptions refer to the Chedi King Kama [Plate XXVIII a] and 
King Vijayasena, respectively [Plate XXVIII 6]. The former's invasion of Bengal was 



79 EXPLORATION. 

before tlie discovery of this inscription, a mere conjecture based on some expressions Paikore. 
foimd in the Prasastis of the Kalachuris and in the Tibetan life of the Buddhist saint 
Atisa Dipankara. The present record of Karnaraja places the event beyond the realm 
of controversy. It is very probable that Kama following up his victory over Rajyapala, 
the Gurjara King of Kanauj , proceeded eastwards and invaded the dominions of the 
Palas. His route must have been through south Bihar (ancient Magadha) and 
Bhagalpur (ancient Anga), till he came to the Radha country. The situation of 
Paikore at the north-western limit of the Radha country suggests that as soon as 
the invading monarch penetrated so far into the heart of the Pala domains, the Pala 
King must have made peace with the invader. It is easy to assume that the gift of 
the image must have been made by Kama during his sojourn in Bengal when negotia- 
tions were going on between the princes, which probably culminated in peace, 
strengthened by a matrimonial alliance, whereby Yauvanasri, the daughter of Kama, 
was given in marriage to the Pala prince Vigrahapala III. Paikore is about three 
miles to the east of the Murarai Station on the Loop Line of the E. I. Railway. The 
name is supposed to be a corrupted form of Prachikot, or the * Eastern Citadel.' 
The authors of the Bengali Gazetteer display much ingenuity in speculating about 
the names of this place and other places in the neighbourhood, such as Nongarh, 
Mitrapur, etc. They have also recorded certain extraordinary features among the 
religious usages obtaining at this place, e.g,, the existence of a Vaishnavite shrine 
where animal sacrifices are allowed (contrary to the usual practice), the custom 
of ofEering the tulasi leaves to God Siva, and the celebration of a peculiar ceremony, 
known as the ' Banavrata ' in the month of Magha. On the basis of these peculiar 
customs an antiquity of at least seven or eight centuries is claimed for this place, which 
is further corroborated by the existence of a number of images and inscribed pillars. 

" The most important antiquities at Paikore are the two inscribed pillars at Narava- 
nachatvara lying on a masonry platform by the side of a tank, along with an image of 
Narasimha and several others. Both the pillars seem to have been crowned by images 
and the inscriptions engraved on them must have referred to the dedication of the 
images. The Vijayasena pillar clearly exhibits the headless figure of the goddess 
Manasa, while the Karnadeva pillar being broken off just at the commencement of the 
inscription shows no trace of the image. The pillars must have been sunk into the 
floor, as we see from the rough-hewn surface of the lowermost portion of the Karnadeva 
pillar, the square and octagonal sections of the shaft above being highly polished 
and decorated with beautiful tracery. The design on each side of the square section 
is that of a vase {mangala kalasa) the top and bottom of which are covered with full- 
blown lotuses and foliage while at the centre appears a kirtimukka, the necklaces of 
pearls issuing from which are held by bearded attendants. The carving of this pillar 
has been done so beautifully as to entitle the sculptor to a high rank. It is very 
probable that the artist belonged to Bengal, rather than to the Chedi country firstly 
because the polish and finish of the black basalt stone from the Rajmahal hills used 
in the sculpture indicates a thorough mastery over the material, which cannot be 
acquired without the efforts of generations ; and, secondly, the inscription engraved on 
the pillar is not in the Central Indian script, but in the Proto-Bengali characters preva- 
lent in N. E. India. 

" The inscription, which consists of six lines, is rather hastily engraved. It begins on 
the tapering circular portion of the shaft, and is continued over the octagonal section 



EXPLORATION. 80 

Paikore. It is written in shallow, cursive letters of the 11th century north-eastern characters. 

It was first partially deciphered by Mahamahopadhyaya Hara Prasad Sastri, whose 
tentative readings were published in the Birbhum-bibaran, without facsimiles. It is 
with some diffidence that I publish below my own readings of the inscrip- 
tion — 

1. Sri Sri Gampati. 
2. 

3. Om deva-dvija-ffuru [bhajah] ntari 

daya bhahindnta X 

4. nehayan — X [sraddha] yd-smin karmmani rdjasri-Karnadeva 

5. Om svdsii samriddha rajya-sri-Chedi 

r (a jya) sri-Karna-deva [sya] 
jya nantard Jdrti prdsdsti (?). 

Sri visva karma charana-prasaddt 

devi-murtti nrimita X ptiya Sri Kdrtii 

" The gist of the record seems to be that at the order of King Karnadeva of 
CheHi, an image of the goddess was made by a certain sculptor. 

" The other inscription reads — Rajena-Sri-Vijayase, 



" Besides the pillars, several interesting images mostly fragmentary or obliterated, 
representing Vishnu, Hara-Gauri, Astabhuja, etc., are collected and now lying about 
the platform at Narayana-chatvara. One of these, the image of Nrisimha, of which 
the head is separated from the torso, is particularly interesting [Plate XXVIII d]. 
The scene of the appearance of the man-lion incarnation from the midst of a pillar, which 
the proud and imbelieving Asura Hiranyakasipu had the audacity to kick, has been 
depicted here to the left of the main figure. The story as narrated in various Puranas 
is practically unanimous in saying that the occasion for the appearance of the incarnation 
was the kicking of the pillar by the Asura as a challenge to his son Prahlad, who would 
argue with his father that his God existed everywhere — in land and water, wood and stone. 
In the Paikore image, we probably had on the right of the main figure the earlier scene 
at the throne-room of the Asura King, where the recalcitrant son was summoned to his 
father's presence, and questioned about his belief. We only see the left half of a figure 
seated on a throne with a standing figure turned towards the former probably in the 
attitude of making obeisance. We can easily identify the two figures as Hiranyakasipu* 
and Prahlad respectively. In the scene to the left of the central figure, we see Hiranya 
raising his right leg to the very top of the pillar, and the half-length figure of the man- 
lion emerging out of the pillar with the right hand raised. The concave curve 
described by the up-turned leg of Hiranya is unnatural, but is frequently met with in 
Indian sculpture, especially in connection with the Vamana or dwarf incarnation of 
Vishnu. The main man-lion image is shown as trampling on a prostrate figure with the 
left foot and with the two lower hands cutting open the abdomen and drawing out the 
entrails of the Asura, who lies in a recumbent position resting on the knee of the incar- 
nation. The upper two hands of the figure are lost. The mane of the lion is disposed 

* Vide Matsya-purana. 



EXPLORATION. 82 

Ch%tt4igong. Tibetan works as to the existence of Mahayanism in Chittagong at least from the 8-9th 

century. Through the courtesy of the reverend lecturer, I was able to obtain photo- 
graphic records of 13 of the images described below. They represent the Buddha, 
Padmapani Avalokitesvara, Tara and other cult images, and range in date from about 
the 9th century to the 12th or 13th, being closely allied to the products of the Magadha 
school. The bronzes are similar in workmanship to the Nalanda bronzes and it is 
possible to imagine that the worshippers in this remote comer of India requisitioned 
images from more inland parts of the country, unless they had them manufactured locally 
in imitation of models obtained from the Magadha country. A detailed description 
of these Buddhist images in Chittagong follows : — 

(1) Bronze image (height 7 J") of Buddha seated in the Bhumisparsa mudra 

originally found in a mosque. The left hand is placed palm upwards a 
little below the navel. The right hand passing over the knee-joint points 
to the earth. The end of the upper garment hangs in folds from the left 
shoulder. A vajra is shown in the centre of the pedestal. The original 
bronze colour with its green patina is still preserved in this image. There 
is a circular seal on the back, as in the Nalanda images, which must once 
have contained the Buddhist creed. The inscription on the pedestal in 
characters of the 10th- 11th century reads — 

* 1. Om deya'dharmmo-yam pravara-mahayayinah 
X cha (?) ndra vijaya jnUrdsya (?) yadcUra 

2. mata pitri ' 

(2) Bronze image (height 7^") of Buddha seated in the Bhumisparsa mudra ; 

similar to No. (1) in almost every respect; covered with gold leaf. 
Inscription on pedestal in one line, consisting of the Buddhist creed and the 
words — 

* deya'dharmo-yam Dharmikasya ' — the gift of Dharmika. 

(3) Bronze image of Padma-pani (?) Avalokitesvara (height 9"), seated on a lotus 
! seat ; left hand on seat behind left leg ; right hand holding lotus bud 

supported on right knee ; decorated with all the usual ornaments ; has a 

dhyani-BuddhsL in his crest ; lotus-stalk to left. Inscription on the petals 

•,i of the lotus-seat in triangle-headed characters of about the 9th-10th 

century, — 

* Om deya-dhanno-yam Nagirikasya ' — the gift of Nagirika. 

(4) Stone bas-relief (height 7") of Tara ; seated in the lilasana ; holds the stalk 

of a lotus in the left hand, the right being placed over the knee ; fully orna- 
mented ; stupa in relief on the back slab ; lions couchant on either side ; 
kneeling figures in front on pedestal, probably representing donor and his 
wife. The inscription in 7 lines in characters of the 9th century on the 
back reads, — 

* 1. Om ye dharm^i hetupra 

2, bha {ava) hetum tesanta 3. thagatah evam vanijo 

4, nirodho brihadhanna 5. m^ihasramuh 6. Om ye dhamui paramopa 



83 EXPLORATION. 

7. sakah Kadainda.^ Chittagong. 

The first five lines give a corrupt and incomplete creed ; the last two give 
the name of the donor which was Kadainda. 

(5) Bronze image (height 6") of Padmapani Avalokitesvara seated in the lilasana ; 

circular halo behind ; covered with silver leaf ; left hand holds stalk of 
lotus ; dhyani-buddha in crest. Inscription on pedestal below lotus seat — 

deya-dharmo — yam Sri Haritaka (?) 

(6) Bronze image (height 5'') of Tara seated in the lilasana ; circular halo behind ; 

covered with silver leaf ; uninscribed. 

(7) Hollow bronze cast image (height 4^") (most probably of foreign origin) of 

Buddha, seated in the Bhumisparsa mudra ; on reverse, stupa with 10 
umbrellas. The technique is very defective, as shown by the bulging 
eyes. 

(8) Bronze image (height 6") of Buddha standing in the Abhaya mudra. Small 

round seal on reverse. 

(9) Bronze image (height 3f "') of Buddha, seated in the Bhumisparsa mudra ; 
• oval shaped halo with beaded border, behind ; square pedestal with 

double lotus seat ; on reverse, small round seal inscribed with Buddhist 
creed in 11th century characters. 

(10) Bronze image (height ^Y) of Jambhala, seated in the lilasana^ with right 

foot hanging down and the left folded on the seat. The god is characteriz- 
ed by the distended abdomen and the row of seven auspicious jars on the 
pedestal ; his left hand holds a toy elephant and the right holds some 
kind of fruit ; the figure is fully ornamented. 

(11) Small soapstone sculpture (length 3 J") shaped like a boat with a lamp 

receptacle on the left and a bearded sadhu with distinctly Chinese features, 
leaning on it to the right. This must have been left by some Chinese 
visitor or pilgrim. 

(12) Bronze image (height 3 J") of Buddha, seated cross-legged, with the hands in 

the Dharmachakra-mudra ; behind, broken halo with decorated borders ; 
on reverse, ring with hole, meant for holding the staff of an umbrella. 

(13) Wooden image (height 7") of Buddha, seated on double-lotus seat in the 

Bhumisparsa mudra ; Vajra in front and branches of the Bodhi tree on the 
halo behind the head ; surface damaged and cracked ; right arm broken ; 
originally from Vikrampur, District Dacca. 

" Devikot of Bangarh. — The ancient city of Kotivarsha, which was the seat of a dis- Bangarh. 
trict {vishaya) under the Paundra-vardhana province (bhukti) at the time of the Guptas ; 
(vide the article on the Domodarpur plates Epi. Ind. Vol. XV, pages 133 — 145) is now 
represented by the extensive mounds of Bangarh or Ban Rajar Garh on the Punarbhaba, 
about 16 miles from Dinajpur and 2 miles from Gangarampur Police Station. The older 
gite was in continuous occupation till the invasion of the Muhammadans in the thirteenth 
century to whom it was known as Devkot or Devikot. It possesses Muhammadan 
records ranging from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century. The later Sanskrit Lexi- 
cons Haima and Trikanda mention Devikota, Kotivarsha, Banapura, Sonitapura, and 



EXPLORATION. 



84 



Bangarh. 



Bahulara. 



Umavana as different names of one and the same place. The last two are not known from 
any other source to denote the present site, but it is interesting to find that Banapura 
and Sonitapura are synonymous terms applied to the modern town of Tezpur in Assam. 
The fact seems to be that the names of kings like Bana and Birata, well known in popular 
mythology, were foisted at one time or other on different places laying claim to anti- 
quity. 

" The extant ruins at Bangarh are almost in the same condition as they were when 
described by General Cunningham, more than forty years ago (A. S. R., Vol. XV, pages 
96 — 100). The thick jimgle that existed in his time is not there, and the level area on 
the top is now cultivated by Santals. The Rajbari moimd at the south-east comer is 
one of the highest mounds at Bangarh and must contain some important remains. The 
Dargah of Sultan Pir is a Muhammadan shrine built on the site of an old Hindu temple 
of which four granite pillars each 15' in height are still standing in the centre of the 
enclosure, the door jambs having been used in the construction of the gateway. 

" The Dargah of Shah Ata on the north bank of the Dhaldighi tank is another build- 
ing built on the ruins of an older Hindu or Buddhist structure. The four inscriptions 
noticed by Cunningham are still preserved in the walls of the Dargah. The walls are 
in good condition, but overgrown with jungle trees. The tops of the wall have a surkhi 
plaster coping and it is very doubtful if the inner apartment of the Dargah ever had the 
domed roof Cunningham supposed. The female figure on the lintel of the doorway now 
fixed in the east wall of the Dargah appears to be Tara, from which it would seem that 
the temple destroyed was Buddhist. It is proposed to bring the Dargah within the 
provisions of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, for the sake of the inscriptions. 

*' A fine terracotta head (height 9") discovered in the ruins of Bangarh was picked 
up by me from a modern Siva temple and presented to the Indian Museum, Calcutta 
{vide Plate XXIX b). Its thick lower lip, straight nose, and broad forehead are among 
the most noticeable features ; and it can safely be assigned to a period not later than the 
early Pala period (■8th-9th century). Another stone at the same Siva temple is a 
fragmentary door- jamb ornamented w4th beautiful scroll- work containing figures of 
men and animals. 

" The Rajbari or Raja's palace at Dinajpur contains several important pillars, archi- 
tectural stones and images taken from Bangarh. The best known antiquity here is the 
inscribed basalt pillar of the Kamboja king, whose date has been the subject of a long 
controversy. Another sandstone pillar crowned by a black basalt image of Garuda is 
standing in the courtyard of the temple of Kaliya-kanta. Other important antiquities 
in the palace are a miniature shrine with a sikhara (spire) of the Orissan temple type, 
a very beautiful carved doorway, with two female Xaginis on the lintel and serpents' 
coils entwined on the door- jambs, and a collection of images in the eastern enclosure, 
including an interesting image of a female deity, similar in other respects to Chamunda, 
but whose vehicle is a horse. 

" Siddhesvara temple at Bahulara. — Bahulara is about 3 miles distant from Onda 
station. The temple of Siddhesvara here is one of the finest brick temples in the dis- 
trict. It must have been prior in date to the Vaishnava temples at Vishnupur, as can be 
seen from its style which is more similar to the older North Indian style than to the later 
Bengali type. The plan of tho temple is polygonal with a tall sikhara (54 feet in height) 
the surface of which is richly decorated with moulded bricks, one of the ornamentations 



EXPLORATION. 86 

Vnakoti. " The existence of this interesting group of antiquities was first brought to the notice 

of this Department in 1914 by Captain Williams, then political agent to the Tripura 
State. Besides a Bengali pamphlet recently published by Mr. Debabarman of the 
Botanical Survey, there are no other publications referring to Unakoti. The Raj mala, 
a Bengali metrical history of the Tripura Raj family, contains two or three references to 
the visits of some of the Tripura Rajas to this holy place. The name Unakoti (which is 
also applied to another well-known holy place in Assam, viz., Bishvanath in Tezpur 
District) means * one less than a crore ', and the propriety of denoting a tirtha by this 
name will be apparent when it is remembered that Kashi or Benares, the holiest of all 
holy places is the only Koti-tirtha, (either because it is supposed to contain one crore 
of Siva-emblems within its boundaries or because of its outstanding religious merit), all 
other places, however successful in emulating it, falling just short of the crore. 

" The remains at Unakoti consist of a number of stone sculptures, now mostly worn 
and defaced, on the top of the knoll, and others scattered here and there, together with a 
series of colossal heads and figures carved partly in the rocky bed of a stream which 
issues from the hills at this place, and partly on the face of the rocky slopes on either 
side of the stream. The most central and conspicuous figure is the colossal Siva head 
[Plate XXX 6] in the stream bed, at the point where it issues from a succession of pools. 
The spot is one of great natural beauty and the outcrop of stone must have been a great 
attraction to the religious sculptor. Indeed, the choice of Unakoti as a Tirtha may be 
due to this combination of circumstances. The activity of the people who popularized 
the Tirtha by converting large masses of rock surface into images of their gods, must 
have extended over a fairly long period, but it is a pity that the heavy rainfall and the 
frequent earthquakes have not left more of the carvings intact. 

" The central head is about 30' high, including the high embroidered head-dress which 
is itself 10' in height. The face is carved out of a flat square block of stone ; the third 
eye is shown in the middle of the forehead and the mouth is a long narrow slit with vertical 
lines representing the teeth. The ears are carved on the side in lower planes than the 
central plane of the face, their lower extremities being hidden beneath bold flower 
ornaments. The moustache is turned upwards ending in a loop. The figure is much 
damaged, as can be seen from the crack running through from ear to ear just below the 
eyes, the flaked off surface at the left cheek and the gaps in the right ear and the head- 
dress. At some distance to the left are the Trident of Siva and some stone heads, while 
in front are three representations of Siva's bull. In the rock above the head, the figure 
of Durga standing on her lion can be distinguished to the right and another female figure 
to the left. 

" On the left bank of the stream there are several colossal rock-cut figures. One of 
these probably represented Vishnu, as a lozenge-shaped jewel ornaments the breast 
of the figure, the face being lost. Another gigantic Siva figure has merely the huge 
ears with ear-rings left. Among the numerous figures on the right bank, two arches, 
* a lion-faced goddess, a standing Siva figure holding the conch (sankha) in the right hand 
and the rosary (akshamula) in the left, may be specially mentioned. The last described 
form is seldom found in other Siva images, but is common at Unakoti. Other peculiar 
forms in which Siva was worshipped here are represented by three boulders fairly 
rounded, each with five, eleven, or twenty-eight balls at the top, representing Siva 
lingas, and on the sides, rows of crude faces in low relief. 



87 EXPLORATION 

** A little lower down the valley a group of Ganesa figures carved in the perpendi- Unakoti. 
cular face of the rock in the stream bed was discovered in course of clearance. 
[Plate XXX a]. This group having been so long covered with jungle and earth is in 
better preservation than the other figures, but its situation in the bed of the stream makes 
it particularly liable to the action of water. The group consists of a seated Ganesa 
(height 22') to the extreme left and to his right two standing elephant-headed figures, 
with an image of Vishnu at the proper right end. Iconographically, the two central 
figures are unique. They are undoubtedly connected with the cult of Ganesa, but they 
differ widely from the usual image of that God. They are standing erect, whereas Ganesa 
is usually seated with his legs apart ; they have attenuated waists, while Ganesa has a 
distended abdomen ; they have three and four tusks and six and eight hands respectively, 
while Ganesa has only one tusk and two or four hands ; the objects held as emblems are 
the sankha, chakra, akshamala, damaru, etc., and they have conchs on their ears, a feature 
not noticed elsewhere. The image of Vishnu at the right end is a standing four-handed 
image holding the usual Ayudhas, the pose resembling that of the Sun-god more than 
that of Vishnu. 

" The style of the rock-cut carvings at Unakoti betrays a rudimentary and crude 
conception of the sculptor's art and illustrates in a remarkable way the canons of primi- 
tive art. The anatomical features of the different parts of the body are treated only in 
their broadest aspects, without any attempt to harmonise the whole. It is extremely 
difficult to fix the period of the rock-carvings, as no material for comparison with them 
exists in north-east India. The Surma valley tract is one of the poorest parts of India 
so far as historical materials or even literary references are concerned. The only indica- 
tions of the probable age of the sculptures is afforded by the detached stone images, 
The older collection at the hill-top which has badly weathered contains images of Vishnu, 
Hara Gauri, Harihara, Narasimha, Ganesa, and Hanuman, which could scarcely be 
placed earlier than about the II -12th century. But the discovery of two chaturmukhO' 
lingas and an ekamukha-Unga (lingas with four and one faces respectively) during the 
year gives for the first time excellent material, which can bear comparison with products 
of art from other places in Eastern India. The chaturmukha-linga (height 3') lying on 
the bank of the stream a short distance below the Ganesa group, is a fine specimen 
of early mediaeval art. Two of the four figures are in good preservation, and they 
testify to the skill of the sculptor in delineating the contemplating form of Siva. The 
beatific smile of the Yogi has been successfully shown on the face [vide Plate XXIX (c)] 
The right hand, holding the rosary (akshamala) is, true to the canon, shown in the 
* treble-bending ' {tribhanga) pose, as also are the fingers ; the left hand holds a sankha 
The ornaments of the figure are a high head-dress, necklace and torque, bracelets, arm 
lets, ear ornaments and a snake in place of the sacred thread. The other chaturmukha 
linga though similar in detail (except that it has one bearded face), is much inferior in 
execution. 

** The only inscriptions at Unakoti are a couple of records in old Bengali charac- 
ters of the ll-12th century on the last mentioned linga, which mention one Sri- 
Jayadeva, probably a pilgrim. The linga with one face, which is similar to these, has 
weathered a good deal and is now enshrined on the highest point of the Unakoti hill. 

" On the whole, judging by the extant remains at Unakoti, it may be concluded 
with some certainty that the site has been sacred to the worship of Siva at least from the 
8-9th centuries, if not some centuries earlier." 



EXPLORATION. 



88 



Southern 
Circle. 

Cochin, 



Places visited in the Southern Circle. 

Mr. Longhurst could not take up any excavation work this year as, owing to the 
transfer of his headquarters from Madras to Kotagiri in the Nilgiri District, he was very 
busy in arranging his records and fixing up the office. Consequently the amount of 
Rs. 1,000 sanctioned for exploration, lapsed to Government. 

The Officiating Superintendent, Pandit Hirananda Shastri, reports, however, that 
" During his tours of inspection Mr. Longhurst visited several interesting monuments. 
Some of these have already been described by him in detail in his annual reports, while 
others like the Bandar Fort at Masulipatam have just been noticed. Of the rest the 
most important is the church of St. Francis at Cochin, which is probably the oldest 
existing European church in India [Plate XVI(a)]. The exact date when it was built is 
not known, but presumably it owes its origin to the Franciscan Friars who accompanied 
the first Portuguese expedition imder Pedro Alverez Cabrel, and if so it must have come 
into existence soon after A. D. 1500, the year of the expedition. It is said to have 
been of wood originally but was soon afterwards re-built in stone. In 1502 Vasco Da 
Gama landed at Cochin and concluded a treaty of commerce with the local Raja. In 
1524 he paid his second visit to Cochin, but this time he came only to die. He expired 
on the 24th or 25th December and was interred in the chancel of this church, though 
fourteen years later his corporeal remains were removed to Portugal by one of his sons. 
In 1663 the Dutch took Cochin and, remaining in possession of it for some one hundred 
and thirty-two years, greatly improved the town as well as its fortifications. They 
expelled the Portuguese and Spanish priests and destroyed most of their convents and all 
the churches, except the St. Francis Church, which they converted into a chapel for 
their own use. In consequence of these measures the Roman Catholic communitv 
deserted the town in a body and declined to trade with the Dutch. A compromise was 
finally effected and permission given to the Roman Catholics to erect a church on the 
Island of Vypeen. In 1795 the old church of St. Francis passed into the hands of the 
English. In 1806, fearing that Cochin was to be restored to the Dutch, the East India 
Company blew up the old Roman Catholic cathedral of Santa Cruz, which the Dutch 
had converted into a storehouse, and destroyed the fort with some of the quays and rest- 
houses. The church of St. Francis very nearly shared the same fate, for barrels of 
gunpowder had been already placed inside, and everything was ready for its demoli- 
tion, when at the eleventh hour, the officer in command relented, and happily, this 
historical old building escaped destruction. The massive buttresses which are such 
a striking feature of all the larger buildings in the town are said to have been erected 
about this time to shore up the cracked walls of the houses shaken by the force of the ex- 
plosions. The church is of no particular architectural merit but it is a big lofty building 
of massive construction and mainly built in the Dutch style in brick and plaster with a 
timber-framed roof covered with modern tiles. It has a lofty gable front facing the 
west with a semi-circular arched entrance and windows above. The fagade is decorat- 
ed with three rows of brick and plaster super-imposed columns carrying horizontal 
string courses which divide the front into three compartments. On each side at the 
angles is a tall buttress terminating in a stepped pinnacle and on the summit of the 
gable is a bell turret in the same style. The entrance has no porch, but immediately 
above it, obscuring the three windows in the middle compartment of the facade, an 
unsightly tiled pent-roof has been erected to serve as a shelter to the entrance below. This 
being an eyesore should be removed and replaced by a proper porch built in keeping 



89 EXPLORATION. 

with the style of the old doorway. A row of massive buttresses, six feet square at the Cochin. 
base, supports the side walls of the building which are four feet thick. The nave is 142 
feet in length, 51 feet in width and about 50 feet in height and is bright, airy, and simple 
in style. A plain broad-spanned arch with simple mouldings divides the nave from 
the chancel. 

** This church was restored by the Dutch in 1779 and has been repaired from time to 
time at Government expense since and is now in a good state of preservation. The 
floor of the nave until 1867 was paved with carved and inscribed tombstones of 
former distinguished Portuguese and Dutch officials and merchants, but for the sake 
of safety they were removed and fixed in an upright position in the side walls of the 
nave. The earliest Portuguese inscription is dated 1562 and the earliest Dutch record 
1664. As shown in the accompanying illustrations some of the heraldic designs 
and armorial bearings depicted above the quaint old epitaphs are well-executed and 
very interesting [Plate XVII (a) and (c)]. Immediately in front of the main entrance 
is a small ston^-built War-memorial erected in 1921 to the memory of those Europeans 
from Cochin who fell in the Great War. 

'* Close to St. Francis Church and facing the sea, is the old Dutch Cemetery -which Dutch Cemetery, 
is crowded with curious old tombs of various forms in brick and plaster and much Cochin. 
blackened by long exposure. Some are flat, domed or pyramidal, while others are 
occasionally diversified by broken columns, urns and sarcophagi. They form an interest- 
ing group of old Dutch monuments well worth preservation at Government expense. 

** This Hindu Fort is said to have derived its name from the rock on which it stands Rock Fori at 
which is shaped like a pillow (Tamil Tandu — pillow, Kal — stone). It dates from^^*fl^^ 
about the 17th century A. D. and contains the remains of some interesting structures 
such as the temple of the goddess Abhirami on the summit of the hill, the extensive 
pillared mandapa and a group of small shrines and tanks. Much clearance is required 
to keep the interior of this fort tidy. The old drain should be opened and the tops of 
the ramparts sloped and dressed where necessary to prevent water collecting dur- 
ing the rains. The space within the main gate should be converted into a grass plot 
without attempting to have a garden, and be provided with proper drainage. The 
fort has extensive underground barracks located in the basement of the ramparts 
around the main gate, in the form of a series of underground brick and plaster 
galleries with bomb-proof roofs supported on rows of low round arches. The 
entrances are all on the inner side of the rampart wall facing the high 
sloping surface of the rock above, down which during the rains a considerable 
volume of water flows towards the gateway and the underground barracks. In order 
to prevent the latter from getting flooded, a large subterranean drain passes under the 
floor of the barracks to the outside of the fort. The outer end of this drain is now 
blocked with silt and should be cleaned and put in working order. The steps to some 
of the entrances to these barracks should be raised to a height of about 1 foot to prevent 
surface water getting into the interior. The cracks in some of the roofs require patch- 
repairs. The tanks within the fort should be cleaned out, repaired and made watertight 
where necessary with new cement work. The group of small temples and mandapas 
on the top of the hill are in good order. These together with the ruined buildings in the 
fort, the barracks, the magazines and others do not stand in need of any repair but 
should be kept tidy and free from rank vegetation. 

** At Sadras in the Chingleput District there is an old Dutch fort which was blown DtUch Fort at 
up when abandoned by the British. Its fortifications and circular bastions standing at Madras. 



EXPLORATION. 



90 



Dutch Fort at 
Sadras, 



Burma Circle. 

Sameihhe. 



each of the four angles are in ruins. At the basement of the south-west bastion two 
cannons are lying. The ramparts on the east side facing the sea have been destroyed. 
The main gateway on the west side is not in so decayed a condition as the rest of the 
fortifications. On the south side of this gateway within the fort is a small Dutch ce- 
metery which is enclosed by a brick and plaster wall. On the north side, outside the fort 
is another similar cemetery which is also enclosed by a brick wall. On inspection it 
was found that the fort and the ruined buildings within were overgrown with rank 
vegetation and full of rubbish requiring thorough clearance. The floors of the ruined 
buildings needed levelling and sloping to ensure proper drainage. The buildings are 
mostly in an advanced stage of decay and beyond repairs, but both the cemeteries 
should be maintained in good order." 

For some years past lack of funds has prevented the Superintendent in Burma 
from doing any excavation work. The excavations at Sameikshe were undertaken 
because, from the very first, the villagers themselves offered their services free from re- 
mimeration for a number of days. M. Duroiselle says : ** Men from three villages turned 
out for the work in a fine enthusiastic spirit and the monks themselves were not slow in 
contributing their spiritual influence and their help in that gentlemanly and broad- 
minded way so widely prevalent among the Burmese bhikkhus. In 1920 im- 
authorized excavations had been made at Sameikshe by a villager, the principal find 
being a bronze image of Dipankara Buddha, a good find, considering how very scarce 
are the images of this Buddha in Burma. The spot where this was found had been 
thoroughly dug up, and in the process, the foundations of an old building had been some- 
what damaged. It was to avoid further damage to this or any other monument which 
might be excavated that the Superintendent was asked to come and supervise the work 
himself. The site already dug by the villagers yielded nothing more ; but further traces 
of walls were discovered. The monument must have measured 25 feet in plan, 
and was no doubt of the type so numerous in Pagan, that is, a square central pile of 
bricks with a vaulted corridor all round it. From the nature of the objects found in it, 
mention of which has been made in a previous report, this temple was probably built 
in the 11th or 12th century. Nothing whatsoever is knowTi about it, nor about the 
numerous remains scattered all about over a large area ; there appears to be no local 
tradition, and this seems to point to comparatively recent immigration. My atten- 
tion was next directed to another mound of ruins close by about which many strange 
tales were told by some of the villagers. Very large bricks were strewn about, 
pointing to the fact that the site was probably an old one. From a low depression 
in the centre of the mound, it was clear that it had already been dug into, but no 
one present could remember any digging having taken place here. A trench was dug 
from north to south across the mound and about one foot below the surface on the north 
side, a course of bricks was brought to light ending abruptly on the east and south, but 
continuing on the north and west. A little lower down was discovered the comer of an 
exterior wall, traces of plaster still adhering to it. Further digging only disclosed other 
courses of bricks forming the foundation of an old monument. Nothing of moment 
was found excepting, at the lowermost layer of the foimdations, a few terracotta 
votive tablets. The most interesting of these was one measuring 6"x4f''; it is of a 
kind conmiun enough in Burma, representing the Buddha in the hhiimi-sparsa ?nudra 
with beneath, the representation of the temple at Bodh-Gaya. The throne is flanked 
on either side by a Bodhisattva seated with one leg pendant. Below is a short inscrip- 
tion in Nagari characters in which appears the name of King Anorata (1044-1077). Tlds 



91 EXPLORATION. 

fixes the date of the tablet, as well as that of the ruined building, which must have been 
contemporary. The other tablets were of a common type and call for no remarks. 
It will be seen that these excavations were not very successful. What the other moimds, 
scattered, as has been said above, over a large area, may yield, remains for the future to 
disclose, when sufficient funds will be available." 

To the south of Sameikshe, M. Duroiselle visited two old buildings ; a pagoda 
called the Patodawgyi and a Sima. Both are evidently old from their style, the pagoda 
dating probably from the 1 3th century. At the Sima was f oimd a very beautiful bronze 
image of a Bodhisattva going back probably to the 11th century. These two buildings 
were in a bad state of repairs, but the Superintendent induced the residing monk, 
U Vasavinda, to repair them, which he promised to do as soon as he had collected 
the necessary fimds. 

At Nyaungbingan, somewhat to the west of Sameikshe, was found, in a field, a 
votive tablet with a legend in old Talaing of the 10th or 11th century on the reverse 
face ; but the letters have very much weathered and are so faint that nothing satis- 
factory has yet been made out. 

Another votive tablet was found of a kind rather scarce in Burma ; it represents 
in bold relief, the figure of Buddha seated European fashion, with his hands in the 
dharmacakra mudra ; two bodhisattvas flank him ; above the latter there appear to be 
some writing in north-Indian characters, but so very faint that nothing much can be 
deciphered. The most interesting feature consists of a Burmese legend on the reverse 
face in very archaic language which presents some difficulties for translation. 

Notes on places visited by Mr. Duroiselle. 

" Pagan being, as has often been stated, the principal centre of conservation P«afa«» 
work in Burma, owing to its numerous monuments, among which are found some 
which may rank among the finest in India, might be thought to be also a 
centre for fruitful excavation work. Such, however, is not the case ; excavations 
executed in the past did not justify this expectation, and nothing really valuable from 
an antiquarian point of view has been found there. But the place is very rich in votive 
tablets. These tablets are of importance as a help in elucidating the history of Burma 
and its relations with India, above all north-eastern India. Many are inscribed with 
legends in Pali or Sanskrit, sometimes with both, the one being on the obverse, the other 
on the reverse face ; some are inscribed in mixed Pali and Sanskrit ; and the characters 
belong mostly to North-Indian alphabets of the 10th and 11th centuries and in some 
cases probably earlier. At that period, and somewhat earlier, many monks from India, 
it is well known, crossed over to Burma and Cambodia, among whom was the famous 
Sangama Srinaya, and in Bengal and Bihar were many monks from Indo-China. 
Moreover, there is evidence of intercourse other than religious between these countries. 
This no doubt explains the large number of votive tablets evidently manufactured in 
India which are now found at Pagan. 

** Another find of very interesting tablets was made by me while examining 
an old ruined pagoda near the Mingala-zedi. I found that a moulding on one of the 
terraces was actually built up with votive tablets. But it was impossible to detach 
many of them without endangering the stability of the building which, on that side, 
tilts very dangerously. A certain number were recovered from the moulding itself 
and from among the debris. Most of them bear an inscription, but the striking feature 



EXPLORATION. 



92 



Pagan. 



Old Pram. 



Kashmir. 

Harwan, 



is that legends in different languages were found collected in the same monument. 
Some of the legends are in Sanskrit, some in Pali, some tablets bear a Burmese legend 
and others a Talaing one. Again others are bi-lingual, that is Sanskrit and Burmese or 
Sanskrit and Talaing. All these legends belong to the 10th or 11th century. 

" Old Prome is the oldest place in Burma so far as archaeology is concerned, and 
contains monuments, such as the Bawbawgyi for instance, which have no counterpart 
anywhere else. The Bawbawgyi was repaired in 1910-14, but unfortimately the three 
lower terraces which have been buried imder earth and debris probably for centuries, 
were not cleared at that time. Some of the most important and oldest finds ever 
made in Burma were obtained by digging into a very small portion of this debris. 
The probability is that other important finds will be made if the whole be dug. There 
seems to have been a vague idea that, if the three lower terraces were imcovered, the 
whole building would topple down, as the earth and debris strengthen the building. 
There appears to be no adequate reason for thinking so. Mr. Chan Toon, Public 
Works Department Officer in charge, accompanied me and after very careful exami- 
nation of the building and the nature of the rubbish, came to the opinion that the 
lower terraces could be brought to light without the least danger to the monument, 
those terraces, judging from the two above, being very broad, and having nothing to do 
with the building's foundations. The removal of this rubbish and earth, besides the 
probable yield of finds, would restore the monument to its original state and add to its 
beauty. This work will be undertaken as early as possible." 

On his exploratory work during 1921-22 Mr. Ramchandra Kak, the State Superinten- 
dent of Archaeology in Kashmir writes : " The excavation of the stupa at Harwan which 
last year's trial diggings had brought to light was completed. A number of other 
structures, the most important among which are a set of chapels and an apsidal temple 
were also excavated. The site is an extensive one and judging from the different styles 
of masonry employed in the various buildings and their stratigraphical relation to one 
another, it seems certain that the buildings belong to different periods. The styles of 
masonry are three ; viz., (a) the pebble style, consisting of small pebbles built in mud 
and originally covered with plaster ; this seems to be the oldest style ; (6) the diaper pebble 
style, consisting of pebbles with large stones interspersed at short distances, and (c) the 
diaper-rubble style, consisting of large and small rubble stones so arranged as to form 
something like a diaper pattern. 

" Perhaps the most interesting finds at Harwan are the carved tiles which were 
used not only in the pavements of the courtyard but also as the face decoration of the 
buildings. All of them are marked with Kharosthi numerals. This script was in vogue 
in North- Western India during the three centuries preceding and the three or four 
centuries succeeding the Christian Era. This circumstance, coupled with the fact that 
the style of art revealed by the figure decoration on the tiles has a distinct resemblance 
to the later Gandhara Art, and also bears some traces of Sassanian influence, determines 
their date as about 300-400 A. D. These tiles have been found in situ in or about the 
buildings of the diaper-pebble style only, which consequently may also be assigned to 
about the fourth century A. D. 

*' Stratigraphical evidence also indicates that the diaper-pebble stands, in point of 
time, between the pure pebble style and the diaper-rubble style. It is difficult to 
define precisely the date of these two styles, but we shall not be far wrong in fixing their 
upper and lower Umits as the 2nd century and the 7th century A. D. respectively.** 



93 EXPLORATION. 



In addition to this excavation work, Mr. Kale also explored the little-known valleys Kashtwar. 
of Wad wan, Marev, and Dachhan, which in modern times form part of the Kashtwar 
Tahsil. *' As a matter of fact," Mr. Kak says, '' the very same valley bears each of 
these three names at different places. The valley, exclusive of the numerous side 
Nallas, which in themselves are extensive tracts, is over 80 miles long and stretches 
from the mountains which form the water-shed between Ladakh and Kashtwar almost 
to the very town of Kashtwar itself. The principal objects of interest discovered were as 
follows : — 

" 1. An unique Hindu temple built of piles of pine-wood and stones, constructed 
exactly on the same structural principles as the wooden mosques of 
Kashmir. This is situated at Dilguth in the Nanth Nallah. 

'* 2. A natural grotto known as Bathastal near Dachhan. A number of early 
Gupta characters, mostly of the cursive type, are painted on its ceiling in 
dark red, white and yellowish colours. 

'' 3. Two Sanskrit inscriptions, (a) one engraved on the stone known as the 
Kalpa-Kan, ' the stone of doomsday ' in the Little Zaji-Nai. It records the 
construction of a stable for horses, presumably those which were then as 
now sent in summer to graze in the alpine regions of the Little and Great 
Zaji-Nai. This inscription is said to belong to the time of Zain-ul-abidin 
(1422-1472) A. D. (6) Another carved on a granite boulder near the 
bridge at Dachhan. It mentions the name of Anantadeva (A. D. 1081- 
1089) and may record the construction of a bridge across the Marev- 
send, on the bank of which the boulder is situated. 

" 4. A number of Mughal and Aighem farmans and miscellaneous documents, in 
possession of Rasul Malik of Marev." 



SECTION III. 

OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 

Sir Aurel Stein gives me the following note on the work done by him, as OflBcer on ^^^ i^y h,^***"'* 
Special Duty : — ipai-aa. 

" My work during the official year 1921-22 was devoted almost exclusively to tasks 
connected with the results of my second and third Central-Asian expeditions. By 
using in 1920 all available leisure during a period of leave in Europe, as well as by 
unremitting efEorts during six months of deputation in England granted to me in con- 
tinuation of it by His Majesty's Secretary of State, I had succeeded in passing through 
the Oxford University Press the text, close on 1500 pages quarto, of Serindia, the 
detailed report on the explorations of my second Central-Asian expedition, 1906 — 08, (^) 



(^) Serindia. — Detailed Report of Explorations in Central Asia and Westernmost China, carried out and de- 
scribed under the orders of His Majesty's Indian Government by Aurel Stein, K.C.I.E. With Descriptive Lists of 
Antiques by F. H. Andrews, F. M. G. Lorimer, C. L. Wolley, and others ; and Appendices by J. Allan, L. D. Bamett, 
L. Binyon, E. Chavannes, A. H. Church, A. H. Francke, A. F. R. Hoernle, T. A. Joyce, R. Petrucci, K Sehlesinger 
and F. W. Thomas. 

Five volumes, royal 4to (13|y 10), pages XXIX-l-1580, with 175 plates in collotype in colour, 345 illustra- 
tions in half-tone, 9 figures in the text, 59 plans, and 96 maps. Oxford : At the Clarendon Press, MCMXXI. 



OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 94 

Sir Aurd Stein's together with the hundreds of plates, photographic reproductions and plaAS comprised 
work. ^ ^jjQ^^ publication. There remained, however, the revision and printing of the neces- 

sarily elaborate Index which alone could render reference to the many ruined sites, the 
varied historical and geographical subjects discussed, and the thousands of individual 
antiques described and figured conveniently practicable for purposes of research. 
Though the materials for this Index had been previously collected at Oxford by Mr. 
New of the Clarendon Press, a professional Indexer working under my direction, the 
final arrangement and revision of these voluminous materials, filling 240 columns quarto 
in close print, kept me as well as my second assistant Miss F. Lorimer fully occupied 
during the month of April and the first half of May. 

" Here it may be conveniently recorded that Serindia, filling with its plates and atlas 
of 96 map sheets, five stout volumes of Royal Quarto, was published early in December 
1921. Gratifying evidence of the widespread interest with which this publication met 
from its first appearance was afforded by the rapidity of its sale. Though after the first 
few months the price was raised from 12 guineas to 18 guineas, the whole of the edition 
was exhausted within less than twelve months and the greater portion of Government's 
heavy outlay on the publication thus recovered. 

** Ever since systematic examination and treatment at the British Museum had 
revealed the great importance and exceptional artistic interest of the hundreds of 
ancient Buddhist paintings which in course of my second Central- Asian journey I had 
recovered from a walled-up chapel of the ' Caves of the Thousand Buddhas ' near Tun- 
huang, on the westernmost border of China, I had wished for a publication which would 
allow of select specimens from among them to be made accessible to students interested 
in Eastern art by reproductions representative in character and more adequate in size 
and execution than it had been possible to provide within the scope of Serindia. 

** It was largely due to the generous interest shown by the Right Honourable 
Mr. Austen Chamberlain, thenllisMajesty'sSecretary of State for India, that it became 
possible on my return from my third Central- Asian journey to arrange, with the ready 
assistance of the India Office and the co-operation of the Trustees of the British Museum, 
for the publication of the portfolio of The Thmisand Biiddhas, containing in 48 plates re- 
productions, half of them by photography in colour, of selections from the mass of those 
pictorial treasures. Mr. Laurence Binyon, Deputy Keeper of the Department of Prints 
and Drawings in the British Museum and a leading authority on Far-Eastern Art, contri- 
buted to the publication a lucid Introductory Essay. In it he discussed on the one hand 
the importance of these paintings dating from the T'ang period (7th-10th century A. D.) 
for the history of Chinese Art, and on the other the great interest they present as illustrat- 
ing how the designs and methods of treatment first developed in Graeco-Buddhist art 
penetrated through Buddhist Central- Asia and made their influence felt on the arts of 
the Far East. 

** There remained, however, the task of furnishing a sufficiently detailed descriptive 
account of these pictures with special regard to the iconography of the subjects they 
represent, almost all derived from the Mahayana system of Indian Buddhism. The 
preparation of this account, in which I was much helped by the very useful Descriptive 
List previously prepared by Miss F. Lorimer for Serindia, as well as by the interpreta- 
tions of my lamented collaborator M. Raphael Petrucci, Mr. F. H. Andrews and other 
scholars, kept me fully occupied during the months of May and June. Accompanied by 
this text filling over 60 pages royal folio in print, the portfolio of The Thousand Buddhas 



95 OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUIY. 

was published in March 1922 for the India Office by Messrs. B. Quarit)ch (-). This Sir Aurd Stein's 
publication has proved equally successful with Serindia, as at the time of writing the edi- ^^^*- 
tion is reported to be nearly exhausted, thus fully covering the original cost of produc- 
tion and leaving hope of some profit to Government. 

*' The summer and early autumn months following had to be devoted mainly to the 
preparation of a detailed Memoir on my maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu, 
embodying the results of the surveys made during my three Central- Asian expeditions. 
Though these journeys had archaeological exploration for their primary object, I had 
been equally anxious also to use all opportunities offered by them for geographical work. 
Through the generous help of the Survey of India which deputed with me experienced 
Indian Surveyors and provided needful instruments, funds, etc., it had been possible 
to realize this aim by means of systematic surveys carried out under my direction and 
with my assistance over the whole of the ground which those protracted travels, with 
aggregate marching distances of over 20,000 miles, had covered. 

" On my return in 1916 from my third expedition it was decided with the ready 
approval of Colonel Sir Sidney Burrard, R.E., K.C.S.I., then Surveyor General, whose 
unfailing interest and guidance had from the beginning facilitated those labours, to 
publish the topographical results of that journey in a series of maps embodying also the 
surveys of my previous expeditions, though these had already before received cartogra- 
phical record in connection with my Detailed Reports, Ancient Khotan and Serindia, 

'' These new maps, numbering 47 sheets, executed on the scale of 1 : 500,000, have 
thus come to comprise a vast area of innermost Asia extending in its extreme limits 
from the Pamirs in the west to the Pacific watershed on the Nan-shan in the east, and 
from the high Tibetan plateaus in the south to beyond the T'ien-shan range in the north. 
The compilation of the results of these surveys which included, besides continuous plane- 
table work by my assistants and myself, also triangulation and astronomical observa- 
tions, was effected by the Trigonometrical Survey Office during the years 1916 and 1917, 
and occupied a large staff of draftsmen under the direction of several officers from the 
Provincial and Upper Subordinate Services. The subsequent labours connected with 
the drawing and reproduction of these maps continued without interruption for five 
years longer, the revision and correction of the map sheets in all the successive stages 
of drawings and proofs claiming a great deal of my time to the close of 1922. 

" It had been my constant endeavour to make our surveys as careful and detailed a 
record of the prevailing physical features as conditions would permit. Improved 
methods of drawing and reproduction, including the use of seven different colours^ 
have allowed in the new maps a clearer and fuller representation of that record than 
was possible in previous publications. These new maps will thus for some time to come 
serve as a main source of cartographical reference for a great portion of Central Asia 
which, by the physical conditions of the present and by its great role in the past, as 
the meeting place of the ancient civilizations of India, China and the West, is attracting 
more and more interest from the historical student and the geographer. 



(•) The Thousand Buddhas. — Ancient Buddhist Paintings from the Cave-temples of Tun-huang on the Western 
Frontier of China, recovered and described by Sir Aurel 8tein, K.C.I. E., with an Introductory Essay by Laurence 
Binyon. Published under the orders of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India and with the co-operation of the 
Trustees of the British Museum. 48 Plates (mostly 24 by 20 inches), half of them reproduced by photography in 
colour. Text, royal folio pages xii and 66. 1922. Price £7-10-0. 



OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 96 

Sir Aurd Stein's " It, therefore, appeared appropriate to accompany the issue of these maps (intended 
**^*- for the Report on my third journey but also to be separately published) by a Memoir 

recording all needful information as to the history of these surveys ; the nature of the 
materials furnished by them ; the chief features determining the geographical character 
of the regions explored, etc. This Memoir to which Major K. Mason, R.E., M.C., 
Deputy Superintendent of the Survey of India, has added an important Appendix on 
the triangulation executed during our surveys, was completed by me in manuscript by 
October 1921. It has been printed since as a volume of the Survey of India Records, 
filling (with a complete Index of local names) over 200 pages foolscap, and will shortly 
be published. (^) 

"While the above tasks kept me occupied during the first half of the official year, 
the work of cataloguing and systematic description of the antiquities brought back 
from the explorations of my third journey and temporarily deposited at Srinagar imder 
the care of Mr. F. H. Andrews, in the Annexe to his official residence as Principal of the 
A. S. Technical Institute, was steadily continued by that old and most helpful colla- 
borator and Miss F. Lorimer, my second assistant. This task to which Mr. Andrews 
had devoted since 1917 whatever leisure he could spare from his exacting duties under 
the Kashmir Darbar, and for which Miss F. Lorimer, since her transfer from my collec- 
tion at the British Museum in 1919, had been able to render experienced assistance, 
could, owing to the great extent of the collection and the extremely varied character of 
the thousands of objects comprised in it, not be completed until the succeeding official 
year. 

"The methods followed in this work, an essential corollary to my own Detailed 
Report, were the same as had proved so effective in the treatment of the collections of 
antiques resulting from my first two expeditions and described in Ancient Khotan and 
Serindia. The thoroughness of the descriptions recorded of all objects, together with 
the inventory photographs which in May and Jime 1921, were prepared of all the more 
important among them, enables me to continue the preparation of my Detailed Report 
also at a distance from the Collection. 

*' By the end of October I was able to resume this essential task at Srinagar, after 
having been kept from it for fully two years by the labours referred to above. Its pro- 
gress again suffered some unavoidable interruption during the winter months. Before 
the Christmas holidays I felt induced to devote a short stay at Peshawar to the record 
of interesting linguistic specimens of Tirdhi, a Dardic language surviving in a few iso- 
lated settlements of refugees from Tirah, found to the south-west of Dakka in Afghan 
t>erritory. The survival of this tongue, hitherto practically unknown, among a popula- 
tion now speaking Pashtu, is of distinct antiquarian and historical interest ; for it 
affords important fresh proof of the former prevalence along the North- West Frontier 
of a Dardic-speaking race preceding the Pathan invasion and extending until a com- 
paratively recent period as far south as the territory of the Afridis, the Aparytai of 
Herodotus, on the borders of Gandhara. The language specimens taken from the mouths 
of these Tirahi-speakers, the tracing of whom I owed to the kind help previously rendered 



(») Memoir on maps of Chinese Turkestan and Kansu, from the Surveys made during Sir Aurel Stein^s Explo- 
rations, 1900-1, 1906-8, 1913-16. By Sir Aurel Stein, K.C.I.E., Indian Arcb»ological Survey. With Appendices 
by Major K. Mason, M.C., R.E., and J. de Graaff Hunter, Sc.D., Trigonometrical Survey Office, Dehra Dun, 
1923. Foolscap, pages XII and 208, with 2 maps, 9 charts and 30 plates of photographic illustrations. 



97 OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 



by the late Sir George Roos-Keppel, have been analyzed by Sir George Grierson, the Sir Aurel Stein's 
Director of the Linguistic Survey of India, and will form the subject of an early publica- ^f>rk. 
tion by that great authority. 

*' The Christmas holidays were used by me for a brief but interesting archaeological 
tour within and outside the borders of the Hazara District. It was intended in the first 
place to give me personal acquaintance with the Agror tract, a portion of the North- West 
Frontier which I had not been able to visit before. It had acquired special antiquarian 
interest for me since I had been able to identify it with the Atyicgrapura of Kalhana's 
Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir and the Ariora of Marco Polo's account of a Mongol 
inroad into Kashmir (*). At the beginning of my tour, which the kind help of Colonel 
E. H. S. James, CLE., Deputy Commissioner of Hazara, greatly facilitated, I was 
able rapidly to examine some important remains of the Bhogarmang Valley where it 
opens into the fertile plain of Pakhli proper. As, however, these remains have been 
described by Mr. Hargreaves, Superintendent in the Frontier Circle, on pages 63 to 65 
of this Report, my own notes on Bedadi and its surroundings are omitted here. 

** My subsequent necessarily rapid marches up to the head of the Batkhas Nullah 
through Agror and down to Darband, in the Nawab of Amb's territory on the Indus, 
acquainted me with ground offering varied antiquarian and geographical interest, but 
left no time to search for local remains. They sufficed, however, to show the peculiar 
character, and to explain the historial importance, of the open fertile valley of Agror, 
interposed between the barren ' Black Mountains ' and the narrow gorges of the Indus 
on the one side and the basin of Pakhli on the other. I also was able to collect a good 
deal of archseologically interesting information about ruins in the valleys of independent 
territory draining towards Thakot on the Indus. A fortunate encounter with Abdul 
Jabbar Padshah, the very capable descendant of the old kings of Swat and pretender to 
their throne, enabled me to gather useful data, too, about the hill tracts of Ghorband, 
Chakesar, etc. These tracts, lying between the Upper Swat Valley and the Indus, 
may yet prove of importance for the ancient geography of this region. 

" From Darband, undoubtedly a place of considerable antiquity, I concluded my 
short tour on the Hazara border by a visit to the large village of Kalinjar, the chief 
place of a fertile plateau above the left bank of the Indus. Its name had suggested 
possible identity with Kdlinjara, a frontier territory mentioned in Kalhana's Rdjata- 
ranginl (^). But though I succeeded in tracing the remains of at least one small forti- 
fied site on a hill spur above the village, with walls of ' Gandhara ' masonry and mani- 
festly pre-Muhammadan, no direct evidence in support of the location could be found. 

** Of the remaining months of the year, some time had to be spent by me at Dehra Mr. Andrews* 
Dun for the sake of miscellaneous urgent work connected with the completion of my*^'"^- 
maps and the printing of my Memoir, Of the rest, most was claimed at New Delhi by 
arrangements for the setting up of the Buddhist wall-paintings recovered on my third 
Central- Asian journey in the building specially erected for their accommodation. The 
actual execution of this difficult task was in the expert hands of Mr. F. H. Andrews 
who utilized for it his winter vacation from Kashmir and who has described the progress 
achieved in the following note." 

(♦) See Marco Polo's Account of a Mongol inroad into Kashmir, by Sir Aurel Stein, in Geographical Jovrruil, 
August, 1919, pages 100 sqq. 

(') See Kalhana*.^ Rajatarangini, translated, etc., by M, A. Stein, /, page 366 (note on vii. 1256) ; //, page 433. 



OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 



98 



Sir. Andrews* 
work on the 
Stein Collection 
at New Ddhi. 



" The work of unpacking, mounting and hanging the ancient Buddhist wall paint- 
ings brought from ruined shrines in the Turfan District of Chinese Turkistan by Sir 
Aurel Stein, K.C.I.E., in the course of his third Central- Asian expedition (1913 — 16) 
was commenced in January 1921 at the Depository built to receive them in the Imperial 
Capital, New Delhi. 

" The paintings, which are executed on mudplaster, were removed from the walls of 
the shrines in slabs of about I'' to 1^" in thickness and of vaiying sizes averaging about 
2' by 20^", but not necessarily rectangular in shape. Irregular shapes resulted from the 
endeavour to avoid cutting across a face or some other interesting detail which it was 
desired to preserve intact. The removal was directed by Sir Aurel Stein who also 
supervised all the packing for the long and difficult journey to India. The ingenious 
system of packing he devised was as follows. 

" Each slab, as it was taken from the wall, was backed with strong canvas steeped in 
glue and numbered in accordance with a key sketch made before any part was removed 
from its original position. Two slabs of approximately equal size were then placed face 
to face with an even buffer of cotton wool and smooth paper between. A bed was 
prepared consisting of two wooden battens laid parallel and a suitable distance apart 
and on these a second pair at right angles with the first. Above these was placed a level 
layer of stiff reeds at right angles to the second pair of battens ; then another layer of 
reeds at right angles to the first. On this the pair of slabs was laid and a similar arrange- 
ment of reeds and battens in reverse order, placed on top. Strong cords were next 
passed roimd the whole and lying along the battens ; mpre reeds were closely packed 
against all four edges of the bundle and then the cords were drawn tight and finnly tied. 
(Plate XXXIV, Fig. a). This compact bundle was next lowered into a box made to fit, a 
bedding of reeds having been put inside and ropes placed to permit its being easily lifted 
out at the end of the journey (Fig. 6). More reeds were packed roimd the edges and on 
top, the lid was screwed on and hoop-iron nailed round the angles. Thanks to this 
careful packing, the very fragile slabs stood the long journey with a minimum of damage. 

* ' The mud forming the rough ground for the paintings was applied to the wall in 
successive layers of various thickness from about ^ to f or more. It is very coarse 
mixed with chopped straw as a bonding, and casual rubbish such as pebbles, chips of 
stone and wood, nut shells, fruit stones, twigs, etc. Upon this was spread a thin layer of 
carefully washed mud mixed with scutched hemp fibre and sometimes a small propor- 
tion of goat's hair, smoothed to form the intonaco. Over the smooth surface was brushed 
a thin wash of white pigment, probably gypsum, to form a kind of priming on to which the 
design of the subject to be painted was transferred from the cartoon, probably by means 
of a pounce. 

" The pounced lines were then traced over with a thin grey brush line to fix them. 
The local colours were next put in, sometimes flat or with a darker tone added to suggest 
light and shade. Finally, the whole was outlined and contoured with very free sweeping 
brush lines in one, two or more colours. Generally two outline colours are used, black 
for everything but flesh, which is outlined with red or crimson. The practice varies, 
liowever, with different schools of painting. 

" All the work is in tempera, the proportion of medium used varying indifferent 
pictures, and it is probable that the medium itself is not always the same. With one or 
two exceptions the colours are so soft that they can be removed with a dry soft brush. 



99 OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 

The exceptions, in the case of certain colours, can be cleaned with damp cotton wool A'^- Andrews' 
very carefully and tenderly applied. This method is, however, too risky to be recom- '^^ 
mended. 

" In several pictures are inscriptions in Uigur, probably contemporary. In another 
is a much damaged Chinese inscription written in the usual vertical label provided for the 
purpose. In others the label is provided but has no inscription. A third type of writing 
is in a Brahmi script and Kuchean language written in dense black ink with a reed pen on 
a heavily sized surface prepared for the pen. The three types of writing coincide with 
three distinct styles of painting. Space in this Report does not permit of a detailed 
examination of the styles and the many interesting problems presented. 

" The method of treatment employed for preserving and effectively exhibiting the 
paintings was first used by me in connection with the wall paintings from Miran and other 
Central- Asian sites, brought by Sir Aurel Stein to London from his second expedition 
(1906-08). Examination showed that the backing of mud and straw was frequently 
impregnated with salt, inherent in the soil of the greater part of the plains of Turkistan. 
The action of damp on the mud caused the salt to manifest itself in the form of a fine 
glistening furry growth on the surface of the picture, and distinct from this a brownish 
green mildew also developed and caused serious discolouration in patches. 

'* My first care was to remove as much of the offending mud as possible without da- 
maging the painting. This was done by placing each section of the picture face down- 
wards on glass and by cutting and scraping the mud away from the back imtil the thinnest 
possible skin of the intonaco remained, with the picture on its lower surface in contact 
with the glass. A mirror placed below the sheet of glass, by reflecting the face of the 
picture, permitted the operator to watch for any disturbance of the painted surface 
during the scraping.* 

'' A thin layer of plaster of Paris in which a small quantity of formaline was mixed 
was then spread over the skin of mud as a first backing (Plate XXXIV, Fig. c). Next a 
frame was made, the size of the picture section, and on this was stretched a very open, 
thin canvas (painter's scrim). The frame with canvas side down, was placed on the 
plaster surface and more plaster spread over the scrim. The second layer of plaster united 
with the first through the meshes of the scrim which became embedded between the two. 
When dry, the whole was lifted from the glass, clean, light and comparatively strong. 

" Certain modifications of the process were necessary in the present work. The pain- 
tings dealt with in London were small, whereas those brought to Delhi are, when built up, 
in some cases twelve feet by eight high, ten or even eighteen feet wide (Plate XXXV, 
Fig. c).t They had been cut from the walls of the shrines in slabs, as already described, 
and the task before me was to reassemble all these sections in their original 
positions, reconstructing complete pictures, or as complete as when they were found. 
It seemed inadvisable to use material such as wood and scrim in a climate subject to so 
many changes as that of Delhi, and where the white ant is ever seeking what it mav 
devour. Iron and steel, copper and brass were all disqualified on account of the in- 
evitable stain they give when in contact with plaster of Paris. Aluminium seemed to 
be the only practicable material remaining, and this I adopted. 

• The mirror is seen in use in Plate XXXIV, Fig. c. 

t The picture representing two Buddhas with attendants, donors, etc.. measures 18' 2^ x 12^ 1*. It is com- 
posed of 37 slabs mounted on 16 aluminium frames. 



OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 100 

Mr. Andrews' " I decided to make the frames of angle iron and to use expanded aluminium as the 

*^^*- web in place of canvas. Expanded aluminium, I foimd, was not a regular article of 

commerce ; in fact the makers had f oimd it unsatisfactory and demurred at my request 
for further trials. However, they eventually worked to my specification and the 
result has been an unqualified success. 

" The process of clearing away the mud and of coating with plaster remains as 
described. The next step is to assemble two or three adjoining slabs on a glass table 
and after connecting them with plaster, to fit an aluminium frame to hold them 
together. The frame with the expanded aliuninium as web is placed on the assembled 
slabs, and plaster applied all over (Plate XXXV). The plaster unites with the back- 
ing, gripping the web of aluminium between the two, and when set, the whole is lifted 
from the glass table as a single section (Plate XXXV, Fig. 6). 

" Having thus made up the original small sections into larger ones, as large as can 
be safely handled, the next procedure is to hang them on the wall and to adjust them 
exactly to one another (Plate XXXV, Fig. c). To effect this, the walls of the Depository 
had been fitted with channel irons placed horizontally at a vertical distance apart of 
about 3 feet. The large sections are himg to these channels, and adjustment is made 
by a system of lifting-screws fitted to the aluminium frames. 

^^ The method described may be regarded as satisfactory. The first experiment with 
aluminium was made in January 1 921 and the sections then moimted show no change — 
no shrinkage, cracking or any chemical activity. The aluminium is light and tough, 
and as the plaster strengthened by the expanded metal reinforcement, need not be thick, 
the sections have a minimum of weight and may be conveniently moved about as need- 
ed. 

'* By the courtesy of the Kashmir Durbar I was permitted to devote the period of 
the annual winter vacation of the Amar Singh Technical Institute, Srinagar, to this 
work and was also able to secure the assistance of certain of my students for the same 
period. An intelligent local smith and his assistant were engaged to make the frames, and 
under my instruction and direction, the process for the treatment of the paintings was 
quickly learned by all and the work progressed smoothly and quickly. The assembling 
and joining of the small slabs to form larger sections, as already explained, was a part 
of the work which I could not entrust to other hands and eyes than my own, as errors 
were easily made but most difficult to correct. 

"The number of original slabs treated was 102. These were joined to form 38 
larger sections, each contained on one aluminium back frame. The larger sections joined 
together formed 22 compositions or more or less complete wall paintings, of which the 
largest measures 18 feet 2 inches by 12 feet 1 inch. The aggregate superficial area of the 
painted surface mounted totals 514 square feet. 

" Two pieces of wall painting are here reproduced of which the following are brief 
descriptions. Plate XXXV, Fig. 6 from the north wall of the ambulatory of Bezeklik 
shrine iii, is a fragment of a large subject similar to that of Fig. c, and represents a 
celestial attendant standing in an attitude of reverence to the left of the vesica surround- 
ing a figure of Buddha. The pattern of the outer border of the vesica is a Chinese 
cloud scroll repeated in various colours. The drapery of the figure is a good example 
of the skill of the Turkistan designers in expressing freedom, while strongly schematiz- 
ing the drawing Size 6i feet by 2 feet, or about life size. 



101 OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 

** Fig. c is from the S. E. wall of shrine xii at Bezeklik, a site of cave temples in the Mt, Andrews 
Turfan District, and represents to L. a standing Buddha figure over life size within a halo u-ork. 
bordered by a repeated wing-like ornament and surrounded by attendants and probably 
donors. In the upper corner is a small Chinese pavilion in a paved courtyard sur- 
rounded by a wall provided with a pair of doors slightly open. In the centre is a second 
Buddha standing on a Chinese raft of wood resting on water. His feet which^ Ukethe 
first, have sandals, are supported by lotuses. Worshipping figures at the lower part 
present gifts of food and treasure (?) with which a sitting camel to L. is fully laden. 
The dresses and faces of these donors are interesting. To R. is a Nirvana scene with two 
followers of Buddha and a lamenting figure half kneeling and supporting his aching head 
on his L. hand. Below are three musicians playing drum, cymbals, hiwa and a fourth of 
whom his instrument, the flute, is partly preserved. A finely designed seated figure 
entirely in white, the Chinese mourning colour, in meditation below is very Byzantine 
in style. Part of the upper border of seated Buddhas is preserved; size 18 by 12 feet. 

**The necessity for providing protection against dust and flies for the delicate sur- 
face of the paintings is obvious, and wall cases of teak fitted with plate glass have been 
designed and are under construction. Blinds will be arranged inside the cases to protect 
the colours as far as possible from the action of light." 



SECTION IV. 

MUSEUMS. 

Ever since Sir John Marshall accepted his Trusteeship for the Indian Museum, Indian Muieimif 
Calcutta, and assumed responsibility for the Archaeological Section of that institution, ^■*^""*- 
it had been his constant ambition to secure the services of a whole- time Curator, but the 
ambition was perennially thwarted by lack of funds. The result was that for several 
years the heavy responsibilities for this Section were unavoidably placed as an additional 
burden upon one already overworked official after another, to the inevitable dissatis- 
faction of all concerned and most of all the officers themselves. The collection, which 
is the most extensive and important in India, called urgently for re-arrangement and 
development, and offered almost unlimited scope for study. But with multiple other 
duties pressing upon them, including the obligation to be away from Calcutta for a large 
part of the year on tour, the part-time Officers-in-charge found it out of the question to 
undertake the development of the section seriously, and what was practically stagnation 
resulted. It is therefore with peculiar satisfaction that we record the termination of 
these make-shift arrangements by the appointment on the 23rd May 1921 of a whole- time 
Superintendent for the ArchaBological Section in the person of the well-known Bengali 
scholar, Mr. Ramaprasad Chanda, who since that date has been in exclusive charge of 
the Calcutta collections of antiquities. During the winter of 1920-21 M. Foucher had 
kindly consented to fill a temporary gap at the Museum, and his charge extended by 
six days into the year under review. Charge was then taken for a brief space by Mr. 
K. N. Dikshit, Archaeological Superintendent for Bengal, in addition to his other duties ; 
but this was a purely provisional arrangement, extending only to the 23rd May as men- 
tioned above. What substantial improvements the appointment of a whole-time 
Curator has rendered possible will be apparent from Mr. Chanda's first Report, which 
follows. 



MUSEUMS. 102 

Indian Museum, ** The beginning of the year was marked by the opening to the public of the spacious 
Calcutta. i^n ^f the groundfloor of the new wing of the Museum buildings (called the New Hall) 

wherein miscellaneous" antiquities are exhibited. Labels have been put on the show 

cases of this Hall ; in course of the year. A scheme for arranging the sculptures in the 

galleries in,- W far as possible, a chronological order was adopted. The Trustees 

of the -I-ttdian Museiun by placing the Eastern Verandah and the entire Entrance Hall 

of the. main Museum Building at the disposal of the Archaeological Section, rendered 

• ;. •. tie execution of the scheme possible. The later mediseval sculptures and architectural 

. ■ . ' * pieces hitherto exhibited in the Entrance Hall were transferred to the Southern and the 

: ' Eastern Verandahs respectively, and the Hall itself was reserved for Mauryan and other 

archaic or Early Simga sculptures. Two rows of pillars divide this Entrance Hall 
into twelve equal squares. In the middle square just in front of the entrance door are 
fixed on individual pedestals the cast of the lion capital of the Samath pillar of Asoka, the 
original lion capital of the Rampurwa pillar of Asoka, the bull capital of another mo- 
nolithic pillar at Rampurwa ascribed to the same emperor, and the Kalpadruma or Wish- 
ing Tree from Besnagar in Gwalior State, Central India, which evidently served as the 
capital of a column. In the space between the third and the fourth pillars on the right 
side of the visitor entering the hall are exhibited the two big Patna statues, while the 
big female statue from Besnagar and the cast of the colossal statue from Parkham in the 
Mathura Museum of Archaeology are installed on the left side. The two Patna statues 
and the Kalpadruma and the Besnagar female statue have been transferred to the 
Entrance Hall from the adjoining Bharhut Gallery where they were originally exhibited. 
On the shelf in the right wall of the Hall has been placed the arch stone from Patna 
(see below), and on the shelf in the left wall the stone receptacle of the relics, 
evidently of Gautama Buddha, of the so-called Jagat Singh stupa of Samath. A 
group of later mediaeval Buddhist and Brahmanic sculptures from Bihar, Bengal and 
Orissa have been arranged on the bench along the wall of the Southern Verandah, and 
the spaces between the columns in front of this Verandah have been cleared of 
antiquities. 

*' The five cellars of the New Wing of the Museum Building that serve as the godown 
of the Archaeological Section were almost inaccessible on account of old rejected 
show-cases deposited therein. These cellars were cleared and the show-cases placed 
with the Trustees for sale. After defraying all expenses in connection with the removal 
and sale of these show-cases, the Trustees handed over to the Superintendent Rs. 309 
out of the sale proceeds with which a wooden dark room has been erected in a comer 
of the office room of the Section originally marked oil for the purpose. The antiquities 
in the cellars have been arranged and listed. In this connection the Superintendent 
desires to thank Dr. S. W. Kemp, the OfEg. Honorary Secretary to the Trustees for the 
greater part of the year, whose sympathetic co-operation greatly facilitated the 
work. 

" Antiquities other than coins acquired by purchase and received as presents or on 
loan number 1 75 pieces, including pictures [vide Plate XXXVI]. This collection consists 
of specimens representing all stages of the artistic history of India. The earliest in age 
is a granite arched torana stone (Figs, a and 6) received on loan from Mr. K. P. 
Jayaswal, M.A., Bar-at-Law, the well-known Archaeologist of Patna. The upper and 
lower curved faces of this piece bear Mauryan polish, and on three comers of 
the lower face are three mason's marks, ko, kau, chu (?)in archaic Brahmi characters 



103 MUSEUMS. 

(vide Plate XL, Fig. c). The stone was discovered some years ago when the roots Indian Museum^ 
of an old tree were being dug out of the compound of the Muhammadan Shrine (Dargdh) C^afct///a. 
near the site of Pataliputra. Mr. Jayaswal acquired the stone from the Manager 
(Sajjadanashin) of the Dargah. The polish on both the upper and lower faces may 
lead one to suppose that this stone originally belonged to the circular plinth round 
the mouth of a well. But indentations on all the four rough sides indicate that the 
stone was originally placed in a suspended position and evidently belonged to a free 
arch that crowned a torana. The stone measures 2' d'' in length, 2' Ij" in breadth 
at the upper end and 11" at the lower end, and 13" in thickness. 

" Samkhapdla-jdtaka (?) Perhaps next in order of time is a sculpture of Gandhara 
slate in high relief measuring 13^^ by 10". This sculpture was found near Mathura 
(Muttra) in the bed of the Jumna and has been acquired through Rai Bahadur Radha 
Krishna, Honorary Curator of the Mathura Museum of Archaeology. Unfortu- 
nately the effacement of almost all the characteristic features of the figures in this 
remarkable composition renders identification very difficult. On the background is a 
serpent with a hood of six or seven heads and at the foot of the back slab is a conch shell 
(samkha). To the left a layman of rank is seated on a stool. On his left hand resting 
on his left knee is probably a small serpent. One person is bowing low at his feet and 
another person, evidently a male attendant, is standing behind the stool. In the left 
upper comer of the back slab is seen hanging the foot of a human figure. Opposite 
the seated figure is standing a man with a staff slung on his right side. There is a water 
vessel behind him. The presence of the conch shell and the seven headed Naga tempt 
me to identify the scene with an episode in the Samkhapalajataka, No. 524 of the Pali 
collection. The Bodhisattva was bom as the Naga king Samkhapala. Once every 
fortnight be used to leave the Naga world, come to the earth, and coil himself round an 
ant-hill on a high road in order to practise virtues. One day sixteen wicked men caught 
hold of him and began to pull him cruelly in order to eat his flesh. The Naga king was 
rescued by a householder named Alara. Out of gratitude Samkhapala took Alara 
to his palace in the Naga world and entertained him for a year. Some of the gdthds 
(stanzas) in the Pali story give an account of the manner in which Alara was entertained 
in the Naga palace {The Jdtaka, Vol. V, translated by H. F. Francis, p. 88). Though 
this sculpture does not quite agree with the stanzas, it looks more like a scene in the 
Naga world than anything else. (Plate XXXVI, Figs, c and d), 

" The very small collection of Amaravati sculptures (only two in number) in the 
Indian Museum has been replenished by the addition of eighteen pieces presented by the 
authorities of the Madras Government Museum from their duplicate set. Forty-two 
pieces of fragmentary sculptures, besides the Gandhara piece noticed above, have been 
purchased at Mathura through Rai Bahadur Pandit Radha Krishna. Most of these are of 
red sandstone and belong to the Kshatrapa-Kushan period (first and second centuries 
A. D.). There are a few pieces of grey sandstone belonging to the medieval period. 
One of these pieces ( 'late XXXVI, Fig. e) represents the child Krishna lifting up Mount 
Govardhana on his left hand. This piece was found at Jatipara, near the village called 
Govardhana in the Muttra District, and measures 5'5"by4j". Once in the beginning of 
autumn, Nanda, the foster-father of Krishna, and other cowherds engaged themselves 
in making preparations for a sacrifice to Indra. K rishna told them that Indra was the god 
of cultiv.itors and not of nomadic shepherds. Cattle and mountains were proper objects 



MUSEUMS. 104 

Indian Museum, of worship for shepherds, he said, so that they ought to offer sacrifice to Mount Govar- 
CalrMUa. dhana instead of to Indra. Nanda and the other shepherds did as they were bidden 

by Krishna. This greatly annoyed India who ordered his attendant clouds to afflict 
the cattle of the shepherds with rain and wind. ' The clouds roared aloud, as if in terror 
of the lightning's scourge and poured down uninterrupted torrents. The cattle pelted 
by the storm, shrunk, cowering, into the smallest size, or gave up their breath. The 
calves trembling in the wind, looked piteously at their mothers ' (Wilson's Vishnu 
Purana, V, II). The child Krishna then uprooted the spacious mountain Govardhana 
and held it up over the camping-ground of Nanda and his followers for seven days and 
nights. The sculpture shows Krishna holding up the mountain. The cow under the 
mountain is the very picture of peacefulness and security, and the eagerness with 
which the calf has just rushed to drink its mother's milk is portrayed with skill 
(Plate XXXVI, Fig. e). 

" Pdla Sculpture. — There are two Tibetan works relating to the history of Buddhism, 
one of which is known after its author as Taranath, while the other is Pag Sam Jon Zang. 
(^) These works contain short sketches of the legendary history of sculpture in India 
that agree in substance and are evidently derived from a common source. According 
to both versions, miraculously gifted human and Deva artists made images before 
the time of Asoka. Yaksha artists were employed in Asoka's time and Nagas were 
employed during the time of Nagarjuna. Somewhat later, in King Buddhadisa's 
reign an artist named Bimbasara flourished in Magadha ; and during Sila's reign lived 
a clever image-maker named Srigadhari who was bom in the Maru country. Then in the 
reign of King Dharmapala and Devapala there lived in the Varendra Country (Nalendra 
according to the Pag Sam Jon Zang) two clever artists, Dhiman and his son Bitpalo, 
who founded new schools of sculpture and painting. Whether these legends have any 
historical basis or not, they roughly correspond to the successive schools of sculpture 
that flourished in Eastern India and Hindustan. We have not yet come across any 
authentic specimen of the work of the miraculously gifted artists of the pre-Mauryan 
period. The sculptures produced in the reign of Asoka, the capitals of his edict-bearing 
monolithic colimins, form a group Ijy themselves, attributed to Yaksha artists by the 
Tibetan writers and to Bactrian sculptors by modern archaeologists. The works of the 
Naga artists of the time of Nagarjuna correspond to the ancient Indian National School 
represented by the sculptures of Bharhut, Sanchi and Amaravati. This ancient 
school was succeeded by the early Gupta school of Hindustan proper. Whether 
the artists Bimbisara and Srigadhari and their royal patrons are historical per- 
sonages or not, the sculptures of the Gupta period (fifth and sixth centuries A. D.) 
discovered at Samath near Benares, at Deogarh in the Jhansi district of the United 
Provinces, and at certain other places in Hindustan proper, make up the most valued 
contribution of India to the artistic heritage of mankind. The sculpture from Mathura 
showing the child Krishna with Mount Govardhana should probably be assigned to the 
post Gupta period. 

" With Kings Dharmapala and Devapala we reach the firm ground of history in the 
narrative of the Tibetan writers. These two kings of the Pala dynasty of Bengal and 
Bihar probably reigned in the ninth century A. D. Though the names of the artists 
Dhiman and Bitpalo are not met with elsewhere, we find in great abundance in Bihar 

(1) For Taranath, see Indian Antiquary, Vol. IV., p. 102. I am indebted to Mr. J. Van Manen for an 
English translation of the passage in the Pag Sam Jon Zang and for a revised translation of the passage in Taranath. 



105 MUSEUMS. 

and Bengal a new type of sculpture dating from the eighth or ninth century A. D. hidian Museum^ 

The material used is black shale called kashti-pdthar or touchstone in the vernacular, ^^ o^^<^' 

which is more tractable than sandstone. The inscribed image of Buddha calling 

the earth to witness (Plate XXXVI, Fig. /) is an early specimen of the sculpture of this 

type. It has been presented to the Indian Museum with eight other pieces by Mr. D. 

Sunder, F.L.C., F.R.G.S. of Bhagalpur, who found it at Rajgir in the District of Patna 

in Bihar. The Buddhist creed and the name of the donor, the Reverend (Bhanta- 

Bhudhuta) Silagupta are engraved on the pedestal in nail-headed characters that mark 

the transition between the Gupta and the old Nagari scripts and were commonly used in 

Eastern India in the eighth and ninth centuries A. D. As distinguished from Gupta 

sculpture we may designate sculptures of this new school as Pala sculptures. The Pala 

sculpture is marked off by a peculiar development, a tendency to decorate the back 

slab more and more elaborately, which may be considered as a sign of decadence. But 

the technical skill of the artists of this period shows little sign of abating, and in the 

best images the expression discloses little or no loss of idealism. 

'* Crowned Buddha, — Another remarkable sculpture of black shale from Bihar pre- 
sented by Mr. Sunder is a seated image of the crowned Buddha (Plate XXXVII, Fig. a). 
The main figure in the composition (10" XTj") wears a crown and a necklace and holds 
in both hands a bowl which reminds us of the bowl-full of honey which a monkey offered 
to Buddha at Vaisali. The seven figures on the back slab illustrating well-known 
events in the life of Buddha which with the main image make up the number eight, 
clearly indicate that the crowned figure actually does represent the Sakya monk. 
In the scenes from Buddha's life on the back slab Buddha is figured as a monk without 
ornament. The scenes to the proper right from the bottom upward are ; Buddha 
calling the earth to witness just before attaining supreme knowledge ; the descent 
from the heaven of the thirty-three gods ; Buddha preaching at Sarnath. The 
topmost scene which is broken off undoubtedly represented the Death or Parinirvana 
of Buddha. The scenes represented on the proper left of the figure from the bottom 
are . — Buddha in meditation evidently after attaining supreme knowledge ; the taming 
of the elephant Nalagiri at Rajagriha ; Buddha preaching after the performance of 
the miracles at Sravasti. In the relief reproduced in Figure / of Plate XXXVI we 
have the same scenes with the exception of the first, for which the birth scene in the 
Lumbini garden is substituted. Six other figures of the crowned Buddha are exhibited 
in the Gupta Gallery. Figure b of Plate XXXVII shows a Buddha of this type in the atti- 
tude of calling the earth to witness, with seven other events of the Buddha's life figured 
on the back slab, where the Buddha is represented as a monk. The main image in 
Figure c represents Buddha preaching at Sarnath. Three of the seven scenes on the 
back slab of this sculpture are lost. In three others Buddha wears the crown. Two 
of these images (Figs, b and c) are from Bihar. P'igure d is an image of sandstone 
from Sarnath. The head is unfortunately lost, but the necklace indicates that it is also 
an image of the crowned Buddha preaching at Sarnath. Figure r is another sandstone 
image of the crowned Buddha from the same site. The few remaining letters of the 
Buddhist creed originally engraved on its pedestal indicate that the image should probab- 
ly be assigned to the ninth century A. D. In Figure /is reproduced a sandstone image 
of the same type from Bodh Gaya in the attitude of offering protection. The inscrip- 
tion on the pedestal gives the name of the donor as Pidumaka and dates from the tenth 
or eleventh century A. D. This group of crowned figures evidently represent a new 
type of Buddha that originated in Eastern India in the Pala period. We recognize an 



MUSEUMS. 1C6 

• 

Ifidian Museum, intermediate stage in the evolution of this type in Figure g, an image of black 
Calcutta. stone evidently from Magadha. It is a seated Buddha offering protection. The head 

wears curled hair and shows the usual protuberance called the ushnisha. But there 
is a necklace round the neck. The next step after the necklace was of course the 
crown on the head. The Buddhist creed is engraved on the pedestal of this image in 
the nail-headed characters commonly used in the eighth and ninth centuries A. D. 

• 

" The Buddhist image makers could not stop with necklace and crown but went 
on adding other ornaments as well. A fine figure evidently of Buddha which wears 
not only the crown and the necklace, but also bangles and armlets, was excavated from 
site No. Ill at Nalanda in 1919-20. It measures 2 ft. by 11^ inches. The monkish 
dress of this image offers a strange contrast to these ornaments, and precludes us from 
identifjring it with a Bodhisattva like Maitreya or Avalokitesvara. The lower garment 
(antaravdsaka) of a monk, as distinguished from the dhoti or loin cloth of a la3anan, is 
shown over the lower portion of the legs, and the samghdti or upper garment is quite 
prominent. I am therefore inclined to identify it as a standing crowned Buddha offer- 
ing a boon, with the open right palm marked with the symbol of the Wheel and with the 
left hand holding the hem of the upper garment (Plate XXXVII, Fig. h). In Plate 
XXXVII, Fig. t, is reproduced the photograph of a headless image of evidently a crowned 
Vajrasana Buddha in earth- touching attitude also wearing armlets and bangles. It 
was found in the Rajshahi District in Northern Bengal and is now exhibited in the 
Museum of the Varendra Research Society at Rajshahi. 

*' The Director-General of Archaeology in India presented to the Indian Museum 
six bronze images unearthed at a village called Rayanallur in the Tiruturaipundi Taluk 
of the Tanj ore District in the Madras Presidency and acquired by the Government of 
Madras as Treasure Trove. Two of these images, Vishnu and Lakshmi, are repro- 
duced in Plate XXXVIII, Figs, a and 6, respectively. Fourteen other bronze images 
were received in exchange from the Madras Museum through the good offices of 
Mr. Percy Brown, Officer-in-Charge of the Art Section of the Indian Museum. 

** After mentioning the sculptures of the Pala period Taranath writes, ' In Nepal 
also the early style was like the old western one (i.e., Gupta). The paintings and bell 
metal (castings) of the middle period, which were mostly very closely like the eastern 
ones were regarded as of distinctly Nepalese style. Later they were no longer strictly 
so regarded ' (Van Manen). The Director-General of ArchaBology in India presented 
16 bronze images from Nepal purchased from a vendor at Delhi. Two of these, an image 
of Buddha calling the earth to witness and an image of Tara, are reproduced in Figures 
c and d respectively. The drapery of the Buddha with border discloses Chinese 
influence. 

" Among miscellaneous antiquities acquired during the year are two wooden shrines 
one from Gujarat presented by the Director-Generalof Archaeology (7' 8" by 4' 10" by 
4' 10") which has been installed near the entrance door of the New Hall, and another 
purchased at Mathura (3' 5'' by 1' 8" by 1' iV). The legs attached to the Kirtimukha 
and the winged Makaras engraved on the top piece of the latter shrine indicate Nepalese 
origin. Mr. D. Sunder of Bhagalpur has also presented a stone cannon ball, 6 inches 
in diameter, which he found among the ruins of the palace of Maharaja Pratapaditya 



107 MUSEUMS. 

in the Sunderbans in the Khulna District in Bengal. Pratapaditya, a semi-indepen- Indian Museum^ 

dent zemindar of Bengal, refused allegiance to the Mughal Emperor and was subdued ^^^^^^* 

by the famous Raja Mansing in the beginning of the reign of the Emperor Jahangir 

(A. D. 1605-27). According to tradition such balls were used by the imperial army 

in bombarding the palace of Pratapaditya. Dr. Annandale, Director of the Zoological 

Survey of India, has transferred from the Anthropological Section of the Indian Museum 

two pieces of cannon of historical interest, a big inscribed brass kettle-drum (4' 8" in 

diameter and 3' 6" in height) made under the orders of Sivasimha the Ahom King of 

Assam in the Saka year 1652 (A. D. 1734), and a brass Astrolabe made in Herat. The 

Director-General of Archaeology has presented a curious Persian vase which was found 

by British soldiers digging trenches near Baghdad at a depth of nearly 18'. Three 

sides of this vase are reproduced in Plate XXXIX. Figure 20 shows a .Chinese dragon 

and a Persian horseman ; Figure 21 shows a Chinese bowman shooting a bird ; and 

Figure 22 shows an Indian elephant with a rider seated in a chair. 

" Other donors of sculptures and miscellaneous antiquities are, the Superintendent 
of Archaeology, Eastern Circle, the Sub-Divisional Officer of Diamond Harbour, and 
Mr. H. Hodgart of the Zoological Survey of India. 

" The Director-General of Archaeology also presented a copy of a fresco painting 
at Polonnaruwa in Ceylon, and the Hon'ble Mr. Justice Beaufort of South Africa has 
presented through the Marquis Curzon 39 old pictures of some of the most notable 
Muhammadan Monuments of Eastern India as they existed towards the close of the 
eighteenth century. 

" A whole- time modeller was added to the staff of the Archaeological Section in the 
beginning of the year to fill up the gaps in the collection of sculptures with plaster 
casts of typical pieces in other Museums. A cast of the colossal Parkham image in the 
Mathura Museum of Archaeology, and a cast of the inscribed statue of Kanishka exhibited 
in the same Museum have been installed in the galleries. Mr. Puran Chand Nahar, 
M.A., B.L., a scholar and a zemindar, has raised funds from the Svetambara Jains 
of Calcutta with which casts of ancient Jain sculptures from Mathura deposited in the 
Museums of Mathura and Lucknow are in course of preparation. From Mr. Fritz Holm 
of New York was procured a cast of his replica of the famous Chinese Nestorian Monu- 
ment at Sian-Fu. This monument was set up in A. D. 781, and the Chinese and Syrian 
inscriptions engraved on it give a short history of the Nestorian Christian mission in 
China. The replica from which the cast is taken is now deposited in the Lateran Palace, 
Rome. 

" (a) Coins of non'Muha7mnadan dynasties, — The Director of Industries, Central 
Provinces, presented 3 gold coins, two of which are of Prithvideva, and one of Ratna- 
deva of the Kalachuri-Haihaya dynasty of Ratnapura, and date from the twelfth 
century A. D. Five silver Gadhiya coins of the Rajputana and Gujarat currency of 
the eighth to the eleventh centuries A. D. have been presented by the Sardar Museum 
and Summair Public Library of Jodhpur. 

** (h) Coins of Muhammadan dynasties. — Out of the Taylor collection (630 coins) 
purchased last year, 160 coins were added to the cabinet of the Section, 194 
were presented to the Delhi Museum, and the rest were offered for sale to Provincial 
Museums. Three gold coins of the Barakzai dynasty of Afghanistan have been acquired 



MUSEUMS. 



108 



Iffdian Museum, by purchase. Besides the coins purchased, 37 have been received as presents from 
^' the following donors : — Bikanir Darbar, the Government of the United Provinces, 

Raja of Kharsama, the Government of Bengal and the Director of Industries, Central 
Provinces. 

" A short pamphlet Guide was issued during the year in connection with the Second 
Session of the Oriental Conference held in Calcutta in January 1922. 

" When the Archaeological Section was separated from the Natural History Section 
of the Indian Museum in 1911, about 1900 volumes were transferred from the Zoolo- 
gical Library and formed the nucleus of the library of the Archaeological Section. About 
800 volumes have been added since then, 70 having been added during the year 1921- 
1922 excluding Journals. 

" Since the creation of the Archaeological Department all the circles of the Archseo- 
logical Survey and the office of the Director-General of Archaeology in India have been 
regularly supplying prints of photographs taken by them during each official year. 
This Section has received photographs from the office of the Director-General of Archfieo- 
logy in India up to the year 1919-20 ; from the Northern Circle, Agra Office, and from 
the Burma Circle, up to the year 1920-21 ; from the Southern Circle, Madras, up to 1917- 
1918. Other circles have not yet sent photographs taken after 1916-17. There is also 
a considerable collection of old photographs." 

Mr. Blakiston, as Honorary Curator of the Delhi Museum of Archaeology, reports 
that " During the year 31 new exhibits and 438 coins were received at the Delhi Museum 
as detailed in Appendix C (vide page 254 pp.). Of the former some are of exceptional in- 
terest, the inscribed stone filter of the Emperor Aurangzeb and the Farman (Royal patent) 
of Ahmad Shah Durrani being worthy of particular notice [mde Plate XL, Fig. (d)]. 
The filter bears the inscription " Distilled water of the filter stone of Aurangzeb Alamgir, 
the king champion of the faith. The year 1080 ' (1669-70 A. D.). Its characteristic is 
that when immersed in water it allows only pure water to percolate through, all 
impurities remaining without. Ahmad Shah Durrani attained renown through his defeat 
of the Mahratas on the plains of Panipat in 1761. The Museum is now in possession of 
a very fair collection of Farmans and other Moghal documents. Of the coins, 36 were 
purchased from dealers, 352 were received from various Provincial Governments and the 
remainder (50) were placed on loan in the Museum. It may not be out of place to 
mention that eight new wall cases and two standard cases which have been made for the 
display of the collection of pictures are now finished and will shortly be erected. They 
are a very great improvement on the old ramshackle frames that previously did service. 
It is hoped that it may be possible to report next year that the new cases for exhibits, 
which are being made to take the place of the heterogeneous collection now in use 
have also been completed. This year new sun curtains also have been provided, as the 
old ones were entirely worn out." 



The Delhi 
Musettin. 



Peshawar 
Museum. 



The Peshawar Museimi is, strictly speaking, a Provincial institution, but the 
Archaeological Superintendent for the Frontier Circle acts ex-officio as Honorary Curator, 
and the annual statement of progress is therefore included here. Mr. Hargreaves reports 
as follows : 

** The total number of visitors to the Peshawar Museum was 54,386 as compared 
with 52,583 in the preceding year, an increase of 1,803. 



109 MUSEUMS. 

" Two hundred and twenty-four antiquities including coins were acquired during Peshawar 
the year. A hoard of 194 copper coins, principally of the early Pa than kings of Delhi ^^'^^'"^ 
and their contemporaries, which were discovered by some labourers when road-making 
near Charsada, was purchased for Rs. 12-2-0. Two stone mortars and a roughly-shaped 
stone with scroll ornamentation in very low relief which were obtained at the ancient 
site of Bedadi in the Hazara District were presented by Mr. T. B. Copeland, I.C.S. 
One silver coin of Shah Alam II was contributed by the Government of the United 
Provinces and one smaller silver Gadhiya coin by the Superintendent, Sardar Museum, 
Jodhpur. Six copper Kushan coins, one iron implement, one arrow-head, two thin 
pieces of sheet copper, one copper bangle, four iron finger-rings, one copper signet and 
two other copper rings were sent on loan by the Superintendent, Archaeological 
Survey, Frontier Circle, being part of the antiquities recovered during the operations 
at Jamalgarhi in 1920-21. The Director of Industries, Central Provinces, also pre- 
sented to the Museum one silver and six gold coins. 

" Thirty-six books have been added to the Museum Library, twenty-eight being 
presentations from official sources and eight being purchases. The Museum already 
possesses the nucleus of an excellent library dealing with the ancient history of the pro- 
vince and the antiquities in the Museum, and purchases are limited to works dealing 
with these and allied subjects. A special effort will be made to strengthen it in works 
dealing with numismatics. It is hoped that in time the library will be able to meet all 
the needs of students and others requiring works of reference dealing with the history 
and antiquities of the Frontier Province. 

" The Museum was closed to the Public for^.16 days, for various public purposes, 
examinations, committees and meetings and also for two days for the Hunt Ball. For 
committee meetings and examinations the body of the Hall alone is required and no in- 
convenience is experienced, but the Hunt Ball is always a source of danger, as it neces- 
sitates the removal of table cases, heavy images and inscriptions. On the last occasion 
the head of a heavy image was broken off during removal, and even with the greatest 
care safety cannot be ensured when antiquities have to be removed and replaced. Until 
the antiquities can be housed in some building where their removal is unnecessary they 
must be exposed to the risk of damage and it is, therefore, to be regretted that the 
proposed extension of the Victoria Memorial Hall, which was referred to in last year's 
report, could not, in view of the financial stringency, be built, and that the projected 
extension is now indefinitely postponed. 

" The repairs to the exterior of the building which were so greatly needed have been 
executed during the year under report and the Victorial Memorial Hall is now in sound 
condition. No funds, however, have been available for the improvement of the Museum 
grounds and they continue in their previous unsatisfactory condition. In the past the 
brick piers and iron railings of the Museum grounds, where they are bounded by the 
Grand Trunk Road, have been constantly overthrown and damaged by the projectin^r 
loads of heavily laden carts and buffaloes. The attention of the Public Works De- 
partment was directed to this and the boundary wall and railings have now been ade- 
quately protected by the provision of a raised footpath three feet wide on the outer 
side of the boundary wall. 



MUSEUMS. 



110 



Peshawar " All objects acquired during the year have been listed first in the Accession Re- 

Museum. gister and then in the special registers and many of the antiquities exhibited in the 

table cases have been provided with explanatory labels. 

** As the proposed Museum extension is now indefinitely postponed and the Museum 
cases are unlikely to undergo any re-arrangement in the near future, an endeavour will 
be made during the ensuing year to revise and republish the Handbook to the Sculptures 
in the Peshawar Museum, as Dr. Spooner's original edition has been long out of print, 
and many applications for copies are received from visitors and others. 

" The question whether the Museum coin collection should not be more restricted 
in scope and limited to the coins of dynasties which have ruled on the North- West is 
imder consideration. In the meantime Major H. M. Whittell, an active member of the 
Numismatic Society of India, has most generously offered to survey the collection 
and to make a selection of the coins worth retention in the coin cabinets, and at the 
same time prepare a list of duplicates which might better be transferred to other 
Museums or exchanged for those now lacking in the Museum. Should Major 
Whittell remain in Peshawar he has promised to draw up a manuscript catalogue of 
the coins. 

" Numerous antiquities of stucco and stone, which have been recovered in excava- 
tions carried out in the Frontier Province since 1907, lie in the godowns of the Superin- 
tendent, as the Peshawar Museum affords no accommodation for their exhibition. 
Under instructions from the Director General of Archaeology a representative selection 
of these stucco heads and images was made for loan to the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
and supplemented by seven duplicate antiquities formerly exhibited in the Peshawar 
. Museum. Of this selection 66 were carefully packed and despatched on March 31st 
to the Superintendent, Archaeological Section, Indian Museum, Calcutta, and arrived 
in good condition. Five large and heavy statues, already packed, still await dispatch 
on receipt of further instructions from Calcutta. As the extension of the Museum is 
indefinitely postponed, it becomes a matter for consideration whether similar selections 
of the antiquities still in the godowns should not be offered to other Museums in India, 
which it is believed would welcome an opportunity of supplementing their collections 
with representative specimens of the Graeco-Buddhist School of Gandhara." 

" The Prince of Wales' Museum of Western India," Mr. Banerji reports, " was opened 
to the public by Her Excellency Lady Lloyd on 10th January 1922. The Archaeological 
Section of this Museum was classified, arranged and labelled by the Superintendent of 
the Western Circle, who acted as its Honorary Curator throughout the year. The 
Madras Central Museum presented a number of Amaravati sculptures, prehistoric 
pottery and iron implements, together with a large collection of neolithic stone imple- 
ments from among its duplicates. Some heads and crossbars of railings were also 
received from the duplicates in the Lucknow Provincial Museum. Images and sculp- 
tures found in the excavation of the later Chalukyan temple in the fort at Sholapur 
were also transferred to this Museum at Bombay. The following sections were opened 
to the public :-^I. Brahmanical, II. Buddhist, III. Epigraphical, IV. Jain, foreign 
and Prehistoric, V. Pottery and VT. Hero-stones and Miscellaneous. 

Bijapur Museum. '* Only one meeting of the committee of management of the Bijapur Museum was held 

during the year, and a few articles of interest were purchased. The Museum was 



Prince of Wales* 

Museum* 

Bombay. 



Ill MUSEUMS. 

created by the Government of Bombay and its management entrusted to a committee of Bljapur Museum. 
five, of whom three were officials {vide Bombay Government Resolution No. 4679, General 
Department, dated 19th July 1912), according to the suggestions made in a note dated 
the 30th January 1911, by Dr. J. Ph. Vogel, then Officiating Director-General of Archaeo- 
logy in India. According to this resolution the scope of the Museum was confined to 
antiquities of the Adilshahi period only. During the earlier years of its existence all 
portable antiquities found in the Bijapur District were stored in this Museum. In 
1921 when a proposal for the transfer of non- Adilshahi antiquities was raised informally 
before the committee of management, they decided to keep all specimens already in the 
Museum and moreover applied to the Government for permission, to increase the scope 
of the Museum. The Government of Bombay sanctioned this proposal in their letter 
No. 203-G., dated the 14th September 1921, stating that the Government had approved 
the resolution passed by the Committee of the Bijapur Museum at their meeting held 
on Ist July 1921 that the scope of the Museum should extend to all antiquities of the 
Adilshahi period and any other antiquities of local interest." Both of these Museums 
at Bombay and Bijapur are provincial and therefore the statements of acquisitions are 
not printed here in accordance with recent orders of the Government of India to the 
effect that the Archaeological Department need not in future report in detail on the growth 
and progress of Provincial collections of antiquities. 

• 
As has been stated elsewhere excavation as such was not in progress at Nalanda Naianda Museum. 

during 1921-22, although a few antiquities were incidentally recovered in the course 
of such clearance as became necessary in connexion with the conservation work. A 
brief account of the chief discoveries has been given already in the section on Conserva- 
tion (page 19ff. ante), and Mr. Page has accordingly sent no formal report on the so- 
called " Museum " at Nalanda beyond the tabular statement of fresh acquisitions given 
in Appendix D page 259. I say " so-called " Museum because in reality the accom- 
modation so far provided at Nalanda for the housing of antiquities recovered from the 
site amounts only to one room of the small bungalow built as a rest-house for the Archaeo- 
logical Officer in charge, and being without any staff of regular attendants cannot be 
called a Museum in any usual acceptance of this term. It is in some ways unfortunate 
that this purely provisional deposit has been popularly glerified by the name Museum, 
because a natural consequence of this designation is that the public are thereby led to 
suppose that they have a right to admittance. Admittance is, of course, conceded to 
the public whenever possible during those periods when the Archaeological Officer is in 
residence. At other times, since there is no regular Custodian, and by no means enough 
glazed cases to render the antiquities safe, it is manifestly out of the question that the 
collection should be open to the public. Nalanda is not altogether easy of access, des- 
pite the existence of the toy railway running past it to Rajgir Kund, and it is not surpris- 
ing therefore that when visitors take the trouble to come here from a distance and find 
the supposed Museum closed to them, disappointment is not only felt but expressed. 
With our present funds, however, it is impossible for the Department to do other than 
it does, although it is obviously to the advantage of the Department and of the work 
that public interest in the excavations and the resultant finds should be stimulated. 
As soon as the financial position permits of the provision of funds it is hoped that in- 
creased accommodation, preferably in a detached building, can be arranged for, and 
that a sufficient staff of permanent attendants can be secured to make it possible to 
open the Museum to visitors at all times of the year. But the safety of the antiquities 



MUSEUMS. 



112 



Naianda Museum, will have to be secured first of all by the provision of more show-cases. During 1921- 

22 six table cases were received from the ArchaBological Section of the Indian Museum 
from stock being given up by them, and a strong safe was purchased at a cost of Rs. 491 . 
But the great majority of the finds, mostly small and very portable statuettes in stone 
and bronze, are merely laid out on open shelves which it is not possible to glaze. I 
should add that a sum of Rs. 3,014 was spent during the year towards the erection 
of a much needed godown, together with chowkidars' quarters, in the Museum 
enclosure. 



Eastern 
Circle. 



Dacca Museum. 



Ra)8hahi 
Museum. 



Qauhati 
Museum. 



Apart from the Archaeological Section of the Indian Museum, none of the museums 
of Eastern India are 'administered by the Archaeological Department, but the following 
brief notes on three of these institutions have been included in the present Report at 
the special request of Mr. Dikshit, who as Superintendent in the Eastern Circle, co- 
operating with the local Museums, desires that the more important of their new acquisi- 
tions should be recorded here for future reference, as none of the institutions in question 
issue a formal report. 

*' No important sculpture was added to the collection of the Dacca Museum dur- 
ing the year, but the Coin Cabinet received notable additions through the purchase 
of a collection of about 300 ancient Indian coins, mostly copper, from Mr. Russel of 
the Railway Department. The collection includes numerous interesting specimens 
of Tribal, Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian and Pre-Mbghul coins. It also contains two coins 
of Siladitya, with a clear legend. Another important addition to the Coin Cabinet 
is a gold coin of the later Gupta type found at Sabhar , and purchased for Rs. 1 6. The 
representative series of 32 coins of Shah Jahan presented by the Bengal Government 
from the find at Parsundi in the Birbhum District, also deserves mention." 

• 

** The Secretary -to the Varendra Research Society reports that 15 antiquities were 
added to their collection during the year. The number includes two gold coins of 
the Gupta Emperors Chandragupta Hand Skandagupta acquired by purchase, and 
some stone and metal images from the Dinaj pur District. Among stone sculptures the 
following deserve special notice: (1) an image of Sadasiva (a ten-armed form of Siva, 
figured on the seals of the Sena kings of Bengal), of which the main figure with two 
hands in the V ydkhydna-mudrd is in excellent preservation ; (2) a square stone tablet 
(4" sq.) in good preservation, representing Vishnu on one side and his ten incarnations on 
the other; (3) a stone image (ht. 1' 10") representing the snake-goddess Manasa, in alto 
relievo. The delineation of the figures is graceful and artistic. Its chief iconographical 
feature of interest is the existence of a Siva-linga placed overhead at the top of the 
halo. Two miniature metal images, one of Avalokitesvara and the other of Ganesa, 
riding astride of his vdhana the rat (a rare form of the deity) are also worthy of 
mention." 

" The Gauhati Museum is the only public collection in Assam worthy to form the 
basis of a future Museum for the province. The additions during the year are a 
fragmentary stone inscription from Jorapukur, District Nowgong, presented by Mrs. 
Tunstall at the instance of the Archaeological Superintendent, and a number of orna- 
mental pieces of pottery found at a great depth below ground level, in digging the founda- 
tions of a house at Ujan Bazar in Gauhati, The pottery exhibits a variety of shapes 
and designs indicativeof a skill not inherited in any degree by the modern Assamese 
potter. • 



113 MUSEUMS. 

Mr. Garde, the ArchsBoiogical Superintendent in Gvvalior State, reports as follows • — Qwaiior Mustuiiu 

" The formation of the ArchsBologicai Museum was the chief achievement of the 
Department in the year of report. The work of adapting the building known as Gujari- 
mahal for accommodating the Archaeological Museum and of collecting exhibits on the 
spot had been abready started last year. The building and initial collection having been 
completed early this year the work of classifying, arranging and labelling the exhibits 
was taken in hand immediately and was finished before the end of January so that the 
museum was ready by the time His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales visited 
Gwalior. Since then the museum has been open to visitors. 

"The exhibits have been classified into the following groups : — (1) Inscriptions, 
(2) Capitals of monolithic pillars, (3) Jaina Tirthamkaras, (4) Vishnu and Lakshmi, 
(5) Avataras of Vishnu, (6) Siva and Parvati, (7) Saiva deities, (8) Minor gods, (9) Minor 
goddesses, (10) Yakshas and demi-gods, (11) Miscellaneous figures, (12) Figurines and 
limbs, (13) Figures of animals, (14) Architectural pieces and (15) Pictures and small 
antiquities. Each group is arranged in a separate room. There are, however, a few 
large and important sculptures which, though they may fall into one or other of the 
aforesaid groups, have been exhibited in separate cells by themselves as by being so 
placed their individual importance is emphasised and they are able to attract the particu- 
lar attention of visitors. In each room prominent places are reserved as far as possible 
for well preserved sculptures of artistic merit, thus sacrificing to a certain extent the 
chronological order. The arrangement is such that commencing at one end of the 
quadrangle the visitor can see the whole museum in one single round. 

" The museum contains nearly 250 sculptures and 21 stone inscriptions picked up 
from various places in the State and ranging in date from the 2nd century B. C. to the 13th 
century A. D. There are a few Buddhist carvings and a fair collection of Jaina sculp- 
tures but by far the largest number of images are Brahmanical. Besides these the 
minor antiquities such as coins, heads, inscribed seals, pieces of pottery and iron imple- 
ments exhumed in the excavations at Besnagar (Vidisa) and a number of large sized 
photographs of the more important ancient monuments in the State have been exhibited 
separately in a spacious hall. The most valuable exhibits, however, are the excellent 
copies of the very interesting fresco-paintings in the Buddhist caves at Bagh. 

" For the guidance of visitors sign boards have been provided for all important rooms, 
indicating the general nature of their contents, and all important exhibits are furnished 
with labels showing their name, find spot and approximate age, also specifying exact 
dates where available. When time permits it is proposed to publish a catalogue giving 
full descriptive and historical notes on the antiquities for the use of those who wish to 
study them more closely. 

**The specimens now exhibited are all local, i,e,, collected from the territories of 
GwaUor State alone. The present museum is, however, only a nucleus to be developed 
hereafter. There is still a wealth of antiquities lying scattered in the districts which will 
be brought to the museum in due course. Although the museum is thus intended to be 
primarily a store house of local antiquities exclusiveness will not be pushed to an extreme 
and small antiquities also from other parts of India such as coins, pictures and photo- 
graphs of representative monuments of all periods of Indian History will be added to the 
museum as far as practicable. It is also proposed to exchange duplicates with other 
museums. In short every effort is being made to make the Institution useful and 
interesting." 



EPIGRAPHY. 114 

SECTION V. 

EPIGRAPHY. 

Epigraphy. M. R. Ry, Rao Bahadur H. Bjrishna ShaStri having been on leave when the materials 

for this Report were being prepared, Mr. K. V. Subrahmanya Aiyer sends me the following 
general statement of the progress made in this branch of the Department. 

"During the year 1921-22 the Epigraphia Indica was under the joint editorship of 
Dr. F. W. Thomas and Rao Bahadur H. Krishna Sastri. Five parts of the journal, viz,^ 
part VII of Volume XV and parts I to IV of Volume XVI were passed for print- 
ing and issue. The Ghosundi stone inscription edited by Mr. K. P. Jayaswal, 
M.A., is the earliest Sanskrit inscription yet discovered in India. It refers to the deified 
Vaishnava statues of Sankarshana and Vasudeva who also appear as Gods belonging 
to the Lunar family in the Nanaghat inscription. The record accordingly is an addi- 
tional valuable evidence for the early history of Vaishnavism. Two copper-plate 
grants from Indore, edited by Dr. R. C. Mozumdar, are dated in years 67 and 107, pro- 
bably of the Gupta Era, corresponding to 386-7 and 426-7 A. D., the former being the 
earliest dated inscription of the Guptas, and the earliest copper-plate grant ever discovered 
in Northern India. They belong to the reigns of the feudatory chiefs Svamidasa and 
Bhulunda and mention the dutakas Nannabhatti and Skanda. The Shorkot inscription 
of the Gupta year 83 (= A. D. 402), edited by Dr. Vogel, is of importance as it gives us 
to understand that its ancient name was Sibipura, the capital of the Sibis, one of the races 
of North India overcome by Alexander the Great, according to the Greek geographers. 
The indistinct Kharoshthi inscription on the Bimaran Vase in the British Museum was 
successfully deciphered by Dr..Pargiter, and the much worn Prakrit epigraphs from Cutch 
were made out by Mr. R. D. Banerji. These latter belong to the reign of the Western 
Kshatrapa king Rudradaman, son of Jayadaman, grandson of Chashtana and great 
grandson of Ysamotika. They are dated in the Saka year 52 (= A. D. 130), dark half 
of Phalguna, 2, and refer to the erection of fimeral monuments lashtis. The Tipperah 
grant of the feudatory chief Lokanatha published by Mr. R. G. Basak, is dated in the 
year 44, taken to be of the Harsha Era (= A. D. 650) and is a record of importance. 
According to it, the chief Lokanatha was a Karana by caste ; his maternal grandfather 
was one Kesava, the leader of an army and a Pdrasava ; the latter's father and grand- 
father were prominent Brahmins. The members on the paternal side of Ldkanatha 
may have been Kshatriyas ; among them was an adhimahdrdjay a sdmanta and another, 
who, renouncing the world, led the lifeof amAi. The inscription thus brings strongly 
into evidence the prevalence in East Bengal in A. D. 650, i.e., just before the rule of the 
Buddhist Pala Kings, of the Hindu creed and of anulama marriages. It shows also that 
persons of mixed caste were not held in disrepute in those days but were honoured 
with high social position. Lokanatha's contemporary was a certain Jayatungavarsha, 
whose name reminds us of a much later Jayatungasimha of the Kama country. Of the 
fourteen records published by Dr. Bamett out of those bequeathed to the British Museum 
by the late Dr. Fleet, there are two which refer to the grammarian Narendrasena, the 
author of Pramdna-prameya-kalika, a work on logic. These records state that the 
author was a disciple of Kanakasena, who was himself a disciple of Ajitasena ; that 
he had mastered the Chdndra, Kdtantra, Jainendra, Sah-ddniLsdsana, Aindra and 
Pdnini and flourished about Saka 975 (= A. D. 1053). The Bhamodra Mahota 
Plates edited by the same author belong to the time of Dronasimha the second son 
of Bhatarka, the founder of the Maitraka dynasty of Vallabhi and are dated in the 



115 EPIGRAPHY. 

Gupta Vallabhi samvat 183 (=A.D. 501) being thus the earliest Vallabhi grant extant. Sanskrit 
The Damoh Hindi inscription published by Mr. Hira Lai refers to the reign of Mahmud 
Shah II, the last king of the Khiljis of Malwa ; it is dated in Vikraraa Samvat 1570 and 
contains a proclamation recording remission of taxes on seed-lenders, midwives and 
tailors. Mr. Sewell has contributed a valuable paper on the Arya Siddhanta. 

" In the Central Circle, Babu Manmatha Nath Sen presented to the Patna Museum 
a copper-plate grant of the time of the Vakataka king Pravarasena II ; and an old 
inscribed wooden pillar of the 4th or 5th century A. D., found in the middle of a dried 
up tank at Kirari in the Chandrapur-Padampur Taluk of the Bilaspur District, Central 
Provinces, was brought to the notice of the Archaeological Department by Pandit Lochan 
Prasad Pandeya and was removed to the Nagpur Museum. The Epigraphist to the 
Patna Museum took estampages of the Asokan edict at Lauriya-Nandangarh and the 
Assistant Archaeological Superintendent of the Circle copied 13 inscriptions in connec- 
tion with the listing of ancient monuments. 

** The Provincial Museum at Lucknow acquired a set of two inscribed copper-plates 
with ring and seal, of the time of the Gahadavala king Govindachandra, of Kanauj, 
dated in Vik. Samvat 1177 ( =A. D. 1121) ; and a fragmentary sun-dried brick con- 
taining a cuneiform inscription, obtained from the ruins of a sun temple at Ur, the 
ancient city of the Chaldees in Mesopotamia, was presented by Lieutenant-Colonel C. A. 
Sprawson. 

'* No Epigraphical acquisition was ma,de during the year to the Indian Museum at 
Calcutta. 

" In the Eastern Circle, a number of bronze Buddhist images were discovered in 
different parts of the Chittagong District, with dedicatory inscriptions, ranging in date 
from the 9th to the 12th century A. D. engraved on their backs and pedestals. They 
are now preserved in the Chittagong monastery. The missing leaf of the Nidhanpur 
plates of Bhaskaravarman was traced at Silchar and found to embody the interesting 
information that this grant was originally made by Bhutivarman, the great-great-grand- 
father of Bhaskaravarman, but was renewed by his descendant owing to the destruc- 
tion by fire of the original document. The name of the village granted is given as 
Mayurasalmali, which is most probably in the Assam Valley. Mr. K. N. Dikshit says 
* It now seems possible that the discovery of the plate in Sylhet has no bearing on the 
question whether Sylhet formed part of ancient Kamarupa.' Of greater interest 
is the Chedi inscription of the 11th century A. D., of the time of king Kama, discovered 
on a small decorative pillar at Paikore in Birbhum District. It records that the image 
of a goddess was made by an order of the king himself. Its main interest lies in the 
fact that it confirms the conjectural invasion of Bengal by this powerful ruler of Central 
India, gathered from references in Chedi inscriptions and in the Tibetan life of the 
Buddhist Acharya Atisa or Dipankara. Another pillar found along with the above 
record mentions Vijayasena, apparently the well-known king of the Sena dynasty, 
who lived a century later than the Chedi king. A huge semi-circular stone found 
at Maharani in the Udaypur Division of the Tripura State contains 4 inscriptions in 
elegant Sanskrit verse, relating to the building of a Vishnu temple by King Vijaya- 
manikya in 1548 A. D. These are the earliest inscriptions of the Tripura dynasty dis- 
covered so far. Copies of the famous Bangarh pillar inscription of the Kamboja king 
(now at the Rajbari, Dinajpur) and the Gaganesvara fragmentary inscription of Kapiles- 
varadeva of Orissa (A. D. 1434-70) were also made. 



EPIGRAPHY. 116 

Sanskrit "In the Southern Circle, ten new copper-plates were examined, 808 stone inscrip- 

tions copied, and 3,327 manuscript pages of texts of South-Indian Inscriptions sent to 
the Superintendent, Government Press, Madras, partly to complete Volumes V and 
VI and partly to form Volume VII of the new series of the South-Indian Inscriptions : — 
Texts, Of this collection, 61 are copies of records previously secured and 82 have not 
been examined. The rest are noticed in the Annual Report on Epigraphy, Southern 
Circle, Madras. 

'' Indra fihattaraka of the Eastern Chalukya family whose saccession to the 
throne remained till now in doubt owing to the fact that earlier charters mentioned 
him even without the title of Maharaja and omitted to give the extent of his reign 
as they did for others, but who according to the later charters reigned for seven 
days, is represented by a copper-plate grant which calls him Indravarma-Maharaja, 
the son of Vishnu vardhana (I) and grandson of Kirttavarman. The seal of the grant 
bears the legend * Tydgadhenu ' which must have been one of his titles.* The inscrip- 
tion registers the gift of the village of Kondanaguru to a brahman named Chandi- 
sarman and it is to be published in the Epigraphia Indica by Professor Hultzsch. A 
copper-plate belonging to the time of the Chalukya-Chola King Rajaraja II, son of 
Kulottunga I, issued in the second year of his viceroyalty of Vengi, states that he was 
crowned in Kulira ba, Dasami Wednesday, Tula-laghna (roughly 27th July 1076 A. D.). 
Itregistersagrantof 12 villages to a favourite chief named Mummadi-Bhima who was 
brought up in the royal household of the Chalukyas. It is reported that the chief ren- 
dered valuable service in the wars waged against the kings of Ganga, Kalinga, and 
Kuntala and that in recognition of this, he was given the governorship of 1,000 
villages in Vengipura-vishaya. 

" A hitherto unknown king Bhavadatta of the Nala race is found to figure in a frag- 
mentary lithic record of the 5th century A. D. discovered near the Podagadh hiU in the 
Jeypore Agency. 

" The largest number of the year's collection belongs to the Cholas and almost all 
the kings of the line are represented. A record of Rajakesarivarman found at Takkolam, 
where the Chola prince Rajaditya was killed by Butuga, is referable to Aditya I as it 
mentions Aparajita-chaturvedimangalam, a name derived from the last member of the 
Pallavas whom he vanquished. One of the inscriptions of Parantaka dated in the 
7th year of his reign (A. D. 914) registers a gift of gold made by a lady for plying a boat 
in the big tank of the village, and the village assembly of Parundur undertook to supply 
150 kadi of the Panchavdra paddy for its maintenance. The boat was evidently meant 
to remove silt from the tank when there was water in it. The Uttaramallur inscription 
published in the Archaeological Survey Report for 1904-05, page 131 ff. gives us 
to understand that the Panchavdra committee was one of the committees form- 
ing the village assembly. What its duties were, it was not possible to know. The 
inscriptions of the year seem to indicate that the collection of assessment in paddy was 
left with the members of this committee. One of the records brings to light a hitherto 
unknown daughter of Parantaka I, Viramadevi by name, who was the queen of Govinda 
Pallavarayar. It is interesting to notice that a stone inscription found at PuUamangai 
in the Tanjore district, is dated in the sixth year of Parakesarivarman (i.e., Parantaka I) 



C/. the title Kamadhenu which his father Vishnuvardhana I is given in his Chipurapalle gnni {Ind, Ani., 
vol. XX, page 16, text-line 5), [K..S.] 



EPIGRAPHY. 118 

^Y'^^'^h those with whom compacts were entered into ; others which were issued by certain chief- 

tains who might be the successors of those that threw off the Chola yoke ; and the rest 
belong to the reign of the later Pallava ruler Penmjinga. The inscriptions of the 
last show that he was a great admirer of the arts. It is said that he made large 
additions to the temple at Chidambaram by building for it the finely sculptured seven- 
storied tower on the southern side, delineating the various poses of dancers as described 
in the Btutrata-Ndtya-Sdstra. One of the inscriptions of this year states that the 
village of Attur in the Chingleput District was granted for meeting the cost of building this 
gopura. Another record, also secured this year, gives him the significant birudas Kshird- 
ptzgadakshina-nayaka, Pennai-nadindthay Kdverikdmuka, Sabhdpatisahhd-sarvakdrya' 
sarvakdla-nirvdhaka, Khaddgamalla BharatamaUa Sdhityaratndkara, 

" The services rendered to the Chidambaram temple by a chief who is variously named 
Kiittan Tondaiyarkon, Naralokaviran and the lion of the Kalingar, forms the subject of a 
bi-lingual metrical composition in Sanskrit and Tamil (No. 120 of 1888), wherein it is 
stated that in addition to the gdpura at the south entrance, he built also several mandapas 
supported by numerous pillars, constructed with stone the temple tank, covered with 
gold the dancing hall and presented valuable jewels, vessels and live-stock and provided 
richly for all the requirements of the temple. In the current year's collection, there 
is a similar metrical record in Tamil, which registers the contribution made by the 
same chief to the temple at Tiruvadi. As this chief is stated to have conquered the 
Pandyas, the Cheras and the kings of the north, he must be different from Parakrama- 
Pandya, who also bore the surname Naralokavira (Annual Report for 1909, Part II, 
paragraph 29). To judge from the Palaeography of the inscription the chief appears 
to belong to the 13th century A. D. Another later Pallava chief Bhasavasankara, 
with a string of high sounding hirvdds, figures in an inscription of the 1 7th year of the 
reign of Rajanarayana Sambuvaraya. He seems to be a later member of the family 
to which Bhasavasankara AUadi Pammayadeva-Maharaja of Tripurantakam belonged. 

" Three other epigraphs in the year's collection show the patronage given by Hindu 
sovereigns to literary men. Varakavi Ramalingayya of the time of Saluva Narasimha 
received 60 panam ; the poet Uddandavelayuda-Bharati received a sarvamanya gift of 
land for composing a kalambagam on Tiruvadi ; and Varadaya of Kuratti who com- 
posed the TiruvaUai-andddi obtained a similar gift. Though the encouragement given 
to these men is thus known, the compositions themselves remain yet to be discovered. 

" Among the numerous Vijayanagara records secured during the year, there are two 
belonging to the reign of Vira-Bhupati son of Bukka II. One of them mentions his 
officer Mahapradhani Annadata-Udaiyar. An inscription of Devaraya II, dated in 
Saka 1352 registers an order issued by the king's younger brother Srigiri whom we know 
from the Satyamangalam and Madras Museum plates to have been governing the Mara- 
takanagara country. The records of this year's collection belonging to the time of 
Saluva Narasimha show that he had for his commander (dalai^y) Isvara-Nayaka, who 
is probably the ancestor of Krishnaraya-Maharaya. Rahutta-Perumal and Annamara- 
sayya are reported to be the agents ot this Isvara-Nayaka. 

" In the Western Circle, two new inscriptions were discovered. One of them is a 
copper-plate grant of three leaves f oimd at Kalyan in the Nasik District. It belongs 
to the time of Yasovarman, a subordinate of the Paramara king Bhoja of Malwa. Re- 
ferring to Bhoja, the record says that he conquered the kings of Kamata, Lata, Gurjjarat 



119 EPIGRAPHY. 

Chedi and Komkana ; and meditated on the feet of Sindhurajadeva who meditated on Sanskrit 
the feet of Vakpatirajadeva and who again meditated on the feet of Siyakadeva. 
The date of the inscription which is not furnished by the plates, may be said to 
fall before A. D. 1056, when Bhoja I was defeated by the Kalachuri-Chedi King 
Karnadeva. The inscription registers the grant of certain pieces of land, oil-mills, shops 
for merchants and 14 drammas to the Tirthankara Muni-Suvratadeva of the Jain 
temple at Mahishavuddhika in the holy tlrtha of Kalkalesvara, situated in the Svetapada 
country. Mr. R. D. Banerji states that Svetapada is probably the ancient name of 
the country of Dandesh, surnamed Khandesh after its conquest by the Mughal Emperor 
Akbar I. The other record is a stone inscription discovered at Jura in the state of 
Maihar and sent by Mr. Banerji to the Government Epigraphist for being deciphered. 
It is a jyrasasti of the Rashtrakiita king Krishna III engraved in the Kanarese language 
by a certain Chimmayya at the instance of Tuyyala Chandayya the younger brother of 
Kamesetti and contains some well-known hirudas of the king, besides three verses 
which describe him as a son to women folk other than his wife. Most of these 
hirudas have been collected from a number of inscriptions by the late Dr. Fleet, and their 
significance noticed in the Ejyigraphia Indica, Volume VI, pages 178 fl. ; but it has to be 
pointed out here that the hiruda ' Kahbega ' ' a poet ' which actually occurs as such 
in line 3 of the Atakur inscription {ibid page 54) has been misread as ' Kachchega ' 
and interpreted to mean ' he who wears the girdle (of prowess).' Both these interesting 
inscriptions are to be published in the Epigraphia Indica under the editorship of Messrs. 
Banerji and T. T. Sharma. 

"Twenty-two inscriptions were copied during the year for the Rajputana Museum, 
Ajmere. Out of these, 3 come from Sirohi, 3 from Chitor (Mewar State) and the rest are 
from Partabgarh State. Two of the records of Chitor are dated in H. 705 and 709 and 
belong to the reign of AUauddin Khilji, the king being called Sultan Shah-i-jahan 
Muhammad Shah and Sultan Muhammad Shah Bui Muzaifar Sikandar. The other 
inscription registers the construction of a building by Tughlaq Shah and Assauddin 
Arsalan. Mr. G. S. Ojha points out that this Assauddin Arsalan was the nephew of 
6hiyas-ud-din Tughlaq and was appointed by him as Naib Barbak in the year of his acces- 
sion, and as such the record must belong to the period A. D. 1320--25. All the other 
inscriptions, which range in dat« from Samvat 1135 to 1524, are engraved on the backs 
of brass images found in Jain temples said to be of the Tirthankaras Rishabhadeva, 
Santinatha, Parsvanatha, Dharmanatha, Vimalanatha, Padmaprabha, Adinatha and 
Neminatha. They mention the names of donees, the year of gift and the names of the 
Jain teachers who performed the consecration ceremonies. Various castes including 
the Balahi are also mentioned. As Mr. Ojha says that the Balahis are at present 
an untouchable caste among the Hindus, the mention of the name as a class in the 
Ukesa caste is a proof of the story of the wholesale conversion of the town of Osian 
(Ukesa) to Jainism. 

** In the Northern Circle Rai Bahadur Daya RamSahni discovered and deciphered 
eighteen new inscriptions. As many as eleven of these which were unearthed at Sarnath, 
are short dedicatory epigraphs which record the installation of images by Buddhist 
monks or laymen, though one of them is much defaced and appears to contain the name 
of Budha-gupta. Mr. Sahni thinks that this last may be the same as the Gupta King of 
that name, inscriptions of whose reign were unearthed by Mr. Hargreaves in 1914-15 close 
to the spot where the inscription in question was found last year. One short inscription 



EPIGRAPHY. 120 

Sanskrit was copied at Amin in the Kurukshetra area, which is believed to mark the spot where 

pi«rap y. Abhimanyu, the son of the great Pandava hero, Arjuna, was slain by the Kaurava forces. 

It is engraved in Brahmi characters of the Kushan period, on the top of a short stone 
pillar, S'-d^" in height, and embellished with carvings on all the four faces. The in- 
scription merely states that the post, on which it is cut, was the gift of a certain Isimitra 
(Sanskrit Rishimitra). 

** The remaining six inscriptions were recovered by Mr. Sahni in the course of a 
search made in the villages in and around Kosam in the Allahabad District, one of 
them being found on the hitherto concealed portion of the shaft of the Kosam pillar 
itself. This last mentioned inscription, which General Cunningham correctly assigns 
to the 6th or 7th century A. D. has already been published by Mr. Pargiter in the Epig. 
Ind.y Vol. XI. It was composed by a certain Sankhadeva and consists of a single stanza 
in the Upendravajra metre, which states that * the man who fixes his look on this tall 
pillar will preserve fortitude during the adversity of the planets, and being delivered from 
sin he purifies his kindred and proceeds without doubt to Indra's world '. Other earlier 
writings on the visible portion of the shaft, including the surface of the lower portion 
laid bare this year, consist of two short epigraphs of a few characters each, which are 
assignable to the 4th or 5th century A. D. As the southern half of the lower portion 
of the shaft is still hidden from view it is impossible to say whether it contains any 
inscription which would throw light on the early history of the monument. 

" The longest and best preserved inscription discovered in the neighbourhood of 
Kosam is a document of thirteen lines neatly cut in Brahmi characters of the 2nd or 3rd 
century B. C. on a railing post, 2'-10'' in height, which is built into the parapet of a well 
in the village of Masharfa situated about a mile and a half to the north-west of the pillar 
at Kosam. The inscription begins with a salutation to a certain Bhagavat and records 
that a certain householder named Gotiputa, who was the son of Seliya-puta Kusapala, 
who again was the son of a certain Vari, a votary of Manibhadra, caused a stone rail to 
be made. Unfortunately the name of the deity which was engraved at the end of the 
inscription is broken away. Mr. Sahni is of opinion that as the grandfather of the donor 
is specifically described as a Manibhadra, i.e., an adherent of the Yaksha Manibhadra, 
the deity in whose honour this railing was set up must have been Manibhadra himself. 
The deity is known to us from the Pawaya Manibhadra image inscription and two others. 
Mr. Ramaprasad Chanda has discussed the prevalence of the cult of this deity in his 
article entitled Four ancient Yaksha Statues in the Journal of the Department of 
Letters, University of Calcutta, Volume IV. The inscription discovered near Kosam 
provides further epigraphical evidence on the subject. 

'* Two other inscriptions discovered by Mr. Sahni near Kosam are much mutilated. 
They contain, however, the names of two rulers which he reads as Maharaja Bhadra- 
megha, and Maharaja Sivamegha. One of these inscriptions is dated in the year 80 
presumably of the Kushan era. These rulers are not yet known from contemporary 
coins or any other source. 

" The latest, though perhaps the most valuable inscription brought to light in 
the neighbourhood of Kosam is a short Nagarl inscription engraved on a door jamb, 
4' -10'' in height, which was lying in front of a ruined temple in the village of Meohar, 
distant 7 miles from Kosam. The purport of the inscription is that in the year Samvat 
1245 (1189 A. D.) in the reign of King Jayachchandra of Kanauj a certain Sirvastavya 



121 EPIGBAPHY. 

Thakkura whose name is missing, caused a temple of Siddhesvara to be built at the Ip^frJihy. 
village of Mehavada in the district of Kausambi. As the village of Maohar where this 
inscription has been found is identical with the Mehavada village mentioned in the 
epigraph, and as it is situated within 7 miles of Kosam, Mr. Sahni regards this inscrip- 
tion as affording incontestable evidence of the identity of Kosam and Kausambi. 

''One other inscription deciphered by Mr. Sahni this year deserves special 
mention here. It was originally engraved on an image pedestal, and the extant 
portion of the epigraph has come down to us on fourteen pieces of different sizes 
which were fitted together by Dr. Vogel. The inscription consists of six lines in 
Sanskrit and Brahml characters of the Kushan period. Imperfect as it is, the 
document is of interest in connection with the history of the Kushan dynasty. 
It appears to record that a certain temple was built by or for the grandfather 
{pitdmaJm) of Huvishka, whose name is lost in the inscription. This temple fell to 
ruin and was restored out of regard for the then reigning King Huvishka by one of his 
officers, who held the rank of Mahadandanayaka. Something else is also stated to have 
been done for the benefit of the daily guests and Brahmanas at the same temple. None 
of the numerous Kushan inscriptions known to us from Mathura or other places have any- 
thing to tell us about the mutual relationship of the Kushan Kings. The gap after 
the word pifdniahn.sya is imfortunate though it is possible to conjecture that it might 
refer to Kanishka. Further researches alone can definitely settle this point. 

• " No epigraphical discoveries were made on the Frontier during the year but Mr. 
Hargreaves writes: 'Mr. T. B. Copeland, I.C.S., forwarded for examination a small 
copper oil-measure, karandi, which he obtained -from the ancient site of Bedadi in 
the Hazara District. This karandi is 9" in length and weighs 2 • 7 ounces. The diameter 
of the bowl is I 9" and its height I •4". The long thin handle is at right angles to the 
diameter of the bowl and terminates in an oval ring formed by bending backwards the 
top 2^ " of the wire-like handle. Just below the rim of the bowl on the outer side are 
twenty-eight stippled KharoshthI aksharas. The oil-measure was sent to Rai Bahadur 
Daya Ram Sahni for decipherment, but he reports that he has been unable in the 
time at his disposal to decipher the whole of it, and that it does not appear to be an 
inscription of special importance. He believes he can read two names in the genitive 
case. Although the oil-measure is excellently preserved it appears to have had some 
use, as the bottom is slightly indented and some of the characters are partly defaced. 
It was in all probability a gift to one of the religious establishments of Bedadi by some 
zealous laymen about the 2nd century A. D. Its exact find-spot has not been recorded. 
The antique is not at present in India, but it is hoped to obtain it later— at least on 
loan — ^for the Peshawar Museum, when more prolonged and closer examination of the 
inscription will then become possible \" 

** In Burma * ' M. Duroiselle says, '' this year saw the issue from the press of Volume II , Burmese 
Parts I and II of the Epigraphia Binnanica, Volume III, Part I, of the same publica- ^^^^^ ^' 
tion is practically ready, and is awaiting copies of the plates for issue. This Part con- 
tains three inscriptions, No. IX — XI, which are the last of the 'Early Mon Inscriptions.' 
No. IX is remarkable both for its contents and its length. It records very circumstan- 
tially the erection of a palace at Pagan ; and considering the probable date of the 
inscription, about the last two decades of the 1 1th century, it must have been the 
palace erected for King Kyanzittha (1084 — 1112). The palace of course, has, completely 
disappeared after so many centuries, the structure being of wood. The site on which it 



EPIGRAPHT. 122 

gjJJ"«»« stood is still well known in Pagan, and a commemorative pillar has been erected in the 

centre of it. It is situated not far from the Ananda temple between the Shwegugyi 
and the Gawdawpalin temples. From the inscription we know that already at that 
time Brahmins played an important part in ceremonies and festivals ; most of them 
appear to have come from Lower Burma and to have been Vaishnava ; they are repre- 
sented as constantly bringing lustral water in vases of gold, silver, brass and clay. The 
Buddhist monks held a service of blessing and recited paritta for the protection of the 
new building. The inscription contains many technical terms relating to portions 
of the palace and its decorative architecture. Unfortunately, the meaning of a good 
number of these terms is still very doubtful, their equivalent not having been found in 
modem literary Talaing.* 

" Inscription No. X consists of only four lines. It records a royal gift, probably the 
dedication of land to a pagoda. It contains mention of a king whose style is Sri Tri- 
bhuwanaditya-pawaradhammaraja. This title belonged to at least four kings of Pagan ; 
viz: Alaimgsithu (A. D. 1112 — 60), Narapatisithu (1169 — 1204), Nandaimgmya 
(1204 — 27) and Uzana (1243-44). Mr. Blagden, on palaeographical grounds, is of opinion 
that the writing is nearer 1112 than 1248, the two dates between which it would fall. 

" M. R. Ry. Diwan Bahadur L. D. Swamikannu Pillai Avergal, I. S. 0., Secretary 
to the Madras Legislative Coimcil, the well-known author of Indian Chronology and 
Indian Ephemeris has kindly volunteered to check the dates found in the several volumes 
of Burmese Inscriptions. After a careful study of about 200 dates given in the 
Inscriptions of Pagan, Pinya and Ava and those foimd in the Kaiyani inscriptions 
of King Dhanmiacheti, he comes to the following conclusions : — 

(i) the most reliable guide m the verification of Burmese dates is the Surya 

Siddhanta ; 
(ii) that many of these dates can easily be verified from his Ephemeris, A. D. 

700 to A. D, 2000, which has now been published by the Government of 

Madras ; 
(Hi) that the proportion of un verifiable Burmese dates (less than 20 per cent.) 

is much smaller than the proportion of similar dates in Indian inscriptions 

of the same period ; 
(iv) that tt reckoning of * Expired ' or gaia years side by side with * current ' 

or vartarmna years is found in ancient Burmese inscriptions to the same 

extent (about 20 per cent.) as in Indian inscriptions dated in the Saka 

era ; 

{v) that the week-day has to be relied on as the chief test in determining 
whether a particular year is an expired year or a current year ; 

{vi) that a Burmese Sakkaraj year rendered into English by the addition of 638, 
may be regarded as a current year ; while one rendered into English 
by the addition of 639 is an expired year. 

" He adds that it is noteworthy that the following calendrical details ordinarily met 
with in Indian inscriptions, more especially in those of South India, are entirely or 
almost entirely absent from these Burmese inscriptions : — 

(1) full moons are occasionally referred to, but rarely new moon or Amavasya ; 



*Oiie of the terms.'trri// (tirukula) which Mr. Duroiselle explains as being '* applied in a limited sense to the 
Cholas '* occurs in a few Vaishnava inscriptions of the twelfth century A. D. in South India and is there applied to 
division of the outcast class'^ of Holeyas (Tamil Parayas) who however are given special privileges in the Vaishnava 
Temple at Melukote in Mysore. (Mr. Rice's Mysore Gazetteer, Vol. II, p. 273). [K. S.]. 



123 EPIGRAPHY. 

(2) citation of days by Nakshatras is not found ; EpigJ^hy. 

(3) citations of Saura or Solar months like Mesha, Rishabha, etc., or of San- 

krantis, Uttarayana or Dakshinayana, are not found ; 

(4) citation of days of Solar months is not foimd ; 

(5) citations of positions of planets properly so called, viz.^ Mars, Mercury, Jupi- 

ter, Venus and Saturn are not foimd ; 

(6) citation of eclipses is not foimd. An auspicious moment is occasionally 

referred to, and certain tiihis seem to have been favourites for making 
donations and Mr. Taw Sein Ko notes that the Burmese, though profess- 
ing Buddhism, were firm believers in astrology ; but Lagna, Yoga and 
other astrological combinations are never alluded to in these inscriptions 
and Adhika months do not seem to be avoided although in India it is not 
usual to make donations during Adhika months. 

(7) The Sakkaraj year is regularly cited, but Kaliyuga and Saka years are not 

referred to ; Buddha's era (543 B. C.) is sometimes cited ; 

(8) a cyclic year corresponding to Prabhava, Vibhava, etc., seems to be occa- 

sionally cited. 

" Estampages were procured of fifteen new inscriptions during the year. They con- 
sist mostly of short dedication records on votive tablets in Talaing, Burmese and Pali, 
in Burmese and Nagari characters, the earliest of which may be placed on palaBogra- 
phic groimds in the Xlth century A. D. Two new inscriptions in Burmese with dates 
671 and 684 in the conmaon Burmese era (A. D. 1309 and 1322, respectively) were found 
in the Kyaukse District, and Mr. J. A. Stewart, M.A., I.C.S., Settlement Ojficer, Kyaukse, 
very kindly supplied this office with estampages. They record the dedication of lands, 
and slaves to monasteries, but apart from this, have no historical interest." 

Mr. Yazdani, Epigraphist to the Government of India for Moslemic Inscriptions, Mosiemlc 
who is now abroad writes : — Epigraphy. 

*' In last year's Report, a reference was made to the systematic survey of the 
inscriptions of ' Ala-ud-din Husain Shah of Bengal, during whose reign the artistic 
genius of Islam reached its zenith in this part of the world. The exquisite Tughrd 
writings of the period appeal to the imagination not only by their beauty and grace, 
but by a sense of mystery which their intricate arrangement imparts, and which is the 
keynote of Islamic art in all its aspects. Through the kind co-operation of Mr. K. N. 
Dikshit, Archaeological Superintendent, Eastern Circle, the survey is nearing 
completion and by the time I return to India (June, 1924) material will be available to 
publish a detailed monograph on the subject." In the meantime Mr. Dikshit himself 
records his progress in the following terms : 

" 36 Moslem inscriptions were also copied, of which 32 were from Malda, 2 
from Sylhet 1 istrict and 2 from Devikot in Dinajpur District. The inscriptions 
at and near Malda were copied at the instance of Mr. Yazdani for his projected 
article in the Epigraphm hido-Moslemica on the inscriptions of Ala-ud-din Husain Shah 
of Bengal, in whose reign the Tiighra script reached its high water mark. The inscrip- 
tion copied at Hatkhola in Sylhet District is an unpublished record of the reign of Barbak 
Shah, Sultan of Bengal, dated 877 A. H. Of the 4 inscriptions in Ata Shan's Dargah 
on the banks of the Dhaldighi at Debikot, District Dinajpur, the inscription of Sikandar 
bin Ilias dated 765 A. H. was photographed, and those of Rukn-ud-din Kaikaus Shah 
dated 697 A. H. and Shams-ud-din MuzafEar Shah dated 896 A. H. were copied." 



EPIGRAPHY. 



124 



Moslemic 
Bpigraphy. 



Mr. Yazdani notes further that, ** During the year under review thirty- four new 
inscriptions have been copied ; sixteen of which come from the historic fort of Udgir 
and the rest from various places in the district of Bidar. The majority of them 
belong to the reign of Aurangzeb and when studied collectively they may throw in- 
teresting light on the military administrations of the Deccan after its conquest by him. 

"For the article on the inscriptions of Bid, to be published in the ensuing number 
of the Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica (1921-22), Dr. L. D. Bamett, Keeper, of Oriental 
Mss., British Museum, has been kind enough to decipher and translate for me the 
texts of certain Mahratti inscriptions the Persian versions of which have been 
dealt with by me. I take this opportunity to acknowledge his courteous help." 



Mr. Sana Ullah's 
work. 



SECTION VI. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMIST, 

The deputation of the Archaeological Chemist to Ajanta, where he had been deputed 
to assist Professor Cecconi in the restoration of the frescoes came to an end in the 
middle of April 1921. He had then to go to Calcutta to dismantle his laboratory in the 
Indian Museum, where he had completed the special work for which he was temporarily 
stationed there, and to make arrangements for the safe transport of the equipment to 
his new headquarters at Dehra Dun. At this time the Government of India had under 
consideration a scheme for building laboratories at Dehra Dun for the proposed Im- 
perial Chemical Institute, so that a temporary laboratory was fitted up for Mr. Sana 
Ullah's work until the larger scheme should be realised. 

A number of interesting investigations have been carried out by him this year. 
The composition of the white pigment employed by the painters of the Ajanta frescoes 
was not clear. Griffiths* has stated that *' It is free from carbonates. Its principal 
constituents appear to be calcium sulphate and white silicious matter insoluble in acids." 
Mr. Sana Ullah has now made careful analyses of several specimens of this white pig- 
ment and has come to the conclusion that it consisted principally of white silicate 
minerals such as the zeolites, albite-anorthite feldspars, epidote, or kaolin, to which 
lime or burnt gypsum were added to impart setting properties. These minerals which 
abound in the Deccan trap, were probably ground fine in water and mixed with some 
medium before use. Giuns of nim, likar and wood-apple trees are mentioned in 
Sanskrit literature for the medium. Three typical compositions of these white pigments 
may be quoted here : — 



Silicate mineral . 

Kaolin 

Calcium carbonate 

Gypsum 

Impurities 



Cave VI. 



Cave XVII. 



NU 
50 
36-5 
11-6 
1-9 



75 

Nil 
Nil 
22-5 
2-5 



Cave XIX. 



70 
Nil. 

30 
Nil. 
NU. 



Total . 



1000 



1000 



1000 



♦ Cave Temples of Ajanta, page 18, report of the Analyst to the Bombay Government. 



125 



ARCH-ffiOLOGICAL CHEMIST. 



The rough cast of mud which covers the rock was given a preliminary coating of 
lime plaster followed by a wash of kaolin incorporated with lime or burnt gypsum, to 
form the ground for receiving the brush work, but the compositions mentioned above 
were substituted if a brilliant white surface was required. The yellow and black pig- 
ments are ochre and lampblack, respectively. 

The cause of decay of marble in the Dilwara temples at Mt. Abu w^as investigated 
and attributed by the Archaeological Chemist to the action of soluble chlorides which 
were present in the affected parts. The chlorides have probably been deposited by the 
monsoons w^hich pick up minute quantities of sea-salts when sweeping over the ocean.* 

The problem of the decay and preservation of the stone temples at Halebid and 
Belur in Mysore State, was also referred to him. The stone employed in these temples 
is known as potstone which is a variety of altered pyroxenites. By comparing the 
analyses of soimd and of decaying fragments it was found that tlie rock had suffered 
a net loss of about a quarter of its constituents in the course of decay ; the changes 
undergone being due to the oxidation of the ferrous oxide and the solution of other 
constituents by the action of rain water charged with carbonic acid, it was suggest- 
ed that the decaying parts should be hardened by means of magnesium fluate and the 
whole surface rendered waterproof, as far as possible, by the application of beesw^ax 
in turpentine spirit or hard paraffin wax in petrol. 

A metal plate recovered at Taxila, was found, on analysis, to be of the following 
composition :-Cu 77-45 %, Ni 21 '35 %, Co 0*52 %, Fe 0*68 %, Sb 03 %; total 
100*03. This nickel-copper alloy is, therefore, identical with that employed by the 
Indo-Bactrian V^^gs for their coinage. 

Two curious porcelain-like fragments, also from Taxila, were analysed. One of 
these proved to be a variety of quartz and the other a land of white glass. A red 
opaque glass, similar to the Roman Haematinum, has also been discovered at Taxila. 
Mr. Sana Ullah's analyses of these two forms of glass are given below : — 















\l71iif.a nrkomio 


glass. 


Red opaque glajss. 

1 
1 








1 


Si 0.. 


• • • • 


. i 61-32 


0/ 
/o 


37-09 % 


Sbi 0:, . 




• 


• 




. : 508 




Nil 


PbO 




1 I 


< 




Nil 




34-85 


A1.2 O3 + Fe.. 


Oi 


> 


1 




. i 1-70 




3-16 


MnO 




1 






0-26 




Oil 


Ca 




• 






9-74 




6-46 


MgO 




» < 


1 1 




1-64 




0-70 


Cu, . 




• 


i 




. ; NU 




7-20 


Na., 




1 


1 1 




1 
• • 




10-33 






20 -261 




0-87 


K, 


• • • • • 


• • 

• • 
















Total 


10000 




100-77 



In fact several specimens of coloured glass have been found at Taxila and in other 
parts of India, and are the subject of further investigation by the Archaeological Chemist. 
For the present it may be stated that they confirm Plin y's statemen t that the ancient 

* Cf. Holland and Christie : The Origin of the Salt Deposits of Rajpufana, Read G. S. I., XXXVIII. 154—186 
t Contains K2 0> 1 %. 



ANCIENT MONUMENTS ACT 126 

Indians knew the art of making glass and colouring it by the addition of metalUc salts, 
as practiced in modem times. 

In February 1922, Mr. Sana Ullah visited Gwalior State to advise on the preser- 
vation of the frescoes at Bagh and the Udaygiri caves. 

The total number of antiquities treated by him for cleaning and preservation con- 
sist of Terracotta 111, Copper and Bronze 11, Iron 53, Silver 3, Bone and Ivory 2, 
Wood 21 and miscellaneous 2 ; total 203. The bronzes were mostly from Nalanda, in- 
cluding the massive inscribed plate referred to on page 19. He also trained for 
2 months the Assistant Curator, Patna, in the cleaning of antiquities by chemical means. 



SECTION VII. 

ANCIENT MONUMENTS ACT AND LISTING OF MONUMENTS. 

In Sir John Marshall's Report for 1920-21 it was explained (p. 40) that one of the 
immediate effects of the Reforms had been entirely to change the position in regard to 
monuments protected imder the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act. So long as the 
responsibilities of the Archaeological Department were not defined, and we were entrusted 
with the inspection and repair of all ancient monuments irrespective of their status, the 
application of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act was apt to be more or less 
haphazard, as there was a natural tendency not to invoke this Act except in special cases 
where its application was necessary. Under the Reforms, however, the scope of the 
Archaeological Department is limited to those monuments only which have been declared 
protected under the Act, and this has of course necessitated a complete stock-taking 
of all the ancient monuments throughout the country. The beginnings of this stock- 
taking were described by Sir John Marshall in the report under reference, but the task 
has involved much more work and much more correspondence than was at first antici- 
pated, and is still in progress. Many of the Provincial lists call for further scrutiny, 
as very few of them have attained to final form during 1921-22. 

MoNUBiBNTS "^^^ *^^^ ^^^ fourth volumes of the list of Muhammadan and Hindu Monimients 

T^tui in the Delhi Province are still in the Press. The second proof of the former has been 

rexjeived back for correction and the latter has been sent for final printing. 

Central Circle Owing to various causes, and the pressure of other work, comparatively little pro- 

gress could be made with the revised list of ancient monuments in Bihar and Orissa 
until Mr. Muhammad Hamid Kuraishi, the present Officiating Assistant Superintendent, 
was appointed to take up this task on May 1st, 1921. To enable him to concentrate on 
this work, with a view to its early completion, he was relieved of all other duties. Mr. 
Hamid began his work on the Tirhut Division (as the one on which most materials had 
previously been collected) in close consultation with the Archaeological Superintendent, 
and the finished lists for this area were finally submitted in typescript to the Local 
Government, together with a number of photographic illustrations of the more im- 
portant monuments described therein, early in March 1922. The Assistant Superin- 
tendent then proceeded to Orissa to take up the listing of that division ; and it is hoped 
that the lists for the whole Province will be completed by the end of 1923. 



127 AND LISTING OF MONUMENTS. 

The preparation of Antiquarian maps of Bihar and Orissa was first suggested 

by Sir Edward Gait, the late Lieutenant-Governor of the Province, early in 1916 ; 
but owing to pressure of other duties no substantial progress in this direction was 

possible before May 1917 when work was started on the Champaran District. A 
specimen map of this district was submitted to the Local Government in the follow- 
ing June ; and, their approval of it having been secured, the map of the whole Tirhut 
Division was completed a year later. This was followed by maps of the Patna and 
Bhagalpur Divisions, which were submitted to Government in December 1918 and 
April 1919, respectively. Owing to difficulties encountered by the Assistant Superin- 
tendent, who had this work in hand, in the completion of the remaining Divisions 
of the Province (Chota Nagpur and Orissa), the preparation of these maps was 
entrusted to the Officer-in-charge, Bihar and Orissa Drawing Office, Gulzarbagh, Patna. 
These last Divisions have now been completed, and it is hoped that maps for the 
whole Province will be printed off shortly. Alphabetical lists of the ancient sites and 
monuments marked in the five Divisional maps, as well as a comprehensive bibliography, 
are imder preparation in the Archaeological Superintendent's office, and will be published 
along with the maps. 

The Indian States of Tripura and Cooch Behar sent a list of 8 and 4 monuments Eastern Circle, 
respectively in their States which they desire to conserve. The Sikkim Darbar inform 
us that there are no monuments which they propose to conserve, but there are 34 
monasteries which are being maintained by the Darbar and by public donations. 

A new list of protected monuments in the Madras Presidency is under preparation . Southern 
The list that existed already has been revised according to the orders of Govern- Circle. 
ment with regard to the addition or deletion of monuments, and a corrected copy 
of it was sent to Government showing the number of Protected Monuments in the 
Southern Circle to be three hundred and thirty- three on the 31st March 1922. 

No additions were made to the List of Ancient Monuments in Burma. From this Burma Circle. 
list a selection of 102 monuments was made and submitted to Government for preserva- 
tion by the Imperial Government. These monuments are scattered all over Burma, 
and in age range from the 6th to the 19th century. The oldest are those at Prome, 
some of which date from the 6th or 7th century ; the latest are found in Mandalay and 
consist of the Palace and of the Pyatthats (bastions) on the City walls. They were 
built in 1857 — 59 ; but though not old, they are invested with an historical and archi- 
tectural interest now imique, and would soon disappear but for the help and care of the 
Archaeological Department. Under orders from the Government of India a special list 
of European burial groimds in Burma was compiled, including all tombs with inscrip- 
tions anterior to the 1st of January 1858, those later than this date being considered too 
recent for inclusion. The list comprises 27 European cemeteries containing a total of 
266 tombs with epitaphs. The oldest tomb so far found is that of a Mrs. Samuel White, 
who died in 1682 at Mergui. 



SECTION VIII. 

TREASURE TROVE. 

There is notliing to report in the Northern Circle, altliough it is remarkable that, Northern 
despite the amount of excavation both around ancient monuments and in the new Circle. 
Capital at Delhi, finds of coins or other antiquities are hardly ever reported. 



TREASURE TROVE. 



128 



Frontier Circle. No finds of Treasure Trove were reported during the year in the Frontier Circle, 

but it cannot be assumed that antiquities coming under the operations of the Act were 
not recovered. As finds are very rarely reported in the Frontier Province it was sug- 
gested by the Superintendent to the Local Government that to make the Treasure Trove 
Act and its recent modification by the Government of India more widely known, it 
might be well to enlist the assistance of the Education Department of the Province. 
The Director of Public Instruction has expressed his readiness to help and has been 
furnished by the Superintendent with a note explaining what Treasure Trove is, the 
rules governing it, and how Inspecting Officers and teachers can assist in dispelling 
the wide-spread idea that Government takes finds of Treasure Trove without pay- 
ment, and can aid very materially in this and other ways in recovering for permanent 
preservation in Museums valuable relics of India's past. 

Western Circle, Fifty-one pigs of lead, weighing approximately 5 tons and valued at about Rs. 3,000 

were found during the excavations at the back of the old gate to the palace inside the 
Ahmadnagar fort, in the Nagar Taluka of the Ahmednagar District. Orders about their 
final disposal were not issued up to the end of the year under review. Treasure Trove 
coins found in the Western Presidency are examined by the Bombay Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society. The Honorary Secretary of that Society reports that '* There 
were 3,854 coins under examination at the close of 1920, and 1,017 were received during 
tlie year. Of the latter, 804 silver were received from the Collector of Kolaba, 83 gold 
from the Collector of Bijapur, 7 gold from the District Magistrate, Kanara. Fifty silver 
from the Mamlatdar of Sinnar, 46 silver from the Mamlatdar of Chorasi, 17 gold from 
the Mamlatdar of Sirur and 10 silver from the Mamlatdar of Kopergaon. Out of these 
804 silver from the Collector of Kolaba were returned as they possessed no numismatic 
value. 3495 have been reported to Government and are awaiting distribution. There 
are 572 coins still under examination." 



Central Circle. 



(i) Treasure cmisistifig of cohis, — No new finds were reported in Bihar during the 
year ; but as a slight error appeared in the report of the find of 96 gold coins in the 
Monghyr District, published, in the Annual Progress Report of the Eastern (now Central) 
Circle for the year 1918-19, a corrected account of the same is republished here : vide 
the tabular statement below :- - 



District. 



Monghji 



Locality. 



Village Sindhi 
P. S. Bar- 
bigha. 



No. of 

coins. I Metal. 



96 



A. N. 



Kxamined by. 



Mr. R. D. Banerjee 



Circumstances of 
find. 



Found by Birhaspat 
Kahar in a Debia 
of copj)er in a garh 
while digging for 
earth. 



Classification and 
description. 



3 /Vllauddin Md. 

Sliah. 
1 Crhivasuddin 

Tughlak. 
61 Muhammad 

Tughlak. 
31 Firoz Shah. 



Central Pro- 
innces. 



(ii) Treasure of other than coins, — One new find of 3 gold rings was reported this 
year from the Central Provinces. The rings were found by gold-washers in the 
bed of the Mahanadi river, and were forwarded for examination to the Archaeological 
Superintendent by Pandit Lochan Prasad Pandeya of Balapur in the Bilaspur District, 
who remarks that such rings were in early times used as hair ornaments. As the present 
rings are quite modern and possess no artistic or archaeological interest they have been 
returned to the Pandit. 



129 TREASURE TROVE. 

Treasure consisting of coins.— Three new cases of treasure trove consisting of coins have Eastern Circle. 
been reported in the Eastern Circle during the year 1 921 -22 and the expert's report .on the 
highly interesting find of 346 coins found in 1917 at Keteen, thana Rupganj, Dt. Dacca 
(noticed on page 6 of the Annual Report of the Eastern Circle for 1919-20) has been 
forwarded to the Superintendent for publication. Of the new finds one consisting of 
57 coins of the late Mughal period from Dt. Bakarganj is of little interest. About the 
find of 25 coins from Atturanayarbad, Dt. Dacca, Colonel A. R. Nevill, the Government 
expert who examined them, reported : — 

" With the exception of two coins, struck at Surat* and Bombay, ail belong or 
appear to belong to the Arkat mint. Some were struck by the French at 
Pondicherry, the name of Arkat being retained as the place of mintage ; 
but in these cases the date is missing. During recent years the Museums 
have received a plethora of these common Arkat coins of Muhammad 
Shah, and apart from the two others mentioned above, I recommend the 
acquisition at one rupee apiece of only five coins, which show both mint 
and date, for the Dacca Museum. The rest may be returned to the 
sender." 

Some interest is attached to the find of four gold Mohurs of the time of Shah Jahan 
in a small silver casket, reported from Mahimapur, Dt. Murshidabad. The finder of the 
treasure trove, Dal Chand Singhi of Azimgunj, has under an indenture of lease and 
agreement from the owner taken possession of the land and premises kno\vn as the old 
residential site of the well-known family of Jagat Seths, the Bankers of the Nawabs of 
Bengal. The lessee, it is understood, is conducting operations to search for hidden 
treasure on the premises, in course of which the silver casket containing the gold coins 
was found. The finder forthwith sent the treasure to the Collector of Murshidabad, 
who forwarded the same to Government for disposal. It is a very rare instance of a 
treasure trove case, systematically conducted and promptly reported. 

The following extracts from Colonel Nevill's report to the Government of Bengal 
on the 346 Bengal Sultan coins found at Keteen, Dt. Dacca, in 1917, will show the excep- 
tionally great historical and numismatic interest attached to this find, which has gone 
to enrich the Bengal Sultan series in the various Museums, especially the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta and the Dacca Museum. These coins were correctly classified by the Curator, 
Dacca Museum, as issues of the Muhammadan Sultans of Bengal, with the exception 
of four struck by the Hindu Rajas Danuja-Mardana and Mahendradeva at the begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century in a style closely resembling that adopted by the Sultans, 
during the confusion that ensued on the death of Hamza Shah. The earliest coin of the 
find is a solitary piece of Ghias-ud-din Bahadur Shah dated about 720 A. H. Then 
follows one of Fakhr-ud-din Mubarak, and then a large numberf of coins struck by Ilias 
Shah and his successors. These are mainly of interest for the reason that they enable 
us to determine the chronology of that period with much greater certainty than has yet 
been found possible ; and on this account alone, the find can claim historical importance. 
The main interest however attaches to the later period included in the range covered 
by this troumilh. We have, in the first place, a remarkable assortment of the very rare 
coins of Shahab-ud-din Bayazid, which are of numismatic importance, but these are 
eclipsed by the discovery of coins struck in tlie name of Ala-ud-din Firoz ibn Bayazid, 

•Issued in tlie reign of Farruklisiyar. 

fThere are 33 coins of Shams-ud-din Uias Shah, 60 of Sikandar bin Ilias, and 72 of Ghiaa-ud-din Az\m Hhah. 



TREASURE TROVE. 130 

Eastern Circle. who occupied the throne of Bengal in the year 817 A. H. No reference to this long has 

yet come to light in any history. The find proves that Bayazid ruled from 814 to 817 
and not from 812 as was previously held, and that his son occupied the throne in 817 
and possibly for a portion of the succeeding year, the earliest known coin of the follow- 
ing Sultan, Jalal-ud-din Muhammad, being dated in 818. That Firoz may definitely 
be numbered among the Sultans of Bengal is established by the fact that he controlled 
the three mints of Firozabad, Satgaon and Muazzamabad. 

" In the case of the previous reigns we find that while the accepted dates of Iliyas 
and Sikandar may stand, the reign of 6hias-ud-din Azam must be extended to 813, 
leaving only the inside of two years to his successor, Saif-ud-din Hamza Shah, instead of 
the ten assigned to this monarch by Sir John Woodbum and other authorities. The 
find imfortunately affords us no further information as to the reputed son of Hamza 
traditionally know as Shams-ud-din. 

" The dates recorded on these coins run on to 823* A. H. the series ending with a 
number of pieces struck in that year by Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Shah at the mint of 
Chatgaon or Chittagong. Incidentally it \^ proved that the coins of this long hitherto 
attributed to the Satgaon mint are in reality from Chatgaon, as those now discovered 
from the former mint are of an entirely different type. 

" A remarkable curiosity is a coin of this king bearing on one side the usual legend 
and on the other the lion of Tippera. I greatly regret that though this unexampled 
piece is in fine condition, I am unable to decipher the mint or to find any trace of a 
date. 

" According to your instructions I have allotted only to the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, such coins as are required to improve that unexampled collection of Bengal 
rupees, provided that they are in sufficiently good condition to warrant a place in that 
cabinet. As is often the case with Muhammadan coins of this series, the great majority 
of the pieces imder examination are extensively defaced in consequence of repeated 
shroffing ; and this has unfortunately happened to a number of unique coins, whose 
numismatic value has in consequence been seriously impaired. In such cases I have 
allotted the coins to the Dacca Museum. This institution gains by this find the nucleus 
of a valuable collection of the Bengal series, owing to its position as second on the list 
I have been unable, as in previous reports, to make any allotment to the Madras Museum, 
because it is at present impossible to ascertain the possessions and needs of that un- 
listed collection. 

** In all, on this distribution, the Dacca Museum receives 101 coins, Calcutta 54, 
Bombay and Lucknow 23 each, Delhi 16, Lahore 15, Nagpur 13, Shillong 12, Peshawar 
10, Quetta 9, Ajmere and Patna 8 each and Rangoon 6, while 2 coins go to the British 
Museum. The remainder I have recommended to be kept for sale at Dacca. I fear 
they are not worth much from a numismatic point of view, but they are too imcommon 
to deserve the melting-pot. 

" In this connection I would beg to observe that this find was reported to the Col- 
lector in March 1920t. I greatly regret that press of official work has prevented me 
from dealing with it in a more expeditious manner, but none the less I would respect- 

*Colonel Nevilles dintribution list shows one coin dated 828 A. H. 

I It must have been reported before April 1918, as the coins were then sent to the Curator, Dacca Museum, who 
after close study communicated the classification to the Collector in February 1920. 



131 TREASURE TROVE. 

fully protest against the previous delay of more than eighteen months. Experience has 
shown abundantly that in order to encourage the finders of treasure trove to report 
their discoveries promptly and honestly, it is essential that the price due to the finder 
under the law should be paid with the utmost possible despatch. I am not aware that 
these coins have yet been acquired by Government. I am much indebted to the Curator 
of the Dacca Museum for the careful attention he has given to this interesting find, 
but properly such an examination should have been undertaken after it had been decid- 
ed to acquire them. I lay the greater stress on this point, because of late there has been 
evident a tendency to conceal such treasure trove, judging from the very meagre receipts 
in other provinces where the annual number of reports had previously been more or 
less constant ; a tendency that is influenced no doubt by the general political atmos- 
phere*. 

" If acquisition has not yet been effected, I would recommend that all the coins be 
acquired at a cost of 15 annas apiece." 

Two thousand and sixty coins were recovered as Treasure Trove in the State terri- Qwalior. 
tories were examined in the vear. Out of these 40 were of silver, 7 of bullion and the rest 
of copper. From the dynastic point of view 93 belonged to the Emperors of Delhi, 
10 to the Sultans of Jaunpur, 1,193 to the Sultans of Malwa and 858 to the Sultans of 
Gujarat, wBile six were miscellaneous. 



SECTION IX. 

PUBLICATIONS. 



The following publications were issued by the Director General of Archaeology Director 
during the year :~ Qeneral. 

(1) Annual Report of the Director General of Archaeology in India for the year 

1919-20. 

(2) Catalogue of the Museum of Sanchi, Bhopal State. 

(3) A Guide to Taxila — 2nd edition. 

In the Northern Circle, Agra, Maulvi Zafar Hasan contributed two papers, viz. Northem 
** The Mosque of Shaikh Abdu-n Nabi " and '* A guide to Nizam-ud-din " (both at Circle. 
Delhi) which were published as Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India. The 
Annual Progress Reports of the Superintendent, Muhammadan and British MonumentSi ^^ nS'wJi. 
for the three years ending 31st March 1919 and 1919-20 were finally distributed, while the 
Report for the year 1920-21 and the third and fourth volumes of the List of Muhammadan 
and Hindu Monuments in the Province of Delhi were in the Press. Two little guides to 
the Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri containing short notes on the principal buildings of 
interest were prepared by the Superintendent for the visit of H. R. H. the Prince of 
Wales to Agra. The publication of a number of drawings executed imder the super- 
vision of the late Mr. E. W. Smith nearly thirty years ago were in hand, and short histori- 
cal and descriptive accounts of the places they illustrate were imder preparation. The 

•The view expressed here by Colonel Nevill deserves serious consideration. The present find was made as far 
back as July 1917 and if the payment of the claims due has taken as much as four or five years, it is but natural 
that the claimants must have lost considerable interest in the discovery, which is of much historical value. It 
Ir gratifying to note in this connection that the Government of India have recently issued a resolution offering 
special rewards for finds of objects of historical or archaeological interest, in addition to the price admissible under 
flection 16 of the Treasure Trove Act, viz., 120 per cent, of the intrinsic value of a treasure. It is proposed to 
invoke this sanction in the present case, and to give the finder of these interesting coins a special reward over and 
above the amount due to him under the Treasure Trove Act. 



PUBLICATIONS. 132 

Northern Memoir on the Qutb at Delhi by Mr. J. A. Page, on which he was engaged while he was 

Circle. Superintendent of the Northern Circle, was practically completed and ready to go to 

Press. The work, when published, should prove of considerable interest. Finally the 
catalogue of exhibits in the Fort Museum, Delhi, was under revision, the previous cata- 
logue published some 9 years ago having been sold. out. 

Lahore Office. In the Lahore office Mr. Sahni prepared the Annual Progress Report of the 

Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Hindu and Buddhist Monuments, Northern 
Circle, for the year ending 31st March 1921, and in addition read two short articles at the 
Second Oriental Conference, which was held in Calcutta from 28th January to 1st 
Februarj' 1922. These are a note on three Kushan Inscriptions found atMuttra, one 
of which will be found briefly noticed under the Epigraphical work of this year in this 
report ; and another note dealing with the ancient names of Bhatinda in the Punjab. 

• 

Frontier Circle, The Superintendent in the Frontier Circle, in addition to his Annual Report for the 

year 1920-21, translated from the French, and prepared for the press, an hitherto un- 
published monograph by M. Foueher, Les representations figures de la Nativite du Buddha, 
which is to be published as a Memoir of the Archaeological Survey. • 

Central Circle, The only publication issued during the year in the Central Circle was the Annual 

Progress Report of the Superintendent for the year ending 31st March 1921. 

Western Citclb. The Superintendent of the Western Circle finished his memoir on Tfie Basreliefs 

of Badami in which he describes in detail for the first time the Saiva and Vaishnava 
basreliefs in the caves at Badami, in the Bijapur District. The larger basreliefs and a 
general description of the caves were published by Fergusson and Burgess, but the 
series of Saiva basreliefs in Cave No. I and the unique Vaishnava basreliefs in Caves 
Nos. II and III had never been correctly described or illustrated so far as is known. 
These basreliefs represent~(l) The early life of Krishna from his birth to the death of 
his uncle Kamsa, (2) The churning of the Ocean by the Gods and Asuras (in both Caves ; 
Nos. II and III). In addition to these subjects the basreliefs in Cave No. Ill, which is the 
largest and most elaborate of the group, illustrate — (1) the removal of the Parijata tree 
from the heaven of Indra to Dvaraka by Krishna, (2) the fight of Garuda with the Gods 
for the jar of nectar found during the churning of the ocean, (3) the removal of Subhadra, 
the sister of Krishna, by Arjima the third Panda va, and (4) the death of Hiranyakasipu 
in the hands of the Man-lion {Narasimha). The memoir on the punch-marked coins 
discovered in the village of Patraha of the Pumea District of Bihar and Orissa was also 
completed and typed. The memoir on the monuments of the Chedi country approach- 
ed completion but could not be completed during the year under review as some of the 
monuments which lie in the Jubbulpore District had not been visited by the Superin- 
tendent, who had inspected all important monuments of ancient Chedi or Dahala, now 
lying in the states of Nagod, Maihar, Ajaygarh and Rewa. This memoir deals with — 
(1) The Chronology of the Haihaya dynasty of Tripuri, a subject not adequately discus- 
sed before, (2) The monuments of the Chedi country, (3) Images and Sculptures found 
within this area and (4) Saiva influence. The Annual Progress Report for the year 
1920-21 was sent to the press for printing, but was not completed up to the end of 
the year. 



133 PUBLICATIONS. 

Besides the Annual Report for 1920-21, Mr. Dikshit's contribution on Six Eastern Circld 
Sculptures from Mahoba was published during the year as a Memoir of the 
Archaeological Survey. Another paper written by him for the Epigraphia Indica on 
the Garra plates of the Chandella King Trailokyavarman (A. 1). 1205) was in 
the press. He also read two papers at the Second Oriental Conference held in 
Calcutta in January-February 1922. One of these relates to the chronology of the 
Maukhari kings, a dynasty that ruled in the 6th-7th centuries A. D. Mr. Dikshit pro- 
poses to read the dates on the coins of the Maukharis in a different way and interpret 
them as dates in the Gupta era, thus fixing the approximate reign-periods of the king 
Isanavarman, Sarvavarman and Avantivarman, but it is doubtful if this view will be 
accepted without further discussion. The other paper On the localities mentioned in 
the Bhundek plate of Krishnaraja (772 A. D.) was read before the Ancient Geography 
Section of the Conference and is being published by the Conference. In this paper 
Mr. Dikshit identifies the place of encampment, the village granted, and the boundary 
villages mentioned in the plates, with certain places in the Yeotmal District of Berar, 
against Rai Bahadur Hira Lai who had placed them elsewhere {vide E pig, Ind.,Yo\. 
XIV, page 129). 

Mr. Longhurst contributed Part I of a Monograph on Pallava Architecture, which Southern 
will be published as an Archaeological Memoir. Circle. 

In Burma, the following publications were issued during the year : — Burma Circle. 

1. Epigraphia Birmanica, Vol. II, Parts I and II. 

2. List of inscriptions found in Burma, Part I. 

3. Amended list of Ancient Monuments in Burma. 

In the First Part of Volume II of the Epigraphia Birmanica, Mons. Duroiselle has 
deciphered, translated and explained the short Talaing inscriptions found on 389 plaques 
which adorn the upper terraces of the Ananda Temple at Pagan. These plaques illus- 
trate the last ten long stories of the Jatakas, from Temi elataka to Vessantara Jat^ka. 
The meaning of old words long fallen into disuse is traced to, and their form deduced 
from modern Talaing literature. The scenes in the plaques are explained. At the end 
of the volume are found three vocabularies : (a) old forgotten words found in the plaques ; 
(b) words in literary Talaing not found in any existing vocabulary and (c) a list of words 
under which grammatical information is given not found elsewhere. 

The Ananda Temple at Pagan, built by King Kyanzittha, was completed in 1090. 
It is the most graceful temple in Pagan and probably in Burma. But its interest does 
not rest alone in the beauty of its architectural design. It is also the most important in 
this Province, from the artistic and philological point of view. The interior contains, 
besides very numerous statues of the Buddha in every possible attitude, a series of eighty 
stone sculptures representing the career of the Buddha, from the Tusita Heaven to his 
Parinirvana. The exterior is practically covered with glazed plaques. On the base- 
ment they represent his contest with Mara's host, and his apotheosis ; all these contain 
short legends in Talaing. The anterior lives of the Buddha, or Jatakas, adorn the 
first and second roof and the three terraces above them ; these bear inscriptions in 
Pali. The 389 plaques explained in the volume above mentioned are found on the upper 
tenaces, and constitute a unique collection for, so far as has been ascertained, the last ten 
great Jatakas are illustrated with such a profusion of scenes on no other monument of 
the Buddhist world. Part II of the same volume contains the plates with short expla- 
nations of the scenes. 



PUBLICATIONS. 134 

Burma Circle. In the List of inscriptions found in Burmay all the epigraphs so far published and 

which are contained in six large volumes covering altogether 2,802 pages, are 
arranged according to their dates, with references to volume and page ; information is 
also given as to (a) the place of origin, (6) the founder's name and (c) brief indication of the 
contents. In his Preface, M. Duroiselle gives information on a variety of points which 
will prove useful to the historian and philologist, on the languages used in these in- 
scriptions ; their age ; their value, etc. 

Kashmir. In Kashmir, Mr. Kak has completed his " Guide to the Kashmir Monuments " 

but no arrangements have yet been made for the publication either of this work or of his 
" Handbook to the Archaeological and Numismatic Sections of the Srinagar Museum.'' 



SECTION X. 

LIBRARY. 

Northern Circle. In the Northern Circle 34 new volumes were added to the reference library attached 

to the Agra Office and 33 to the office in Lahore. 

Frontier Circle. In the Frontier Circle the books purchased during the year dealt exclusively with 

numismatics. Buddhism and the early history of India and adjacent countries. The 
library is deficient in works of reference such as the earlier issues of the J. R. A. S., 
J. A. S. B., and Indian Antiquary, and also lacks copies of several of the expensive 
publications dealing with the ancient monuments of India, but requirements in these 
directions were met by loans from the libraries of the Director (General of Archaeology 
and the Peshawar Museimi. 

Central Circle. The library maintained in the office of the Archaeological Superintendent, Central 

Circle, comprised 1,185 volumes of a generally reprasentative character, dealing 
principally with the history, archaeology, ethnography, epigraphy and religion of the two 
provinces constituting the Circle, as well as of India generally. The great bulk of the 
books are in English ; though the vernaculars are fairly well represented. The collec- 
tion, however, contains no volume of special rarity that calls for mention in this very 
brief resume. Gazetteers, Imperial and Provincial, figure largely in it, as well as the 
Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society and the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; while a nearly 
complete series of Cunningham's Archaeological Reports is also included, in addition to 
the later Archaeological Annuals issued by Sir John Marshall, and the several volumes 
of the Epigraphia Indica. Forty-one new volumes were acquired during the year. 

Western Circle* In the Western Circle 39 books were added to the library during the year, the most 

important among which is Martin's Miniature Paintings of Persia, India and Turkey, 
Vols. I & II, purchased with the sanction of the Government of Bombay. The library 
contains complete sets of the Epigraphia hidica, Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica, Indian 
ArUiquary, Journal of the Bombay Branch oj tJie Royal Asiatic Scciety, Jcurnal and 
Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (new series). Journal of the Bihar and Orissa 
Research Societ.y and Cimningham's Archceological Survey Reports. Recent numbers 



135 LIBRARY. 

of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (from 1888, new series, Vol. XX, up to date) 
and the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, old series. Part I (from 1875, Vol. 
XLIV to 1903, Vol. LXXII) are also included in this collection. Complete sets of the 
Annual Reports of the Director General of Archaeology, of the Superintendents of the 
Northern Circle, both Hindu and Buddhist Monuments and Muhammadan and British 
Monuments, as well as of the Superintendents of the Central, Eastern, Burma, Southern, 
Western and Frontier Circles are kept. Annual Reports are also received from the 
Patna and Rajputana Museums and the Mysore Archaeological Survey. Complete sets 
of the Reports on Epigraphy of the Madras Presidency and all publications of the Hy- 
derabad Archaeological Survey are also included in this collection. The library also 
contains a good working set of coin catalogues, such as those of the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, the Punjab Museum, Lahore, and British Museum Catalogues such as Rapson's 
Coins of the Andhras and Western Kshatrapas Percy Gardner's Coins of the Greek 
and Scythic kimjs of Bactria and India, and Allan's Gupta Dynasties. It also contains 
the recent publications of the American Bureau of Ethnology and some Pali books, 
such as FausboU's Jatakamala (Vol. I wanting), Oldenberg's Vinaya pitaka, etc. 

The library attached to the office of the Superintendent in the Eastern Circle in 1920 Eastern Circle. 
consisted of 564 volumes, of which 147 were added during the year under report. Besides 
the available publications of the Archaeological Department, viz., Provincial Annual 
Reports, D. G. A.'s Annual, Parts I and II, and volumes of the Epigraphia Indica, etc., 
and the series of Gazetteers for the two provinces, the library now contains a number 
of local Gazetteers in the Bengali language, all other volumes of the new series and such 
of the numbers of the old series of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal as contain 
references to antiquities in the Eastern Circle, and the usual reference books on Indian 
numismatics, architecture, etc. 

Eighty-six volumes were added to the reference library maintained in the office of Southern 
the Superintendent at Kotagiri. Out of these, seventeen are official reports. ThisCircIe. 
brings the number of books in the office to 1,442. A separate catalogue of books is in 
course of preparation by the Superintendent. 

During the year 280 books in all were added to the Central Archaeological Library Director 
of the Director General of Archaeology. Of these, 117 were purchased, 47 were received General's 
in exchange, while 116 were received as gifts. Of the acquisitions worthy of note may LiDrary. 
be mentioned a complete set of Vasari's Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, etc., published 
by the Medici Society of London, an edition now grown rare, Svorono's Das Athener 
National Museum in 4 volumes of Text and Plates, 50 volumes of the Loeb Classical 
Library, besides some rare books on the Antiquities of Babylon, Nineveh, Egypt and 
India, these last having been presented by the India Office, London. About 300 volumes 
were bound or rebound for the Library. 

Journals and periodical publications received in the library amounted to 50. With 
the resumption of exchange of publications with the Learned Societies and Academies 
of the late enemy countries, the library is now regularly receiving the Journals and 
Proceedings of these Institutions. 

The library was extensively used by the officers of the Department at Headquarters 
and in the Circles, and its importance and value as a reference library for subjects dealing 
with Archaeology, Indology and allied branches are daily increasing. 



PHOTOGRAPHS. 



136 



SECTION XI. 



PHOTOGRAPHS. 



D.Q.A.'s 
Office. 



Southern 
Circle. 



Northern 
Circle. 

Agra. 



Lahore. 



3,858 photo prints in all were received in the office of the Director General of Archaeo- 
logy in India during the year. Of these, 1,258 were supplied by the Archaeological 
Superintendents of the various Circles in India and 2,600 were purchased from Captain 
K. A. C. Cresswell of Cairo. This set of 2,600 prints, representing as it does a perfectly 
clear and intelligible development of Saracenic architecture through its various stages 
with reference to the historic monuments of Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Constanti- 
nople, is a most valuable addition to what is by far the largest collection of Archaeolo- 
gical photos in India. All the prints received were mounted in Albums and arranged 
according to the localities to which the monuments belong. In addition to these, 110 
fresh negatives were prepared. They represent in the main sites excavated at Taxila 
and antiquities unearthed in the course of Sir John Marshall's exploration. 363 prints 
were supplied to the public on payment. 

In the Southern Circle, 104 negatives were prepared and properly listed under their 
respective heads, the total number of negatives at the close of the year amounting to 
2,905. The photo-albums require overhauling which is being done. Several photos have 
weathered, and these will be replaced in the near future. 67 photographic prints were 
sold to the public. 

The photographic collection of the Agra office dates back to the year 1892 and 
consists at present of 29 volumes of photographs of Monuments in the United Provinces, 
Pimjab, Ajmer and Delhi. Many gaps existed in the volumes but these except in the 
case oi a few volumes have now been filled and are complete. Amongst the photo- 
graphs taken during the year may be mentioned 17 at Tughlaq's Fort at Delhi showing 
various gateways and walls, etc., after conservation, and 10 at Kotla Firoz Shah also 
after repairs. Two photographs of Qadam Sharif were taken while repairs were in 
progress and seven views of Hauz Khas. A number of plates were exposed at Itimad- 
ud-Daulah's Tomb at Agra and photographs of the newly restored dalans at the Taj 
and the platform at Akbar's Tomb were made, 24 photographs of pointing experiments 
were taken showing walls before and after raking out and after being re-pointed. Four 
photographs of Iftikhar Khan's Tomb at Chunar were obtained after repairs had been 
executed. 

In the Northern Circle (Hindu and Buddhist Monuments) 279 new photographs were 
taken during the year under review. They include 24 photographs of the principal 
sculptures, etc., in the Samath Museimi including some unearthed by Mr. Oertel in 1904- 
05 and some by Sir John Marshall during the winters of 1906-07 and 1907-08 of 
which no photographs existed in the Lahore office. Among the rest, there were 38 
photographs of the antiquities brought to light by Mr. Sahni at Raja Kam ka Kila 
at Thanesar (Skt. Sthanvisvara), 29 of objects discovered by him at Kosam and 67 
photographs of Gandhara and other sculptures in the Mathura Museum or in the 
possession of the Hony. Curator of that institution. The photographic albums in the 
Lahore office are quite up to date. They contain all the photographs taken since 
1902-03 except 293 prints which will be prepared and put into the albums as soon 
as practicable. 



137 PHOTOGRAPHS. 

The photographic negatives preserved in the Frontier Circle number 1,936 and these Frontier Circle. 
are generally in excellent condition. The photographic albums are complete, all missing 
prints having been replaced. Sixty-nine new negatives were made during 1921-22. 
Most of these are of general interest, but seventeen were taken in connection with con- 
servation at Jaulian, while three are field inventories of the sculptures recovered at 
Jamalgarhi. The more important of these finds have also been re-photographed at 
headquarters separately and on a larger scale and three of them are published in this 
report [Plate XXIV, Figs, (c), {d), Plate XXV, Fig. (6)]. Besides photographic prints 
forwarded to officers of the department for official purposes, photographs to the value 
of Rs. 41-4-0 were supplied to various persons in India and Europe. A list of negatives 
of exhibits in the Peshawar Museum is being drawn up and will be placed in the museum 
to enable visitors to purchase photographs of antiquities in which they are interested. 

In the Western Circle 282 negatives were taken this year, out of which 231 were Western Circle. 
taken in the Bombay Presidency, 32 in Central India, and 29 in Rajputana. All negatives 
of Central India and Rajputana were made over to the Director General of Archaeology 
in March 1922 in accordance with orders received from the Government of India, as that 
officer has been placed in charge of archaeological work in that region. A set of prints 
from negatives taken by Dr. Burgess which are now in Simla are mounted in albums. 
Sets of photographs taken up to the end of 1916 are mounted on cardboards but those 
taken during the last five years are slipped in on cartridge paper. Numerous gaps exist 
in the collection but steps are being taken to complete the sets as early as possible. Mr. 
Banerji reports that all negatives and prints taken in his circle during the last ten years 
are excellent, the improved quality being due in his opinion to the exceptional ability 
and perseverance of the Head Photographer, Mr. J. P. Joglekar, whose work has been 
appreciated by all Superintendents of the Poona Office. 

The number of photo-negatives stored in the Archaeological Superintendent's office, Central Circle, 
Central Circle, totals 2,959 of which 2,317 are of monuments in the Bihar and Orissa 
Province and the remainder in the Central Provinces. The more interesting records 
are those of the several excavated sites, and the antiquities recovered from them, around 
Patna, viz., Kumrahar (Pataliputra), Bara Pahar, and Bulandibagh, which date from the 
Maury an period. Sites of similar antiquity are represented in the photographs taken 
of Basarh in the Muzaffarpur District, and again in those of the Asoka columns in Cham- 
paran District. The ancient caves in the Khandagiri and Udaygiri Hills in Orissa have 
also been fairly completely photographed ; while a representative series of photos of 
the Gupta site at Nalanda and the antiquities it has yielded is also included in the collec- 
tion. The early mediaeval temples at Bhuvaneshwar and Konarak in the Puri District 
are other monuments so recorded, as well as the two early Hindu bridges of character- 
istic corbel-construction in the same neighbourhood. At the other end of the chrono- 
logical scale are many monuments of the Muhammadan period, among which may be 
mentioned the tomb at Manair, Patna District, and the Sher Shahi monuments at 
Sassaram and Rohtas. In the Central Provinces the Muhammadan monuments are 
the more prominent in the photo-negative list, and include the Bahmani fortes of Narnalla 
and Gawilgarh in the Akola and Amraoti Districts, respectively, as well as the Tombs 
of EUichpur and the remarkably fine gat-es of its Nawabi city walls. The monuments 
of Burhanpur, and the neighbouring fortress Asirgarh in Berar— relics of the Faruqi 
dynasty of Khandesh— are also numbered among these negatives ; while remote antiquity 
is represented by the famous Rock Edict of Asoka at Rupnath, Jubbulpur District, of 



PHOTOGRAPHS. 



138 



which inscription a photograph exists ; and of the intervening Gupta period the monu- 
ments at Eran in Saugor District have been photographed. The principal photographs 
taken during 1921-22 were of the excavations carried out at Nalanda, and of the monu- 
ments in the Orissa Division ; these latter are in connexion with the listing of monu- 
ments in Bihar and Orissa. In the Central Provinces, photos were taken of conserva- 
tion works in progress or in prospect at Asirgarh, Burhanpur, and the other forts above- 
mentioned, as well as of the Hemadpanth Temple under repair at Lasur in the Amraoti 
District. The photo-albums maintained in the office are now practically complete, 
steps having been taken to make good previous deficiencies. 

Eastern Circle* The total number of photo-negatives stored in the Eastern Circle office is 808, of 

which 651 represent the collection made before 1920, when the present Eastern Circle 
was constituted. The new series commenced in 1920-21 now totals 257 negatives, of 
which 109 were added during the year under report. The most important additions 
are a set of 31 photographic records of the antiquities at Unakoti in Tripura State. 
The album of photo-prints from negatives preserved in this office is not complete, but 
it is hoped to fill up the existing gaps shortly. Rs. 34 were realized from the sale of photo- 
prints, which amount was duly credited to Government. 



Burma Circle* 



A detailed list of the 77 photographs prepared in The Burma Circle during the year 
is given in Appendix E at pages 40 — 42 of the Annual Report of that office for the year 
ending 31st March 1922, which has been published separately. Among the principal 
additions may be mentioned the fresco-paintings found on the walls of certain temples 
at Mandalay, Amarapura and Minnanthu at Pagan, and Pagan. The frescoes at Pagan 
and Minnanthu are fast disappearing, and drawings, paintings and photographs are 
being prepared of them wherever possible. Although there is no doubt that, except 
in a few isolated instances, the art of painting never attained a very high degree of 
perfection in Burma, still these pictures hold an honourable place in the history of paint- 
ing in the East. In many cases, their importance is mainly historical, but they date 
from the early part of the 12th century down to a very late period, and thus furnish the 
student with a continuous series of examples of remarkable interest. 



SECTION. XII. 



Aflrra Office. 



DRAWINGS. 

Work in the drawing office at Agra mainly consisted in the preparation of working 
drawings for designs by the Superintendent. Amongst them may be mentioned a 
design for new gates for the Entrance Gateway of the Shalamar Garden at Lahore, and 
designs for new doors and windows for Wazir Khan's Baradari now used as the Public 
Library of that city. Designs for new picture-cases and show-cases for the Delhi Fort 
Museum were prepared, as also were designs for a new door in the Tah Khana under the 
Rang Mahal in the Fort. Drawings for a suggested lay-out of the enclosure of the tomb 
of Shah Burhan at Chinioi; in the Jhang District of the Punjab were also made. Tracing 
of all drawings received from the Public Works Department in connection with estimates 
were made, and a number of drawings for Dr. Hankin's Memoir on Saracenic Patterns 
were commenced. The Head Draughtsman for the greater part of the year was engaged 



139 DRAWINGS. 

on the survey of the Delhi Monuments with the four special Draughtsmen, temporarily 
employed for making measured drawings of the principal monuments in the Delhi Pro- 
vince. During the past year they have been employed at Kotla Firoz Shah, Hauz Khas 
and Humayun's Tomb. At the former, some thirteen drawings have been commenced, 
complete measurements of all existing material having been taken, and in the case of 
eleven drawings a conjectural restoration has been worked out and added. The drawings 
have been inked in and are almost completed. At Hauz Khas work has been in progress 
on the sheets of drawings which have been completed except for the finishing touches 
such as tinting and* printing headings, etc. These buildings have also been conjectural- 
ly restored on paper by Mr. Page and a very good idea of what they were like in Firoz 
Shah's time can now be obtained. It is expected that the set of drawings with an expla- 
natory text will be published before long as a Memoir. Measuring work was begun at 
Humayun's Tomb towards the end of December, and nine drawings have been plotted, 
but the work is as yet not very far advanced. A list of the drawings prepared this year 
is given in Appendix E to this Report page 261. 

In the Lahore office twelve new drawings were prepared. Out of these, ten pertain Lahore Office. 
to the excavations carried out at Samath. 

Three plans of ancient sites were prepared by the Draftsman in the Frontier Circle, Peshawar Offke. 
and he also made numerous sketches and small plans required for working purposes, 
estimates and the demarcation of sites to be acquired under the Land Acquisition Act. 
The plan of the Northern Kafirkot monument published as an appendix to this report 
was also re-drawn by him for reproduction. 

In the Poona office thirteen drawings in all were taken in hand during the year, out Poona Offke. 
of which three only were completed. The drawings of monuments situated in Central 
India and Rajputana were transferred to the office of the Director General ef Archaeolo- 
gy in India in March 1922 according to the orders of the Government of India along with 
the negatives taken in these two provinces. Out of 657 drawings in this office, 4 are still 
incomplete and 315 require labels to be written on them. 

The principal drawings stored in the Archaeological Superintendent's office, Central Patna Office. 
Circle, are those of the Puri Temples in Orissa, certain of the Faruqi monuments at 
Burhanpur in Berar, as well as a plan of the Nalanda excavations and those at Basarh, 
in the Patna and Muzaffarpur Districts, respectively. Most of the other drawings are 
plans prepared merely to illustrate specific conservation proposals rather than exhaus- 
tive architectural records of the old remains. The only drawings prepared during 1921- 
22 were also in connection with the conservation work in progress at Nalanda on the 
excavated site ; and include a record of the stratigraphic evidence apparent in the earth 
left undisturbed in a corner of one of the monastery courtyards, revealing layers of brick 
debris, potsherds, ashes, and earth, indisputably recording the vicissitudes through 
which the old remains have passed since their probable foundation in the 5th century 
A. D. 

The number of drawings now stored in the Eastern Circle office at Calcutta totals Cakutta Offke. 
36, of which the additions during the year under report were 9. The collection includes 
a set of plans of the monuments at Vishnupur taken in 1920-21 together with a survey 



DRAWINGS. 



140 



Kotaciri Office. 



map of the same village. The new additions during the year consist of a survey plan of 
the environs of Mahasthangarh and the plans of seven monimients at 6aur and Pandua 
in the Malda District. In addition to these, several other tracings and working plans 
were made. 

Ten old pencil drawings were inked and three hundred and sixty-five old drawings 
were scaled this year in the Southern Circle. The total number of drawings 
preserved in Mr. Longhurst's office on the 31st March 1922 was 1,280, and like the 
photo-negatives, they have also been classified under several headings,^ namely. Primitive 
Stone Monuments and Antiquities ; Buddhist Art and Architecture ; Jain Art and 
Architecture ; Hindu Art and Architecture ; Muhammadan Art and Architecture ; Indo- 
Saracenic Art and Architecture, and Historical Forts and European Moniunents. 

MandaUy Office. Seven new drawings were prepared by the Superintendent, Burma Circle, a list ot 

which will be found in his Annual Report which has appeared separately. 



SimU Office. 



Eight drawings were prepared in pencil in the office of the Director General of Archaeo- 
logy, all of which relate to the excavations at Taxila. A few others were also prepared 
to accompany the Conservation Manual which was under preparation. 



SECTION XIII, 



PERSONNEL, 



Aira Office. 



The reorganization of the Archaeological Department sanctioned by the Government 
of India in June 1921 added to the cadre of the Department 6 new appointments, viz : — 
1 Superintendent for the Archaeological Section of the Indian Museum, 1 Superintendent 
for Epigraphy, 2 Assistants for Epigraphy and 2 officers as Leave Reserve. Three out 
of these six were appointed during the year. Mr. Ramaprasad Chanda, B.A., was ap- 
pointed Superintendent of the Archaeological Section, Indian Museum, on 23rd May 
1921 ; Mr. Hirananda Sastri, M.A., Superintendent for Epigraphy, on 26th November 
1921, and Mr.' K. V. Subrahmanya Aiyar, B.A., Assistant Superintendent for Epigraphy 
on 21 si February 1922. The appointment of the Deputy Director General of Archaeo- 
logy in India was made permanent. The States of Rajputana and Central India, which 
had been hitherto grouped in the Western Circle, were separated from that Circle and 
placed directly under the Director General. 

Mr. J. A. Page held the appointment of Superintendent, Muhammadan and British 
Monuments, Archaeological Survey of India, Northern Circle, up to the forenoon of the 
24th November 1921, when he was relieved by Mr. J. F. Blakiston, the permanent incum- 
bent, who held the appointment to the close of the year 1921-22. Before resuming 
charge of this office. Mr. Blakiston had been granted leave for 13 months and 3 days as 
follows : — 

(a) On privilege leave from the 21st October 1920 to 21st March 1921. 

(6) On commuted furlough from the 22nd March 1921 to 21st July 1921. 

(c) On furlough from the 22nd July 1921 to 23rd November 1921. 



141 PERSONNEL. 

Maulvi Zafar Hasan, Assistant Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, on special 
duty at Delhi in connection with the listing of ancient monuments in that Province, 
complet/ed his work there on the 31st July 1921 and proceeded to Simla to be attached 
to the office of the Director General as Assistant Superintendent. 

Mr. V. Natesa Aiyar, Officiating Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Central Patna Office. 
Circle, proceeded on combined leave for 7 months and 21 days, with effect from the 
forenoon of the 5th March 1921 and, I very much regret to report, died on the 13th 
October 1921, when his place was taken by Mr. Hirananda Sastri who had till then 
held the post of Assistant Superintendent of this Circle. Mr. Natesa Aiyar was a 
young scholar of great promise and his death is a sad loss to the Department. In 
the forenoon of the 26th November 1921 on transfer from the Northern Circle, Agra, 
Mr. J. A. Page took over charge of the duties of Superintendent from Mr. Hirananda 
Sastri, who was subsequently appointed as Officiating Superintendent for Epigraphy 
under the Government Epigraphist at Ootacamund. Maulvi Muhammad Hamid 
Kuraishi, formerly Excavation Assistant to the Director General, was appointed to 
officiate as Assistant Superintendent in the Central Circle from the forenoon of the 1st 
May 1921, in the vacancy caused h\ Mr. Sastri's appointment as Officiating Superin- 
tendent. 



SECTION XIV. 



SCHOLARSHIPS. 



The Sanskrit scholarship for training in Archaeology was held by Mr. Madho Sarup 

Vats, M.A., the scholarship for training in Archaeological Chemistry by Mr. Ram Singh 

Ahuja, and the Architectural scholarship by Mr. Maung Hla Thwin. In Burma the 

local scholarship was offered to Mr. M. W. Kyin Pu, B.A., who joined the department 
on 1st Auffust. 



SECTION XV. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

In the Provincial Reports hitherto issued from year to year by the several Circles, 
Part II afforded Archaeological officers a convenient medium for recording brief notes 
and queries on miscellaneous questions of antiquarian interest, either too limited in 
extent or too tentative in character to come within the scope of our more formal 
Memoirs. As this channel is now closed by the discontinuance of these Provincial 
Reports, it has been decided to include in the consolidated report a special section for 
material of this kind, which is frequently possessed of particular interest for the stu- 
dent of Archaeology. Thus in the present report Mr. Hargreaves has contributed a 
note on certain puzzling figures, shown in Gandhara compositions depicting the 
Buddha 's approach to the Bodhi Tree, Mr. Ramaprasad Chanda a brief note on the 
Visvantara Jataka at Bharhut and M. Duroiselle a study of the picturesque image of the 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 142 

Earth-Goddess in Burma, etc. These notes are grouped together in the present 
section, and are as follows : — 

Mara and his Daughter in Gandhara Reliefs. 

By Mr. H. Har greaves. 

Mara and his ''In certain Gandhara reliefs depicting the Approach to the Bodhi Tree appear a 

Qa^hara Reliefs, couple of striking figures in an unusual attitude.'*' The male, dressed in the robes of 

(By Mr. H. ceremony of a personage of high caste, leans his left elbow familiarly on the right 

argreaves.) shoulder of his female companion, or amorously throws his left arm around her neck, 

the left hand resting on her left shoulder. For this amorous couple various identifica- 
tions have been advanced. M. Foucher had long ago suggested that they were either 
a divine couple not mentioned in the texts, or else the Naga Kalika and his wife.f The 
discovery by Dr. Spooner in 1907-08 of a relief which contained both the Naga Kalika 
and his wife and also this couple, rendered the second identification untenable,^ and 
Dr. Spooner proposed another interpretation, that these were devas of the Suddha- 
vasa heaven. Against this identification M. Foucher has pointed out that it must be 
remembered that among the divine beings of the Suddhavasa heaven, sex is abolished, 
and that these det^as are saints among the gods. Moreover he draws attention to the 
interesting fact that on certain of the reliefs, including that recovered by Dr. Spooner, 
an attendant holds aloft behind this couple a standard surmounted by a makara, and 
this seems to settle the question, for he whose ensign is a makara can hardly be other 
than Mara.* The amorous couple are, therefore, Mara and his daughter. 

** Two reliefs on which this striking couple appear have been recovered in the recent 
operations at Jamalgarhi, and are reproduced here [Plate XXIV (c), Plat« XXV 
(6).] It will be noted that in the latter the makara standard again appears. 

'* Now the routine character of the school of Gandhara, its conventionalities and 
its fondness for cliches are marked features, and accepting this identification of Mara 
and his daughter in reliefs of the Approach to the Bodhi Tree, I would propose to 
extend the identification to this amorous couple in whatever reliefs they appear, even 
when the makara standard is absent. In support of this a hitherto unpublished relief 
(No. 363 of the Peshawar Museum collection) brings unexpected confirmation to M. 
Foucher 's identification. This depicts the Buddha seated in abhayamudra under a 
conventional tree with this amorous couple to his left and two other females to his 
right. It requires but a slight acquaintance with the works of the school to recognize 
at once that these figures, so lacking in respect, are not those of the usual visitors to the 
Buddha. And who but Mara and his cortege fail to admit his pre-eminence ? We 
have, therefore, in this relief what is probably a unique representation of the Tempta- 
tion of the Buddha by Mara and his three daughters. The school, as usual, here ob- 
serves its usual restraint and there are none of the lascivious details on which the texts 
expatiate. [Plate XXIV -(6).] 

" It is in no way surprising that in the reliefs under consideration Mara appears 
as a princely personage and not as. a warrior, for in all scenes he assumes the form most 

• A. S. I., 1907 08, Plate XLIV {h) uppermost Bcene. 

t X'aW grecc'bouddhiqve, T. 1, p. 396. 

X A. S. I., 1907 08, p. 141, Plate XLIl (b). 



143 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

appropriate to his dual character, now as a warrior in the Attack and now as the prince 
of worldly pleasures in the Temptation of Lust.'' 

In conclusion M. Hargreaves notes that the same couple appear on the extreme 
right of the well-known Mahaparinirvana relief from Loriyan Tangai (now in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta) and it is probable that a survey of the sculptures in other museums and 
albums will reveal their presence in other reliefs also. 

The Visvantar\ Jataka at Bharhut. 
By Mr. Ramaprasad Cha^ida. 

" The Visvantara Jataka which embodies the story of the Buddha's penultimate visvantara 
terrestrial incarnation was a favourite theme with artists in India. An entire architrave slw^ut. 
of a gateway at Sanchi — the lowest architrave of the North Gateway, both front and {By Mr. Rama- 
back — is devoted to the delineation of the various episodes of this romantic story. | At P^^^ Chmida.) 
Ajanta it appropriates the whole central part of the wall to the left in Cave XVII. J But 
though sculptured representations of 29 jatakas have hitherto been traced among 
the bas-reliefs of Bharhut (19 of which bear ancient Brahmi labels), no trace of the 
Visvantara Jataka has been found among them. Cunningham believed that he had 
found an episode of the Visvantara Jataka on a fragment of a corner pillar discovered 
after the bulk of the relics had been despatched to Calcutta. He writes in the Preface 
to his Stupa of Bharhut (p. vi) : — 

" ' In the summer of 1876 I completed the present account of Bharhut, but as I 
had reason to believe that some further discoveries might well be made, Mr. Beglar and 
myself visited the place a third time, and once more thoroughly explored the whole 
neighbourhood. The remains of the comer pillar of one of the missing gatewa)^ were 
then discovered together with several fragments. These are not included in the plates ; 
but I may mention that the story represented on the pillar was almost certainly the 
celebrated Wessantara Jataka. About two- thirds of each face have been cut away, but 
in the remaining portion of one of the scenes there is a four-horse chariot with a boy and 
girl being led by the hand, which leave no doubt in my mind that these are intended for 
the two children of Prince Wessantara '." 

* * From this meagre description of the sculpture it is very difficult to say how far 
Cunningham is right in his identification. But recently, while overhauling the sculp- 
tures of Bharhut in the Bharhut Gallery of the Indian Museum, I found fixed up by hooks 
on the western wall of the gallery a fragment of a coping stone. On taking down the 
fragment 1 found in one of the compartments a bas-relief that shows a richly dressed 
layman with a turban on his head giving away an elephant to a beggar while pouring 
water from a pitcher (Plate XL, Fig. e). As the fragment was evidently accidentally 
fixed on high, it escaped the notice of Cunningham and Anderson. The bas-relief on 
it illustrates an episode of the Visvantara Jataka, the giving away by Prince Visvantara 
of the white elephant, the incident that proved the first great turning point in his life 
and led to his banishment to Mount Vanka. The story of Visvantara is told in Jataka 
No. 547 of the Pali Collection and in No. 9 of Arya Sura's Jdtakamdld. 



• UaH greco-bovddhique, T. 11, pp. 194—202. 

t Sir John Marshall, A Ouide to Sanchi, Calcutta, 1918, page 53. 

X A Toucher in the Journal of the Hyderabad Archceohyical Society y 1919-20, pages 61-62. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 144 

" Visvantara (Pali, Vessantara) was the heir-apparent of King Sanjaya of the Sibis. 
He had a passion for alms-giving. Hearing of it a neighbouring King (the king of Kalin- 
ga according to the Pali commentary) sent Brahman emissaries to rob him of his excellent 
white elephant. One day when Visvantara was inspecting his alms-halls, these Brahmans 
approached him and requested him to present them with the elephant. Visvantara 
* alighted from the back of that excellent elephant and stood before them with uplifted 
golden pitcher ; then he pronounced the solemn formula) ' Accept.' "* In the Pali com- 
mentary it is said that the King of Kalinga sent eight Brahmans.f In our bas-relief 
only one Brahman with ' hairy head ' is receiving the gift of the elephant. But this 
need not stand in the way of the identification. The recipients are represented by one 
person on account of exigencies of space. Both in the Pali version and by Arya Sura the 
elephant is described as richly decorated, and so the animal is in our relief. This great 
act of charity on the part of Visvantara led to a revolt of all classes of the Sibi 
people against him, who compelled his father Sanjaya to banish him to Mount 
Vanka. The succeeding episodes in the story of Visvantara were probably engraved in 
the succeeding compartments of the coping stone of which we have only a small 
fragment." 

Wathundaye, the Earth-Goddess of Burma. 

By M, Charles Durotselle. 

Wathundave, the " The story of Wathundaye is one of those quaint legends which seem peculiar to the 
(By Mr. **"* Buddhists of Indo-China, for, though founded sometimes on some episode in the career 
DurciseUe.) of the Buddha, they are not to be traced — at least most of them have not yet been traced, 

to any Buddhist work in Pali or Sanskrit written in India. A good example is the 
Zimme-pannasa, a collection of fifty jataka stories which have not yet been found else- 
where, but which are well known in Siam and Burma. The story of the Earth-goddess, 
is not unknown in Indian Buddhist works, but not in the form current among the Indo- 
Chinese. Some of its representations in stone in Cambodia and Burma are very old, 
and the question of the place of its origin is an interesting one. The figure of Wath- 
undaye is very common in Burma ; it may be seen in practically every pagoda, and the 
episode to which it refers is also found painted on the walls of many temples, though 
by no means so commonly as the goddess herself. She is represented in two postures, 
either seated or standing ; in both cases a thick braid of hair is brought over the 
left shoulder before her breast, and she is in the act of squeezing water out of it, by so 
doing bearing witness in favour of the Buddha. Wathundaye is the Burmanized form 
of a name : Vasundhari, which appears to be extant neither in Sanskrit nor Pali. The 
usual and proper form is : Vasundhara, that is, the Earth. She is a Buddhist divinity of 
inferior rank. M. G. Coedes started the question of the origin of the Indo-Chinese 
Vasundhara in an interesting paper published in the Memoires concemant F Asie 
Orientate (Tome II, pages 117-22). He found the legend in a Pali work called the 
*' Pathamasambodhi ", well known in Cambodia and Siam, but which appears to be 
unknown in Burma. The legend as recorded in the " Pathamasambodhi " runs as 
follows : — Mara, the Buddhist Satan, has come with his monstrous hosts to oust 
the future Buddha from under the Bo tree and take his place, for he says that he (Mara) 

• J. S. Speyer, Jdtakamdld, Sacred Books of the Buddhints, Volume I, page 74, 
t Cowell and Rouse, Tfie Jaiaka^ Volume VT, page 252. 



145 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

is entitled to it. Then Mara said (showing his army) : Here is my witness, Siddhattha; JJ["^rtb*^*' 
but where is thine ? ' The Buddha replied : * I have no animate witness, but I will call goddess. 
on the inanimate Earth to bear me testimony ' and pointing with his hand to *his witness, k ^ • ^i? v 
recited this stanza : ^ This throne is mine, what need of another witness ? Let this 
Earth, which has quaked when I gaveMaddi,! be now my witness.' Then he added — 
' 0, Wicked One ! By me, who aspire to the possession of this throne, there is no gift 
which has not been made in my innumerable existences, and no precept which has not 
been observed. Without mentioning my other liberalities, I have, in my existence as 
Vessantara alone, reached perfection in giving away Queen Maddi and the Earth quaked 
seven times. And now that I am seated on this throne which has never been conquer- 
ed, having for aim victory over the entire world and fighting (for it) with Mara, how 
is it that the Earth keeps silent ? Mara has taken his army as false witness ; let this Earth 
hear my voice and be my witness, inanimate yet visible !' Like a golden lightning 
darting from a red cloud, the right hand of the Bodhisatta issued from his robe, illumi- 
nated with the lustre of its nails of the colour of coral, like unto the trunk of an elephant 
and ornamented with the sign of the Wheel. Pointing this right hand towards the Earth,t 
he said ' Earth ! I have realized the thirty perfections and, in my existence as Vessan- 
tara, I have made the sacrifice of my wife and of my children, and I have distributed 
gifts by seven hundred (of each) at a time ; but I have no monk nor brahman to bear 
testimony (to what I say), 0, Earth, why dost thou not come to bear witness ? ' Then 
the Earth, unable to resist the power of the Bodhisatta's perfection, emerged from the 
ground under the appearance of a woman and placed herself before the Bodhisatta 
and, as if to say '0 Great Man, I know that thou hast fulfilled the necessary conditions 
for the attainment of Supreme Wisdom, my hair is soaked with water poured upon the 
earth to ratify thy gifts, and now I will squeeze it out ', the Earth squeezed her hair and 
disappeared. The water flowed from her hair like the waves of the Ganges. Mara's 
hosts could not withstand the flood, and fled. The feet of Girimekhala (Mara's elephant) 
slipped and sank to the bottom of the ocean. The umbrellas, standards and fly-flaps 
were broken and fell. Seeing this wonder, Mara astonished said : ' The power of the 
Bodhisatta's perfections has conquered Mara's army, and the torrents of water 
flowing from the hair of his witness have scattered it completely to the four points of 
the compass.' 

" The legend as known to the Buddhists of Burma is exactly the same, but is not 
recorded in any work written in that Province, in either Pali, Burmese or Talaing ; and 
this accounts for the fact that it is not found even in that splendid work of Bishop 
Bigandet The Life of the Burmese Buddha, where M. Coedes sought for it in vain, for 
Bigandet was translating from a Burmese work. That, judging from the represen- 
tations of it, this legend of Vasundhara is very old, is borne out by the fact that it is 
found on two carved stones in Cambodia, one at the famous Angkor Vat and the other at 
Vat-Nokor ; on both stones she is represented exactly as in Burma, that is, in the act of 
wringing her hair. Again, I found a figure of this goddess in Vesali in Arakan, which 
may safely be assigned to the 9th or 10th century. This legend, then, must have 
been known there very much earlier, and may perhaps, without too much straining be 
pushed back to the 6th or 7th century. The point, however, is this, that although, the 



• This explains the attitude of the seated Buddha, with his left hand pahn upwards in his lap, and his rieht 
hand falUng in front of his knee, in the movement of touching the earth. 

t A reftTencc to the story of Vessantara, in which he gives his wife Maddi in alms. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



146 



Wathundaye, 
the Earth- 
t:oddess« 

(Bif Mr. 
DuroiseUe,) 



image of Vasundhara has been found in India (see, for instance, Catalogue of the Museum 
of ArchcBology at Samath^ pp. 91 and 94), it is not in the same attitude as the one in 
Indo-China ; for in India, she is always represented as emerging from the earth at the 
call of the Bodhisattva and holding a vase in her hand. And the question arises, which 
is still unanswered — ^Where did this charming legend originate ? Mons. Coedes is of 
opinion that it is not a mere modem fancy of Cambodian or Siamese monks, that it has 
a very old origin which will perhaps have to be looked for outside of Indo-China itself. 
As may be gathered from what precedes, Burma brings no light whatever on this point ; 
not only is the story not recorded in any writing, but the Burmese themselves point to 
Zinmie (Xieng-mai) in Siam, as to the place they received it from. It must be added, 
however, that nothing much should be based on this statement, for the Burmese, under 
the impression that the Siamese monks are not very strictly orthodox in certain of their 
beliefs, always ascribe any story not found in the canonical books or their commen- 
taries, to Zimme as its place of origin. The only close approach to the Indo-Chinese 
form of this legend in a Burmese work is found in the Tathagata-Udana-dipani, Vol. I, 
p. 199 ; here we have practically only half the legend. It is said there, that on being 
called to witness, Vasundhara emerged from the earth, her hair, which she holds before 
her breastj soaking wet with the water poured on the earth in dedication of gifts by the 
Bodhisattva in numberless previous existences ; then, bearing witness, she wrings it, 
and the noise of her doing so puts Mara and his hosts to flight ; nothing is said of their 
drowning. The author no doubt knew well the whole story, but stopped short at the 
drowning of Mara from a sense of orthodoxy ; for practically all sources, both Pali and 
Sanskrit, ascribe Mara's flight to the terrible noise made by the Earth in bearing witness. 
But the legend does occur in one Burmese work, the " Samantacakkhudipani " Vol. I, 
pp. 206-07. After reviewing the passages in Pali works where the Earth is mentioned 
as bearing witness, the author comes to the conclusion that this legend as known among 
the people is not orthodox, for it is found nowhere in Pali ; neither is it found in any 
previous Burmese work ; he concludes therefore that the legend is merely a popular 
fancy, to which no weight should be attached. In this connection, he tells us how the 
well-known Bishop Tripitakalankara (17th century) caused the representation of this 
legend to be rubbed out from the wall of a cave on which it had been painted. Such a 
representation however may be seen now on the walls of the Arakan Pagoda at Mandalay. 
At the Archaeological Museum at Pagan, there is a beautiful wooden figure of Vasundhara 
in a sitting posture which was found in a ruined temple near Pagan, but it is not older 
than the 14th or 16th century. The special interest of this figure is that in dress and 
features it is distinctly Chinese. Unfortunately, nothing whatever is known of this 
temple, nor consequently of this particular image. It may have been brought to Pagan 
from Southern China by sea, or perhaps by land from or through Yunnan. At any rate it 
shows that the legend was known out of Indo-China ; but whether it came to Indo-China 
or was received from it, is a problem which has yet to be solved." 



Mongol Frescoes at Pagan. 



By M. Charles DuroiseUe. 



Montrol 

Frescoes at 
Pasan. 

{By Mr. 

DuroiseUe.) 



" The close of the 13th century witnessed one of the greatest catastrophes which 
ever overtook Burma. This was, in 1287, the destruction of the Burmese army, the 
fall of the capital. Pagan, the ultimate dissolution of a great dynasty and the dis- 



147 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

ruption, for a long time, of Burmese political unity, through the invasion of the Mongol p^^^^ ^^ 

warriors of Kublai Kahn aided by border tribes such as the Lo-lo, the Pa-y, the Mossos, Pagan. 

etc. The victory was crushing and the Burmese nation received a shock from which it y^^ .J'; 

never really recovered. Yet, strange to say, up to the present, no tangible vestige 

of the passage of the Mongol warriors had yet been discovered. In Europe, the memory 

of the passage of these hordes under their Khans has not yet passed away ; it is true, 

as ifl well known, that there they made their appearance and excursions felt in the most 

dreadful manner ; leaving behind them smoking cities and villages ; heaping in their 

trails mounds of aged men, women and children cruelly butchered through mere lust of 

blood ; collecting from the fallen foes tens of thousands of ears as hideous witness of 

their prowess. In Asia also their passage traced a path of desolation — raping, killing, 

burning, piling up pyramids of heads. Their very name had become a terror. As far 

as one is able to judge, these horrors were not inflicted on Burma, for, had such been really 

the case, it is impossible that the national memory should have so completely forgotten 

them as it seems to have done. Nothing in the inscriptions, the chronicles and the 

traditions gives the least hint of such atrocities having been perpetrated. Only the 

memory of their victory remained with its aftermath of political dissolution. And no 

trace, no vestige, nothing, seemed to have been left of their passage. It is true there 

is, in the Museum at Pagan, a certain inscription, Chinese on one face and Pyu on the 

other, of which it has been supposed that the Chinese face at least was engraved about 

1287 (the year the Mongols took Pagan under Nasr-ed-din, the General commanding the 

expedition) ; but this is merely a plausible surmise, because the inscription has never 

been read and, owing to its bad state, is now past deciphering at all. 

** There have now been found, however, a small series of frescoes representing several 
Mongol types, both religious and laic. They were discovered painted on the walls of the 
Kyanzittha Cave. Careful copies were made of them. The Kyanzittha Cave is properly 
a monastery, situated close to the great Shwezigon pagoda at Nyaung-U, some four miles 
from Pagan. It is a low brick building half under ground and half above. As its name 
indicates, it was built, or at least tradition has it that it was built, by King Kyanzittha 
(1084-1112). This is not, however, mentioned in any inscription found at Pagan, nor 
in any old Acumen ts, and we have only the popular tradition. The interior of the 
building consists of long and dark corridors, some of the walls of which are ornamented 
with frescoes which are on the whole well preserved. All of these frescoes do not represent 
Mongolian personages, but those which do were most probably painted during the Mongol 
occupation of the city in 1287. One represents a Buddha seated European fashion on a 
high-backed chair ; his feet rest on a lotus ; the back of the chair is tri-foliated, the upper 
part forming an oval halo round the Buddha's head ; his begging-bowl rests on his lap 
and is held with both hands. Another fresco shows a Buddhist monk. This, consider- 
ing his dress, is a Chinese ; but he may also possibly be a Central-Asian. He is holding 
a rosary in front of his breast, and is seated in the posture of meditation ; his eyes are 
closed. There are several others, in subjects religious and laic, the technique of which 
shows strong Central Asian influence. The most interesting, however, are the two which 
represent, one a Mongol military officer, and the other an archer. The upper part of 
the officer's body is clad in a close-fitting jerkin adorned with rosaces ; his legs are encased 
in similarly close-fitting trousers ; his feet are shod with leather boots. On his head 
is a helmet, from the summit of which hangs backwards the tail of an animal ; a bandana 
surrounds his waist. He is seated on a low wooden stool. The features are clearly 
reminiscent of the Tartar type : high cheek bo nes, almond eyes, faint moustaches and 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



148 



Mongol 
Frescoes at 
Pafan. 

{By Mr. 

DuraiseOe.) 



spare beard. A hawk or falcon is perched on his left fist, he having been evidently a 
devotee of the chase like other Tartars. This method of hunting must have been inter- 
esting to the Burmese for, as far as is known, hawking has never been practised in Burma, 
at least, there is no mention of it in the whole range of Burmese literature known to me. 
The archer is represented in the act of shooting with bow and arrow. He is dressed 
apparently very much like the officer, but he is barefooted. These tangible proofs of 
the passage of Kublai Eahn's warriors in Pagan are unfortimately few, but they are 
decisive, and of great historical interest." 



D. B. SPOONER, 
Offg. Director General of Archceology in India. 



Simla, 6th June, 1923. 



149 



APPENDIX A. 



Showing expenditure incurred for the office establishments of the Superin< 

tendents, etc., during the year 1921-22. 

(a) Superintendent, Muhammadan and British Monuments, Northern Circle. 



Heads. 



1. (a) Salaries of Gazetted Officers. 

Superintendent's pay^ 

Mr. J. A. Page, salary from Ist March 1921 to Slst October 1921 

Mr. J. F. Blakiston, salary from 24tli November 1921 to 28tli 
February 1922. 

Mr. J. F. Blakiston, leave allowance from 1st March 1921 to 
5th November 1921. 

Assistant Superintendent's pay. 

Maulvi Zafar Hasan, from 1st March 1921 to Slst July 1921 . 



Total Salaries Gazetted Officers 




Expenditure. 



Bs. A. p. 

9,888 11 4 

7,888 8 8 

4,214 13 6 



6,246 10 8 



28,238 12 1 



Note. — Excess over the allotments is due to the payment of Rs. 3,788- 11 -4 to Mr. J. A. Page, Rs. 4p493-B-S 
to Air. J. F. Blakiston, and Rs. 4,305-8-7 to Maulvi Zafar Hasan as arrears of salaries at enhanced rate owing to 
the revised scale of pay, and leave allowance paid to Mr. J. F. Blakiston while on leave in England. 

1. (6) Office Establishment. 



One Conservation Assistant 
OneMunshi 



Three Clerks 



Three Draftsmen and Photographers . 

Five Peons, 1 Farrash, 1 Mali, 1 Ehalasi and 1 Daftri 

Temporary Establishment . • . • 



Total Office Establishment 



Establishment Grand Total [total of 1 (a) and 1 (6)] 

Carried over 



3,600 


1.650 


1,680 


1.155 14 


3,180 


2.273 11 4 


2,400 


3,006 11 10 


1,328 


1,173 12 4 


290 


252 


12,478 


9,512 1 6 


24,048 


37,750 13 7 


24,048 


37,750 13 7 

1 



160 
Appendix A — cantd. 



Headi. 



AUotments. 



Expenditure. 



Brought forward 



2. Conservation, see page 166. 



3. Exploration 



4. Museums and Dak Bungalows in the United Provincbs 

AND THE PrOYINOE OF DbLHI. 

(a) Ddhi Museum of Afchmclogy — 



Rs. 
24,048 



Nil 



Pay of Establishment 



War allowance 



Allowance for deamess of provision 
Contingencies 



Total Delhi Museum 



680 

260 

160 

2.870 



Rs. A. p. 
37,750 13 7 



Na. 



3,870 



1,517 10 

237 

191 15 4 

1.718 7 3 



3,664 7 6 



Note.— Allotment for the Delhi Museum Clerk is not included in the figure Rs. 580. Provision for him was 
made by the Chief Commissioner. Delhi, but figures were not intimated to this office. Funds for the Delhi Museum 
were provided by the Provincial Government. 



(6) Taj Museum at Agra 



Total Museums 



(c) Dak Bungalow at Sikandara, Agra — 



Pay of a Chaukidar, etc. 



Total Bungalow 



5. Photography. 



Photographs and purchase of Photo, materials 



Total Photography 



6. Library. 



Purchase of Books and Newspapers 



Total Library 
Carried over 



250 



4,120 



250 



250 



800 



800 



200 



200 



29,418 



170 12 3 



3,835 3 8 



157 4 6 



157 4 6 



966 15 



966 15 



125 15 



125 15 



42,836 3 9 



161 



Appendix A — contd. 



Heads. 


AllotmentB. 


Expenditure. 


Brought forward 


Rs. 

29,418 


Rs. A. P. 

42,836 3 9 


7. Office Conttngencies. 

Purchase and repair of tents 

Belts, badges and liveries for peons 

Bents, rates and taxes 

Postage and Telegram charges 

Conveyance of tents, stores and records .... 

Purchase of Stationery 

Hot and cold weather charges 

Miscellaneous 


50 

30 

C60 

220 

200 

f 2,070 


64 8 
68 8 
500 
920 
639 8 
12 1 
132 6 8 
613 8 3 


Total Contingencies 


3,230 


2,960 7 11 


8. Travelling Allowances. 
Travelling allowance of gazetted officers .... 
Travelling allowance for Office Establishment 
Compensation for deamess of provisions • • • . 
War allowanoe 


7,050 
J 

30 


2,778 10 

2,969 4 11 

27 9 3 

36 2 1 


Total allowances 


7,080 


5,811 10 3 


9. Teuporaby Draftsuen employed on the Survey of 
Ancient Monuments in tuk Province of Delhi. 

4 Temporaiy Diaftmen's pay 

War allowance 

Travelling allowance 

Contingent charges 


1,920 
528 
880 
250 


1,920 
528 
879 12 
166 12 


Total Survey Party 


3,578 


3,494 8 6 


10. PUB0HA8E OF SuFERINTENDENt'S OvFICB BuILDINOS 


15,000 


15,000 


TOTAL 


58,306 


70,092 14 5 



152 



Appendix A — contd. 

(6) Superintendent^ Hindu and Buddhist Monuments, Northern Circle, 



Heads. 



Salary of the Superintendent 
Salary of the Establishment 



Travelling allowance of the Superintendent . 
Travelling allowance of the Establishment . 



Contingencies 
Excavations 



Conservation, see page 181 



Aliotments. 

Rs. A. p. 

7,075 

9,884 

3,000 

3,050 

5,930 

6,000 



Expenditure. 



Rs. A. p. 

6,240 

9,515 7 7 

3,414 10 

3,328 15 6 

3,738 4 9 

5,268 4 6 



TOTAL . i 34,939 



(c) Superintendent^ Archasclogical Survey , Frontier Circle. 



31,505 10 4 



Establishment. — 
Salaries 



Headfl. 



Superintendent . 
Indian Assistant 



aerks 



Photographer ' . 



Draftsmen 



Servants 



Temporary establishment 



Travelling allowance of officers 



Travelling allowance of Establishment . 
Grain compensation allowance 



Total 
Carried over 



AllotmenU. ! Expenditure 



Rs. A. p. 

8,400 

3,120 

552 

1,220 

770 



Rs. A. p. 

12,600 0* 

3,120 

1,134 3 2 

1,644 

902 11 4 



624 








547 


4 


8 


84 








144 








3,000 








1,797 


11 





3,000 








2,868 


7 





80 








125 


4 


1 


20,860 








24,883 


9 


s 


20,850 








24,883 


9 


3 



^Excess due to revision of pay. 



163 



Appendix- A — conid. 



Headf. 



Brought forward 



Contvigendes . Stationery 



Postal and Telegraph charges 



Tour charges 



Hot and cold weather charges 



Tents 



Pay of menials 



Purchase and repair of furniture 
Ifiscellaneous charges • 



Total 



ConservcUian, see page 183. 



PtMioalions 



. Publication of Annual Report 



Total 



Photography 



. Photographic materials 



Total 



Library . • Purchase of publications and books 



Total 



Excavation . 



. Excavations 



TOTAL 



Anotments. 



Rs. A. p. 
20,850 



Expenditure. 



> 1,850 



J 



Rs. A. p. 

24,883 9 3 



1,850 



200 



200 



300 



300 



256 

250 
78 13 

215 10 
69 10 9 
65 
26 8 

213 14 10 



1,574 15 6 



79 12 



79 12 



576 12 



576 12 



150 








205 


6 


6 


150 








205 


6 


6 


5,000 








1,067 


1 


1* 


28,350 








28,387 


8 


3 



•Of this sum Rs. 1,003-13-6 was expended on Maintenance until sanction for Re. 18,900 was received and is 
indoded in the Rs. 13,011-0-6 under Head — "Conservation and Maintenance,** while Rs. 63-3-7 was expended on 
the pay of a temporary modeller. 



164 



Appendix A — eontd. 
(d) Superintendent, We$lem Otrde. 



Heads. 



Allotment*. 



Expenditure. 



1. ESTABUSHHBNT. — 

(o) Salary. — 



(t) Superintendent 



(n) Assistant Superintendent 



(m) Establishment 



(6) AUovxmces. — 



(t) Travelling aUowance, Supdt., Asstt. Supdt. . 



(n) Establishment 



(tu) Temporary and Prov : allowance 



(c) Contingenciea. — 



(t) Photographs and Photo materials 
(n) Other petty supplies (tents, instruments, etc.) 
{Hi) Purchase of books, newspapers, etc. 



(iv) Liveries to peons 



(v) Bents, Bates and Taxes 
(vi) Postage and Telegram charges 
{mi) Conveyance of tents, stores and records 
{viii) Purchase of furniture 
(ix) Purchase of stationery 

(x) Office expenses and Miscellaneous 



(xi) Telephone charges 



(xii) Charges for excavation 
2. CONSBRVATION, see page 203. 



3. Museums 



4. PUBUCATIONS 



TOTAL 



Bs. A. p. 



6,900 
7,200 
5,866 



6,600 



2,400 
100 



1,000 

260 

300 

60 













500 
1,200 
1,900 









560 



6,000 



Bs. A. p. 



10,879 6* 
6,206 10 8 
7,936 8 4 



^ 7,736 15 

( 366 8 

4,211 13 

483 10 6 



NU 
Nil 



38.806 



1,509 9 

682 13 6 

683 4 
109 14 6 

28 2 

1,175 10 

6,076 12 



14 1 6 

1,253 15 11 

206 

11 4 



Na. 

NU. 



47,569 8 6 



*Exoe8B due to revision of pay. 



166 



Appendix A—oontd. 

{e) Superintendent, Central Circle. 



Heads. 



Allotments. 



Ezependiture. 



1. Establishment— 

(i) Salary of gazetted officers — 



Superintendent's pay 



Assistant Superintendent's pay 



(u) Salary of non-gazetted establishment — 



1 Excavation Assistant 



1 Photographer 
1 Accountant < 



2 Draftsmen (1,293-10-8 + 404-8-S) 

3 aerks (1,949-0-6 +545-0-6) . 



1 Jamadar 



6 Peons (447-10-6+314-12-10) . 



1 Chowkidar 



Temporary Establishment (8-0-0+9-6-8) 
Grain compensation allowance (48-4-9+21-0-6) 



(fti) Allowances— 

Travelling allowances, gazetted officers 
Travelling allowances, Establishment • 



Carried over 



Rs. A. p. 



15,600 



. 7,906 



> 6,850 



30,356 



Rs. A. p. 



9,939 6 8 
3,564 8 3 



13,503 14 11 



2,644 

1,248 3 7 

1,392 

1,698 2 11 

2,494 1 

177 6 2 

762 7 4 

99 11 7 

17 6 8 

69 6 3 



10,602 12 6 



3,773 5 5 
3,359 1 9 



7,132 7 2 



31,239 2 7 



156 



Appendix A — contd. 



HMda. 



(w) Contingencies — 



Brought forward 



Office Bent, Bates and Taxes 
Postage and Telegram charges 
Conveyance of Tents, Stores and Becords 



Purchase of furniture 



Office expenses and Miscellaneous 



Menial charges 



Telephone charges 



Petty supplies (tents and instruments) . 



Liveries for Peons 



Total 



1. (a) Tehporaby Establishment (non-oazettbd) — 



(«) Salary — 



1 Photographer 



2 Peons 



Grain compensation allowance 
(v») JJlowances — 



Travelling allowances 
{vii) Contingencies — 



Miscellaneous 



Total 



2. Conservation, see page 185. 

3. Exploration — 

Excavation charges at Nalanda* . 



Carried over 



Allotmento. 



Bs. A. P. 



30,366 



600 
460 
600 
400 
860 

90 
160 
260 

80 























3,370 



1,706 



1,000 



1,200 



3,906 



6,000 



42,632 



Expenditure. 



Bs. A. P. 
31,239 2 7 



248 4 

400 

1,031 

121 

967 8 

88 11 

165 

6 4 

67 




6 


3 







3,064 11 9 



1,789 



782 



647 



3,218 



2,313 



39,834 14 4 



*(NoTE. — Carried out in the hot weather of 1921, and included in the aooount published in the Annual Pro- 
gress Rvp^rt of the Central Circle for the year ending March Slst, 1921.) 



157 



Appendix A — amtd. 



Heads. 


Allotmentfl. 


Expnnditare. 








Rs. A. 


p. 


Rs. A. 


p. 


4. 


Brought forward 
Museums — 

NcUanda — 


42,632 





39,834 14 


4 














(i) Museum furniture 


400 





381 







(n) Show cases and safe ..... 


3,000 





761 







{in) Construction of godown and chowkidar's quar- 
ters : re-appropriated from unspent residue of 
Nalanda excavation and conservation grants. 


• • 




3,014 







(iv) Upkeep of Museum bungalow 
Publications 


600 





389 







4,000 





4,545 





5. 


NU 




Nil. 




6. 


Photography 


800 





1,518 





7. 


Library 

TOTAL 


400 





354 







47,832 





46,251 14 


4 



(/ ) Superintendent, Eastern Circle, 



Heads. 




1. Establishment : — 

1 Superintendent . . • . . 

2 Clerks 

1 Photographer ....,., 
1 Draftsman ....... 

1 Duftri 

4 Peons . 

Grain compensation allowance .... 

Travelling allowance 

Carried over 



Rs. A. p. 



6,225 



4,006 



3,000 



13,231 



Expenditure. 



Rs. A. P. 



6,289 10 8 



4,311 3 1 



20 U 9 



2,978 10 9 



13,600 7 3 



158 



Appendix A — cofitd. 



Heftdi. 



Allotmentt. 



Expenditure. 



2. Conservation, s^e page 196. 

3. Elxploiation 

4. Museums 
6. Publications 

6. Photography 

7. Library 

8. Other petty supplies 

9. Miscellaneous 

10. Rents, Rates and Taxes 

11. Postage and Telegram charges 

12. Furniture 

13. Belts, badges and liveries to Peons 
U. Carriage of office records 



Brought forward 



Rs. A. p. 
13,231 



2,000 



I 5,830 



TOTAL 



t 



21,061 



(g) Superintendent^ Southern Circle. 



Rs. A. p. 
13,600 7 3 



2,802 9 8 



820 5 6 

1,090 2 

105 3 

756 9 

284 6 

275 

1,063 

60 13 

326 6 9 



7,583 14 8 



21,184 5 11 



Heads. 



Allotments. 



1. ESTABL'SHMENF 



Salary of the Superintendent 



Pay of the Establishment 



Travelling allowance 



2. Conservation, see page 224. 



Carried over 



Rs. A. p. 



14,400 
6,342 
4,500 



25^42 



Expenditure. 



Rs. A. P. 



14,673 5 4 
4,477 11 5 
3,663 7 6 



22,814 8 3 



169 



Appendix A — cofitd. 



Heiids. 



Allotments. 



Brought forward 



3. Exploration 

4. Museums 

6. Publications 
6. Photography 



Rs. A. p. 
25,242 



7. Library, etc. 



TOTAL 



1,000 

NU 

Nil 
2,200 
150 



Expenditure. 



Rs. A. p. 

22,811 8 3 



28,592 






NU. 

NU. 

NU. 

1,220 11 6 

50 



24,085 3 9 



(h) SuperifUendenl^ Burma Circle. 



I 



Heads. 



Allotments. 



Expenditure. 



Establishment. 



Superintendent, Archseological Survey 



Archfldological Assistant 



Architectural Surveyor • 



Clerks (four) 



Draftsman 



Assistant Photographer 



Burmese Artist 



Burmese Copyist 
Servants (three) 



Bs. 



8,100 



10,240 



C!arried over 



18,310 



Rs. A. p. 



11,600 



Remarks. 



Excess due to the 
revision of the scale. 



10,245 10 



Excess due to incre- 
ments to the pay of 
the Assistant Photo- 
grapher and Bur- 
mese Copyist. 



21,845 10 



160 



Appendix A — cantd. 



Heads. 



Brought forward 



Temporary allowances and Burma allowance 
to Superintendent. 



Travelling allowance 



Allotments. 



Conservating, see Annual Report of the 
Superintendent, Archaological Survey, 
Burma Circle, for the year 1921-22. 

Supplies and Services. 



Preservation of Archaeological Remains 



Purchase of photographs and photogra- 
phic materials. 



Mandalay and Pagan Museums and Archfleo- 
logical scholarships. 



Purchase and translation of ancient 
manuscripts. 



Contipgendes. 



Contract contingencies 



Rents, Rates and Taxes . 



TOTAL 



Expenditure. 



Rs. 



18,340 



Remabks. 



Rs. A. p. 

21,846 10 



1,300 



4,000 



1,674 4 



♦3,990 11 



♦Includes also the travel- 
ling allowances of Hono- 
rary Archaeological Officer 
for Arakan. 



500 



660t 



1,260 



100 



697 6 6 



1,060 



fDeducting Rs. 166-9-0 
recovered from the sale of 
photographs. 



2,700t 



1,680 4 



2,600 ; 2,463 6 



960 



960 



32,200 



34,161 9 6 



t Rs. 1,700 paid by the 
Local Government out 
of Provincial Revenues. 



161 



Appendix A — contd. 



(i) Government Epigraphistfor India. 



Heads. 


Allotments. 


Expenditure. 


Remarks. 




Rs. 


Rs. A. P. 




ScUaries — 








Government Epigraphist for India 


7,400 


14,863 5 i 


Due to arrears of pay on 
account of time-scale. 


Establishment — 








L/ierk ••.••• 


1,284 


1,298 11 3 


Due to promotion to 
H. C.'s post on Rs. 150. 


Servants 


396 


194 3 1 




Temporary establishment (Khalasis) . 


240 


. . 




Lump provision for addition of estab- 
lishment. 


4,540 


• . 




AUowances — 








Travelling allowance — 








Government Epigraphist . 
Establishment .... 


> 2,500 


r765 4 
(872 8 6 




Compensation for deamess of provision 


90 


• • 




Contingencies — 








Liveries and clothing 


68 


• • 




Rents, Rates and Taxes 


1,800 


1,005 




Purchase of books and newspapers 


50 


2,275 13 9 


Excess was met by ra- 
appropriation. 


Postage and Telegram charges . 


200 


146 15 




Conveyance of tents, etc. 


1,000 


314 1 




Purchase of furniture 


500 


677 9 


Ditto. 


Office expenses and miscellaneous 


270 


801 10 9 


Ditto. 


Menial charges .... 


120 


74 5 




Carried over 


20,558 


23,289 6 8 





162 



Appendix A— confci. 



Heads. 



Brought forward 

VfuMoUed special charges — 

Director-General's Library and other 
publications— 

Beproduction of plates 

Honorariums to contributors 



Honorarium to Dr. Thomas for 
editing Epigraphia Indica. 

Bounding . 



TOTAL 



AUotmentd. 



Ra. 



20,558 



Expenditure. 



\ 



3,000 



Bs. A. p. 



23,289 6 8 



23,560 



921 10 



1,112 6 11 



1,000 



26,323 7 7 



R 



s. 



Excess of Bs. 34-0-11 was 
met by reappropriation 
from D. G.'s grant. 



(/) ArchcBologioal Chemist in India. 



Salaries — 



Heads. 



Archffiological Chemist in India — 



Budget allotment 



Supplementary allotment on account of revision of 
pay. 

Total 

Carried over 



Allotments. 



Bs. A. P. 



4,700 
3,302 4 10 J 



Expenditote. 



8,002 4 10 



8,002 4 10 



Bs. A. p. 



8,002 4 10 



8.002 4 10 



8,002 4 10 



163 
Appendix A — conld. 



• 

Heads. 




AUotmentt. 
Rs. A. 


1 

P. 


Expenditure, 






Rs. A. p. 


Brought forward 


• 


8,002 4 10 


8,002 4 10 


Bstablishment — 








Paj of Establiahmeiit 


• 


670 





591 10 3 


Travelling allowance — 










Budget allotment 

Supplementary allotment 


• 
• 


1,500 
960 






2,242 6 6 


Total 


2,450 





2,242 6 6 


Contingencies — 








Contingencies TotAl 


• 


1,600 





1,599 12 1 


Special charges — 








(Charges in connection with transfer of headquarters 
Calcutta to Dehra Dun.) 


from 








(a) ScGurring— 










Pay of Establishment 


• 


1,460 





877 3 1 


House rent 


• 
• 


1,200 





744 12 4 


Total 


2,660 





1,621 15 5 


(5) Non-recurring — 








Transport of apparatus (packing, railway freight, 


etc.) 


800 





800 


Fittings (benches, gas and water pipes) . 


• 


1,200 





1,166 2 3 


Reservoir of concrete, iron tank and stand, t 


semi- 


1,000 





162 8 


rotary pump and iron pipes. 










Furniture 


• 


1,200 





1,196 8 


Labour (skilled and unskilled) 


. 


500 





183 16 6 



1 Gas Machine 


Total 
Total Special Charges 

TOTAL 


2,000 





2.000 







6,700 





5,498 


1 9 




9,360 





7,120 


1 2 




22,082 


4 10 


19,656 


2 10 



164 



Appendix A — cantd. 



{k) Director Oeneral of ArchcBology including Epigraphist for Moslem Inscriptions, 



Heads. 



BsUMishment charges — 



Salary, officers 



Salary, establishment 



Archaeological scholarships 



Total 



AUotoances — 



Grain compensation allowance 
Travelling allowance, officers 



Travellinsr allowance, establishment 



Total 



Contingencies 



Special charges — 
Annual Report 



Other ArchsBological publications 



Library 
Antiquities 



Bakhshali Mss. 



Total 



TOTAL 



Allotmenta 



Bs. A. P. 



38,950 

37,384 

5,520 



81,854 



310 



7,400 
13,250 



20,960 



26,942 



2,000 

3,810 

3,000 

6,000 

4,524 4 



19,334 4 



1,49 090 4 



Expenditure. 



Bs. A. P. 



56,615 14 8 

38,328 7 11 

2,296 12 4 



97,241 2 11 



363 1 



7,050 4 
13,240 10 6 



20,653 14 7 



25,739 14 9 



1,734 9 6 

3,806 13 

3,008 10 8 

6,866 

4,524 4 



18,940 5 2 



1,62,575 5 5 



NoTB. — ^Exoeas over the allotments is due to reviaion of pay of officen. 



166 



Appendix A — contd. 

(I) Sir Aurd Stein. 



Heads. 



Allotments. 



Establishment — 

■ 

Salaries of Officers — 



Sir A. Stein . 



Miss F. Lorimer 



Honorarium of Mr. F. H. Andrews . 
Temporary Establishment 



Total 



Travelling dUowanoes — 

Officers' travelling allowance 
Establishment travelling allowance 
Temporary Graf tsmen . 



Rs. A. p. 



Total 



Contingencies — 

Contingencies 

Charges on Collection Buildirg, New Delhi 
Aluminium materials for frescoes • 



TOTAL 



• • . • 



• • • • 



• • . • 



• . • • 



3S,000 



Expenditure. 



Rs. A. P. 



15,687 9 





6,00) 





3,000 





2,440 10 


6 


27,128 3 


6 



2,092 13 

384 2 

2,046 6 9 



4,623 5 9 



2,440 14 11 
2,496 4 9 
1,444 15 



8.033 11 11 



166 



Appendix A — contd. 



CONSERVATION. 



Slatemeni showing the expenditure incurred on the conservation of Muhamtnadan and British Monu- 
ments during the year ending 31st March 1922. 



District. 



Locality. 



1 



Agra 



tt 



9t 



» 



Agra . 



» 



w • 



>» 



»> 



>9 



»• 



Sikandrah 
and Itimad- 
ud-Daulab, 
Agra. 

Sikandrah 



ft 



Lnoknow . 



ft 



>» 



» 



Agttk 



Lucknow 



9> 



ft 



9» 



Name of work and description. 



Unitbd Pbovikcis. 

Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charges). 

Restoring the Colonnades around 
the Quadrangle of the Taj 
Mahal. 

Restoring inner Delhi Gate, Agra 
Fort 

Special Repair to Marble Chajja of 
Moti liasjid in Agra Fort. 

Constructing a bridlepath to It- 
bari Khan, Sadiq Kiian and 
Salabat Khan's Tomb. 



Providing sand -stone seats for 
visitors at Akbar*s Tomb and 
Itimad-ud-Daulah*s Tomb. 



Completing the restoration of the 
East Causeway and Central 
Tank in the Mausoleum. 

Restoring well to the south of East 
Causeway in the Mausoleum. 

Providing a red sand-stone Jali in 
Mariam*8 Tomb. 

Constructing a tube well with 
engine house and pumping plant 
in the Kanch MahaL 

Conservation of Itbari- Khan's 
Mosque and three other monu- 
ments. 

Providing tablets and railings in 
the Residency Buildings. 

Special repairs to Chhatar Manzil . 

Spreading surkhi on existing roads 
in Residency'. 

Total 

Add departmental charges @ 19 
per cent.* 

Total Special Repairs 



Amount 
of 
sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



Rs. 



62,374 



39,954 



1,946 



1,686 



Allot- 
ment 
for the 
year 
1921- 
1922. 



834 



83,265 



7,499 



54 



37,194 



748 



697 

966 
996 



Rs. 



28,262 



1,000 



1,946 



1,686 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the year 

1921- 

1922. 



Remarks. 



6 



Rs. 



28,261 ; Completed. 



1,080 



1,739 



I 



Da 



Da 



1,098 In progress. 



834 



409 



Da 



10,000 



10,143 



Da 



1,500 : 2,545 



Da 



54 



10,000 



52 j Completed. 



2,242 ; In progress. 



748 



741 



697 

966 
996 



710 



Completed. 



Do. 



596 ; In progress. 
968 Completed. 



50,584 

I 

9,611 



60,195 



^Departmental charges have not been shown in returns received from Superintending Engineer, United 
Rovincei^ and have therefore been added by this office. 



167 

t 

Appendix A—contd. 



District. 



Ix)cality. 



Name of work and description. 



1 



Agra 



»: 



•» 



i> 



t> 



M 



Allahabad 



M 



tf 



•> 



IfiizapuT . 
lieerut 



Agra . 

Fatehpur 
Sikri. 



Agra 



9> 



»» 



»> 



ff 



ft 



f» 



tf 



9f 



*9 



9» 



9> 



f» 



Allahabad 



9» 



•» 



»> 



»> 



Chunar 



9f 



>f 



I 



United Provinces— c<m/rf. 

Annual Bepairt {recwring charges), 

Taj and adjacent buildings . 

Buildings and Roads at Fatehpur 
Sikri. 

Chini-ka-Rauza 



Fort at Agra 

Roman Catholic Cemetery 
Sir John Russel's Tomb 
RamBagh 
Itimad-ud-Daulah 
Queen Victoria's Memorial 
Firoz Khan's Tomb . 
Akbar's Tomb . 
Kanch Mahal 
Mariam's Tomb 



Dak Bungalow and outhouses 
Electric Installation at Taj 



Tomb of Sultan Khusru at Khusru 
Bagh. 

Tomb of Sultan Khusru*s mother 
at Khusru Bagh. 

Tomb of Sultan Khusru's sister 
at Khusru Bagh. 

Enclosure wall and gateway of 
Khusru Bagh. 

Zanana Palace in Fort 

Iftikhar Khan's Tomb 



Amount 
of 
sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



Rs. 



\ 



r 21,120 



; 



1,430 



^ 



Allot- I Amount 

ment spent 

for the during 

year the year 

1921- 1921- 

1922. 1922. 



450 



) 



Meenit . Tomb of Shahpir 



Tomb of Abu Muhammad Khan • 



Carried over 



.350 
760 
180 
150 



Rs. 



5,915 
7,500 

150 

4,350 

264 

30 

750 

750 

60 

250 

2,841 

75 

750 

354 

1,594 



450 



350 
760 
180 
150 



6 



Rs. 



4,545 
6,506 

47 

4,117 

214 

30 

708 

608 

42 

206 

2,829 

43 

60 

68 

1,869 



Remabks. 



384 



231 

734 

103 

66 



Completed. 
Da 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 
Da 
Do. 
Da 



23,310 



Do. 



Da 
Da 
Do. 
Da 



168 



Appendix A — contd. 



Distriot 



Aligarh 
Lacknow . 



» 



M 



f» 



$9 



9» 



M 



>9 



9» 



>» 



» 



Sardoi 



9» 



Muzaffer- 
nsgar. 



Bijnor 
Azamgarh 



Locality. 



Name of work and detoripdon. 



Tappal 

Mile 4 of 
Liicknow- 
Cawnpore 
road. 

Lucknow 

»9 
ft 
t» 
»9 



99 



99 



t» 



9» 



99 



Tahsil BU. 
gram Maila- 
wan village. 

Shahabad 

Majhera 



Najibabad . 
Mehnagar • 



Amoont 
of 
sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



Brought forward 

United Pbovihcm — eontd. 

Annual Repairs (ruurring charges) 
— contd. 

Old gateway at Tappal 

Alambagh House 



LalBaradari .... 
Chhatar Manzil Palace 
. ! Platform in front of Chhatar Manzil 

Farhat Bux Station Library 

i 

Neil's Gate .... 
Sikandar Bagh buildings 



Qaisar Bagh gates 



• I 



Nadan Mahal and Ibrahim Chishti's 
Tomb. 

Nasir-ud-din Haidar*s Karbala at 
Daliganj. 

Residency buildings . 

Bibiapur House 

Dilkusha Palace • • 



Fine well 



Nawab Didar Khan's Tomb . 

Tombs of Syed Hussain, Syed 
Muhammad Khan, Syed Saif 
Khan and his mother, Syed 
Umar Nur Khan and octagonal 
well. 

Nawab Najib-ud-Daulah*8 Tomb . 



Daulat's Tomb 



Carried over 



Ba. 



16 



760 



550 
3,750 

105 

1,200 

15 

450 
1,200 

630 

450 

1,500 

300 

750 

22 



495 
150 



AUot- 
ment 

for the 
3rear 
1921- 
1922. 



Rs. 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the year 

1921- 

1922. 



Rkmarkh. 



6 



Ra. 



23,310 



16 



750 



550 
3,760 

105 

1,200 

15 

460 
1,200 

630 

450 

1,500 

300 

750 

22 



495 . 
150 ' 



10 



666 



Completed. 
Do. 



546 ': 
3,667 

105 
1,201 
15 I 

I 
I 
I 

447 

I 

1,095 

625 

I 
435 

1,478 

I 

287 I 
746 



I 



21 



486 
140 




Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 
Dew 
Dew 
Do. 
Da 

Do. 

Da 
Da 
Da 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do 



160 

Appendix A — contd. 



iJistrict. 



Jaanpore 



i> 



»9 



t* 



tf 



>f 



♦t 



»• 



>9 



Jalaun 



9> 



Locality 



Jauopore 



t> 



$* 



»> 



>» 



i» 



»» 



Kaipi 



-.9 



Name of work and description. 




Amount Allot- |Amount 

of ment spent 

sane- ' for the I during 

tioned year [the year 

esti- 1921. , 1921- 

mate. ' 1922. ! 1922. 



Brought forward 



, UnITBD PROVIKCSS — COHCld, 

I 

I Annval Repairs (recurring chat gee) \ 
— conoid. 
. I JamiMasjid 

AtalaMasjid 

Lai Darwaz? Masjid 
. , Jaunpore Fort . 
. , Gomti Bridge . 

Jhinjhri Masjid 



Firoz Khan-ka-Raoza 
Sher Zaman Khan-ka-Raiua 
Kings* Tomb 
Chaurasi Gumbaz 



Tomb of Lodi Shah Badshah and 
Fort wall. 



5 



Bs. 



900 



75 



450 



R«. 



900 



75 



450 



6 



Bs. 



35,433 



Rbmarks. 



898 Completed. 



75 ' Do. 



362 



Do. 



Farrukh- | MauRashid- Tomb of Nawab Rashid Khan 
abad. i abad. 



10 



15 



6 



Do. 



»f 



•> 



Karhar 

Chaudharia- 
pur. 



Cawnpore . Cawnpore 



'.• 



♦f 



Benares 



Dhorara 



Tomb of Major Robertson and a 
well. 



An unknown tomb 



. I Sawada Kothi monuments includ- ■ 
ing flitrlit of steps with the sur- 
' rounding plateau. 

. I The garden known as the Memo- 
I rial well garden. 

. I Aurangzeb^s Mosque . 



20 



10 



30 



186 



112 



39 



15 



45 



279 



112 



33 



8 



19 



62 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 





Total 

1 Add departmental chaiges @ 19 
per cent.* 

Total Annual Repairs . 

Total Special Repairs 

Grand Total for United Provinces 

1 


, .. 7,010 

■ 


1 




• • • • 

• • • ■ 


43,006 
60,195 


.. 1 


jl,04,l01 





^Departmental charges have not been shown in returns received from Superintending Engineers, Dnited 
PlovinceSy and have therefore been added by this office. 



170 



Appendix A — covOd. 



Statement showing the expenditure incurred on, the conservation of Mtiliamnmdan and British 

Monuments during the year ending 31st March 1922. 



District. 




Gnjrat 
Attock 



'» 



Jhelum 



Jnllundur • 



Hissar 



Kama] 



»» 



Lahore 



9» 



»f 



»> 



»> 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 


Allot- 


Amount 


of 
sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 


ment 
for the 
year 
1921- 


spent 
during 
the year 
1921- 


mate. 


1922. 


1922. 


4 


' 6 


6 



Remarks. 



Rs. 



lis. 



Rs. 



9t 



PUKJAB. 

I Special Rfpairn (non-rccHrring 

charges). 



Chillianwala Memorial obelisk 

! 

Attock . I Begam-ki-8arai 



741 



7,795 . 



815 188 Completed. 



Hasanabdal . Repairs to Sarcophagus of J^la 1,020 850 

Rukh's Tomb. 



Rohtas 



Nakodar and 
Phillaur 
Tahsils. 

Hissar 



Thanesar 



» 



iShalamar 



>» 



»f 



Certain gates and buildings in 
Fort. 

' Kus Minars or Mughal mile stones 



4,765 



350 



785 



II In progress. 

850 ♦In progress. Work 
undertaken by 
the ArchflBological 
Department. 

407 In progress. 



350 350 Completed. 



r» 



»» 



Certain improvements to old fort 
buildings and town wail. 

Sheikh ChUli's Tomb 



Stone Mosque and Hujra 
Distempering Baradari 
Buildings in Shalamar Garden 
Shalamar Garden buildings 



Cleaning silt from covered portion 
of irrigation channel in front 
of entrance gate to Shalamar 
Garden. 

Improvements to Fountains 

Providing counter for pumping 
engine. 



2,924 2,850 1,920 In progress. 



1,367 I 

I 

1,.365 I 
1,703 ' 



750 
1,050 
1,703 



105 



Do. 



1,078 Completed. 



1,642 



14,643 14,407 14,537 

I 

630 i 630 



210 



I 



210 



638 



210 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



209 
179 



I 



176 
180 



168 



Do. 



89 In progress. 



• ' Lahore 


Making foot paths from Gulabi 
Bagh Gate to Dai Anga's 
' Mosque. 


520 


520 


864 


Completed. 


• ' ,f • 


Improvements to Chauburja 


429 


360 


218 


Do. 


», 


Samadh of Maharaja Ranjit Singh 

Carried over 


1,480 


1,300 


1,172 


Do. 


1 
I 


• • 


• • 


24,507 





*Not included for departmental charges. 



171 



Appendix A — conid. 



Diatriot* Locality. 



1 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 


Allot- 


Amount 




of 
sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 


ment 

for the 

year 

1921- 


spent 
during ' 
the year 

1921- 


RXMARXS. 


mate, i 


1922. 


1922. 

1 




4 


5 


1 

6 

1 


7 



Rs. 



Ra. 



Rs. 



Lahore 



Nawakot 



Fhdkhu- 
pura. 



f» 



Shahdara 



»• 



ft 



»9 



9t 



t9 



Brought forward 



Punjab — canld, 

8j)€cial Repairs {non-recfirring 
charges)— concld. 



Nawakot Buildings 



3.048 



Providing Historical Notice Board 
at Nur Jahan*8 Tomb. 



40 



Certain Conservation work in ' 
Akbari Sarai. 



24,507 



2,107*i ♦In progress. Funds 
allotted by S. E. 
by mistake from 
Provincial funds. 



Improvements to Asaf Khan's ; 38,649 10,060 
Tomb. 



9,521 ' In progress. 



34 



29 ; Completed. 



7,650 2,230 1,747 In progress. 



Rcmetalling roads in Akbari iSarai 1,841 1,200 911 ! Completed. 



Total 



38,822 



Add departmental charges @ 18 ' 
per cent, on Rs. 35,865t 



6,456 



Total for Special Repairs 



I ■ ■ 



45,278 



^ Not included for departmental charges. 

t Departmental charges have not been shown in returns received from Superintending Engineers or Account- 
ant General, Punjab, and have therefore been added by this office. 



172 



Appendix A — contd. 



Di«triot. 



Locality. 



1 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 
of 
sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



Attock 



Rawalpindi 
Gujrat 



>$ 



!> 



9> 



JnUondhar 



tt 



ft 



Firozpur . 



•> 



Ludhiana . 
Hissar 
Gurgaon . 



Bohtak 



» 



Ambala • 



Hasanabdal . 

MUe 198 on 
G. T. Road. 



Margalla 



Punjab — contd. 
Annual Repairs, {recurring charges). 

Lala Rukh's Tomb . 
Baolis at Losar and Saidon • 



Rs. 



General Nicholson's Monument 



Kharian . i Baoli Aurangzeb 

I 
Chillianwala. i Memorial Obelisk 



Gujrat 



»> 



Akbari Baoli in Fort 



Battlefield cemetry 



SaduUapur . Monuments 



Dakhni 



Nur Mahal 



Nakodar 



Surbraon 

Misri Wala . 

Firozpore and 
MudkL 



Firozepore 

Aliwal 

Hissar 

Gurgaon 

Jharsa 



Gateway of Sarai 
Gateway of Sarai 
Gateway and tombs 



Monuments and antiquities 



f> 



Sonipat 



tt 



Ambala City 



Sara Garhi Memorial . 
Monuments . . • . 
Historical buildings in the district 
KosMinars . . . . 
Tomb of Mr. Jean Ettienn Jharsa 
Tomb of Major Franswa Ferey 
Khwaja Khizar's Tomb 
KosMinars . . . . 
KosMinars . • 



446 
217 



139 
105 
987 
179 
30 
31 



1 



258 



775 



1,385 
178 
717 
276 
23 
15 
167 
176 



Carried over 



Allot- Amount 



ment 

for the 

year 

1921- 



spent 
during 
the year 
1921- 



1922. I 1922. 



Rs. 



445 
105 



50 



300 



110 



59 



59 



15 



695 

250 

20 

15 



150 



170 



5 



6 



Rs. 



29 



80 



117 



185 



109 



15 



451 



107 



12 



9 



130 



48 



1,505 



RsilAltKA. 



143 i In progress. 
65 Do. 



Do. 



Da 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Completed. 
In progress. 
Completed. 



173 

Appendix A — conld. 



Distriot. 



Locality. 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 
of 
sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



Rs. 



Karnal 



Tbaneswar 



•» 



99 



J» 



»f 



9» 



ft 



$9 



. I 



9* 



Panipat 



99 



»» 



Lahore 



9> 



Sheikhu- 
pura. 



t> 



Gurdaspur 
Amritsar • 
Kangra 
Multan 



Gharaunda 



Grand Trunk 
Road. 

Grand Trunk 
Road, Mile 
09. 

Lahore 
Sheikhupura 



Shahdara 

Ramnogar 

Kalanor 

Amritsar 

Upper Dha- 

ram Sala. 
Multan 



Brought forward 



Punjab — canid. 

Annual Repairs {rectirring charges) 
— contd. 



Sheikh ChUli's Tomb . 
Stone Mosque including Hujra 
Ibrahim Lodfs Tomb 
Kabuli Bagh Mosque . 
3rd Battle Monument 



Old Mughal Fort with north and 
south gateways. 

', KoB Minani • • • ■ 



Old Badshahi bridge . 



• I 



135 
23 
30 

212 
7 

234 

72 
45 



Historical buildings 



6,147 



Ditto . . . I 4,351 

! 

HaranMinara . . . . 1,827 



Historical buildings . 
Grave in Barahdari garden . 



• I 



Historical buildings Takht Akbari 
Saragarhi Memorial . 
Lord Elgin*s Tomb 
Historical buildings — 



19,546 

26 

211 

212 

20 



No. 1 Baba Safra 



. 103 4 



I 



No 2 Sher Khan's well 77 9 

I 

No, 3 Daya Ram*s well 30 8 
, No. 4 Baqar-i-Arabi . 



1^ 232 



Allot- Amount 
ment spent 

for the during 
year the year 

1921- , 1921- 

1922. I 1922. 



Remarks. 



Rs. 



104 
17 
27 

158 
5 

175 

54 
34 



6,116 

3,804 

827 

16.000 

25 

211 

212 

20 



6 



Rs. 
1,505 



148 
54 
23 

104 
5 

209 

58 

34 



6,766 

3,451 

649 

16,472 

16 

131 

196 

13 



232 



I 



211 5 



Carried over 



211 



30,045 



In progress. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 

Bo. 
Da 



Da 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Completed. 
Do. 



In progress. 



174 



Appendix A — contd. 



Diatriot. 



Locality. 



DeraGhazi 
Khan. 

Muzaffer- 
nagar. 



DeraGhazi 
Khan. 

Shitpur 



I Amount 
• of 



N%me of work and deficription. 



Allot- 
ment 
sane- i for the 
' tioned ■ year 
esti- < 1921- 
mate. 1922. 



Brought forward 



R«. 



Punjab — cancld. 



A nnual Repairs {recurring charg^M) 
— condd. 

Ghazi Khan*8 Tomb cemetery at 
Asni. 



No. 1 Mosque 

No. 2 Tomb of Tahar 
Khan Nahar. 



142 

148 



290 



Total 

^eief departmental charges @ 18 
per cent.* 



Total for Annual Repairs 
Total for Special Repairs 



Grand Total for Punjab 



Rs. 



206 



y 208 



200 



208 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the year 

1921. 

1922. 



Remarks. 



6 



lis. 



30,045 



84 



In progress. 



290 



30,419 
3.476 



33,894 
46,278 



79,172 



Da 



*Departmental charges have not been shown in returns received from Superintending Engineers or Aoeonni* 
ant General, Punjab, and have therefore been added by this office. 



175 



Appendix A — contd, 



Statement shounng th^ expenditure incurred on the conservation of Muhammaduyi and British 

Monuments during the year 1921-22. 



Locality. 



Firozabad 



i9 



Tughlaqabad 
Delhi 



» 



»> 



Delhi Fort . 



f> »f 



f» 



tt 



9* 



I » »» 



Mehrauli 

Indarpat 

Khirkee 

Humayunpur 

Near Purana Qila 

Indarpat. 
Begumpur . 

Ridge and Wazira- 

bad. 
Hauz Khass 



Name of work and description. 



Delhi Province. 

Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charges). 

Conservation work at Firoz Shah 
Kotla. 

Conservation work at Firoz Shah 
Kotla, river front. 

Conservation of Road Front to Tugh- 
laqabad (supplementary'). 

Conservation work in the enclosure 
wall of Qadam Sharif. 

Removal of f»arth and debris from 
Sher Shah's Gateway. 

Installing an electric punip with 
necessary feeder and pipe line at 
Safdarjang Garden for the irriga- 
tion of the western approach. 

Ck>nBtructing a stable and Godown 
in the Delhi Fort. 

Providing a door to Tab Khana be- 
neath the Rang Mahal, Delhi Fort. 

Carr^'^ing out certain repair works to 
the rear portion of the Diwan-i- 
Am, Delhi Fort. 

Sj)ecial Repairs to Mumtaz Mahal 
used as Museum. 

Repairing an inlaid black marble 
panel in Diwan-i-Am, Delhi Fort. 



Conservation of Zafar Mahal at 

Mehrauli. 
Improving the Devi's temple at 

Purana Qila. 
Levelling the ground round Mosque at 

Khirkee. 
Certain conservation work at Hu- 

mavun'a Tomb. 
Conservation work at Khair-ul- 

Mana/.il. 
Special repair to north and west wall 

of Beganipur Mosque. 
Special repairs to Chauburji and 

VVazirabad Mosques. 
Constructing an approach road from 

Qutb Road mile 9 to Hauz Khass. 

Total 

/ifW departmental charges at 13j per 
cent on Rs. 51,69,S.t ' 

Total Special Repairs 



Amount of 

sanctioned 

estimate. 



Ra. 



9,910 

12,475 

16,128 

7,390 

2,705 

8,709 

3,469 

730 

240 

350 

55 
156 



2,760 

730 

3,136 

14,222 

16,270 

472 

437 

3,500?? 



Allot- 

ment 

for the 

year 

1921-22. 



lis. 



9,900 
10,170 
7,000 
7,390 
700 
3,400 



730 
240 

300 

55 
156 



2,700 
730 

3,100 
450 

5.900 
470 
430 



Amount 
spent 
during 
the year 
1921-22. 



Remarks. 



6 



Rs. 



9,351 
9,143 
6,961 
6,559 



700 



3,421 



In progress. 
C/ompleted. (?) 



734 



230 



352 



48 



156* 



Do. 



In progress. 

Do. 
Completed. 



2,373 
7.30 

2,809 
.345 

6,420 
466 
351 
700 

51,849 
6,979 

58,828 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 

♦Completed. Work 
undertaken by the 
Archaeological De- 
partment. 

Completed. 

Do. 

In progress. 

Do. 

Do. 
Completed. 

Do. 
I p. progress. 



♦ Not included for departmental charges. 

t Departmental charges have not been shown in returns received from Superintending Engineer, Delhi, and 
have therefore been added bv this office. 



176 
Appendix A — eontd. 



Locality. 


iAmooDtof 

Name of work ud dMcripUon. iuiictioncd 

Mtimate. 

j 


Allot- 
ment for 
the year 
1S21-22. 


Amount j 

Sg i 
theyear '' 
1921.22. 


RXMAMKS. 


1 


2 I 3 


4 


5 


6 




Dxun Pbovihck. IU. 


Es. 


i 

Ra. 






Annual Bepairt ireewrins '< 
dwget). 1 








Delhi 


FirozStuh Kotlawith kU main build- 
ings. 










- . 


LalDwwaza .... 

Punna QiU with Sher Shah'a 
Mosque wdSherMandaL 

Khairul-JIanH/.il .... 

Buildings between Humayun'a 
Tomb and Puiana <aia. 










• ■ 


HumayuD'a tomb with tomb of 
Babar. 

NilaBurj 

Arftb Sarai Gatewaj-B 

TsB Khan'e Tomb .... 

WalU and gat«wayfl of Bu-Halima 
Garden. 

SabzBurj 

Chaunsath Khamba 








, 


n 


Tomb of Tag* Khan 










.. 


Junah Shah's Mosque . . | 










Dargah of Khwaja Amir Khusru 
and Baoli at Niiam-ud-Din and 
Khan Khanan'8 Tomb. 










" 


BarehandPulla .... 
Kos Minare on Delhi .MuttraEoad . 
KhaJrpur I^tdhi's Tomb 










. . 


Tomb of Safdar Jang and Mosque . 
Darya Khan's Tomb . 
Kotla Mubarakpur group 










M 


M..lh-ki-.MaF<ji<i 










•t 








' 




• • 


Bastion at Siri .... 
Hanz Khas group of buildings 






1 
1 





177 



LooftKty. 



Dtlbi 



M 



f9 



t» 



*9 



»9 



ff 



»» 



H 



Ttghlaqabad 



Mebnuili 



9f 



ff 



»» 



»f 



Mehpalpar • 



Appsnbix A—canid. 



Name of work and deaoription. 



2 



Delhi Pjwvihcb — eontd. 

Annual RepairM Irteurring eharffes)— 
contd. 

Dome between Qutb Road and Haas 

Khaa. 

Humaynnpui monumenta 

Muhammadpur monumenta 

Mumirka monumenta 

Zamarudpar monamenta 

Kalu Sarai Moaque 

Bijai Mandal 

Begumpur Moaque 

Lai Gumbad 

Khiikeelfa^ . 

Tomb of YuBuf Qattal 

Satpolla 

Tomb of Gbya8-ud-din.Tugblaq 

Road front of Tugbkqabad Fort 



Qutb Minar with all buildings in 
that area. 



Muhammad Quli Khan's Tomb 
Adham Khan*s Tomb 



Bahadui Shah IFs Palace 
Jahaz Mahal 



Amount of 

aanctioned 

estimate. 



Rajon-ki-Bain 

Masjid to south-west of Bagh- 

Wall Mosqus 



Nazir 



Jamali Kamali Tomb and Mosque 
Basti Baori group of buildings 
Sultan Ghari's Tomb 



Shikargab 



Carried over 



Rs. 



3,oeo 



AUot. 

ment for 

the 

year 

1921.22. 



Amount 
spent 

during 
the year 
192122. 



Rs. 



4,430 



Ra. 



3,033 



3,033 I 



RVMARKS. 



6 



178 



Appendix A — corUd. 



Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount of 
sanctioned 
estimate. 


Allot* 

ment for 

the 

year 

1921-22. 


Amount 

spent 

during 

the year 

1921-22. 


Remarks 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 






Rs. 


Rs. 

1 


Rs. 






Brought forward 
Delhi Peovincb — concld. 


• • 


• • 


3,033 
















Anntud Repairs (recurring charges) — 

concld. 




' 






Delhi 


Baradah Rosbanara Garden . 


1,010 


800 


677 


Completed. 


ft 


Old Magazine Gateway . 


110 


100 


HI 


Do. 


»• 


Meterological Observatory 


12 


10 


8 


Do. 


»» 


Historical Buildings in charge of Pro- 
vincial Division. 

Total 


1,693 


1,680 

. ■ 


1.811 


Do. 




5,640 






Add departmental charges at 13} per 
cent.* 

Total Annual Repairs 


• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


761 






6,401 




1 


Total Special Repairs 
Grand Total fob Delhi Province 


• • 


• • 


58,828 






65,229 


• 



* Departmental charges have not been shown in returns received from Superintending Engineer, Delhi, 
and have therefore been added by this office. 



179 
Appendix A — contd. 

StatemetU showing expenditure on ArchcBological Gardens in the Northern Circle [Mubammadan and 
British Monuments) during the year 1921-22. 



I Expenditure 

Locality. during the 

'year 1921-22. 



UsiTED Provinces. 
Kbuaru Bagh .... Allahabad 

Taj Agra 

Agra Fort . 
Itimad-ud-Daulah 
Chini-kii-liaiiza . 
Akbar's Tomb . 
Bom Bagb 
Khan-iAlam 

Roman Catholic Cemetery 
Beaidency Garden 
Sikandar Bagh . 
Dilkusba Palace Garden 



Allahabad 

Agra . 



Sikandara 

Agra 



41,052 



Funds provided by the 
! Xaiui Department 
of Lucknow. 



Shalamar Lahore 

Sbahdara Jahangir's Tomb . . , „ 

Hazuri Bagh .... ,, 

Total 

Delhi Pbovisce. 
Humajran'3 Tomb 
Isa Khan'a Tomb 
Buhalima . 
Kotla Firoi Shah 

Carried o 





69,.j8I 







Bagh ban pura . 

Sbahdara 
Lahore . 


7,891 a 

' 11.800 2 
1,032 .1 


3 

9 



Funds provided by the 
Punjab Government. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 




: 20,723 14 







Htimayunpur . 


) 







180 



Appendix A — eantd. 



Name of Garden. 



Brought forward 
Delhi PROvmcE — ooneld. 



Parana Qila 
HauzKhaB 



Qutb 



Delhi Fort Palace 
Garden. 

Salary of the Superin- 6,839 
tendent of Histo- 
rical Buildings 
and Establish- 
ment. 



Pay of Malls 

Expenditure on 
motor pump 
for watering the 
garden. 

Contingencies and 
other charges. 

Total 



1 10* 



District. 




Delhi 



>» 



»f 



\ 



PuranaQila 
Hauz Khas 



Mehrauli . 



3,618 


15 


lot 


8,927 


12 


8t 


2,139 


1 


lot 


21,525 





2 


Total 




■ 



Expenditure 
daring the 
year 1921-22. 



Remarks. 



Rs. A. p. 
23,605 



5,172 Funds provided by the 

Government of India. 



1,305 
8,066 



Ditto. 
Ditto. 



■Funds provided by the 
Provincial Govem- 
i ment. 



Delhi Fort 



Add departmental charges @ 13^ 
per cent, on 52,834. 

Total 



21,525 



fFunds provided by the 
Government of India. 



59,673 I 
7,133 



66,806 



Note. — No departmental charges have been added where funds have been provided by Provincial Govern- 
ments. 

SUMMARY. 



Province. 






Total amount 
spent on Special 
Repairs during 
the year 
1921-22. 


Total amount 

spent on Annual 

Repairs during 

the year 

1921-22. 


Total amount 

spent on the 

maintenance 

of gardens during 

the year 1921-22. 


Total. 


United Provinces 
Province of Punjab 
Delhi Province . 


• 

• 
• 

Total 

lervation 
mtenanoe 


• 

• 

• 

of 
of 


Rs. 
60,195 

45,278 

58,828 


Rs. 
43,906 

33,894 

6,401 


Rs. A. p. 
69,581 

20,723 14 

66,806 


Rs. A. 
1,73,682 

99,895 14 

1,32,035 


P. 









1,64,301 


84,201 


1,57,110 14 


4,05,612 14 





Grand Total for com 
Monuments and mai 
Gardens. 


• • 


• • 


1 
1 

i 


4,05,612 14 






181 

Appendix A — cofOd. 

StaUment shomng the expenditure incurred on the conservation and excavation of ancient Hindu and 
Buddhist Monuments th the Punjab and United Provinces during the year ending 31st March 1922, 



District 



Rawalpindi 



Jholum 



Shahpur 



ft 



M 



Kamal 



Ambala 



*ff 



i» 



ft 



It 



H 



Locality. 



Rawalpindi . 



Kangra 
Kotla . 
Baijnath 



Nurpur 
ELangra 



Name of work and description. 



Rohtas 



Amb . 



Bhera . 



Miaai . 



Amb • 



Thanesar 



Jagadhari 



Bajaura 



Nagar 



lAmount 

i of 
sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate 



Allot- 
ment 
for the 
year 
1921 
1922. 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the year 

1921- 

1922. 



3 



Annual Repairs to Kapal Mochan 
temple. 

Annual Repairs to temple of ; 
Basheshwar Mahadev. 

Special Repairs to temple of 
Gauri Shankar at Dasal and 
Nagar. 

Special Repairs to fort at Kangra 

Special Repairs to fort at Kotla • 

Special Repairs to temple at Baij- 
nath. 

Special Repairs to fort at Nurpur 

Conservation work at Kangra fort 



Carried over 



Rs. 



20 



50 ! 



279 



PUVJAB. 



Annual Repairs to Hindu and 
Buddhist Monuments in the 
Rawalpindi District. 

Annual Repairs to Satghara 
temple. 

Annual Repairs to temples in- 
side fort. 

Annual Repairs to ancient city of 
Bhera. 

Annual Repairs to old dte of 
VijhL 

Special Repairs to temples inside 
fort. 



Acquisition of Mound known as 1,800 
Raja Kam ka Kila. i 



20 



20 



79 



399 

481 

1,161 

1,280 
347 




5 



6 



Rs. 



Rs. A. r. 



20 



15 



50 



150 



36 


35 1 


S2 


00 


3,001 

1 


2,254 



10 



44 



34 



40 



2.120 



1,800 1 1,531 



20 



23 



50 



13 



19 



50 



200 



200 



800 



900 



323 



336 



356 



994 



1,261 
388 



7,220 



Remarks. 



182 



Appendix A — c(mtd. 



District. 



Kangra . 



Locality. 



Nurpur 



Taxila . 



DehraDun 



Agra 



Muttra 



Hardoi 



Hamirpur 



Benares 



Gorakhpur 



Sandi . 



Mahoba 



Sarnath 



»» 



Kasia . 



Benares 



Sarnath 



Allahabad I Kosam 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 

of 
sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Punjab — condd. 

Brought forward 

Annual Repairs to temple at 
Nurpur. 



Excavations at ancient Mound 
known as Raja Kam ka Kila. 



Kalsi . 



Agra . 



Brindaban 



Excavation and conservation 
works including the Museum 
at Taxila. 

Total Punjab 

UyiTED Provinces. 

Annual Repairs to Asoka stone . 

Annual Repairs to Jaswant Singh 
ki Chhatri. 

Annual Repairs to temple of 
Govindji, Jugal Kishore and 
Radhaballabh. 

Annual Repairs to temple of 
Phoolmati. 

Conser\'ation of monuments at 
and near Mahoba. 

Asoka Column .... 

Old and New Museum and Archae- 
ological remains. 

Annual Repairs to Buddhist ruins 
at Kasia. 



Excavation and conservation 
works. 



Ditto 



ditto 



Total United Provinces 



Grand Total for Punjab and 
United Provinces. 



AUot- 

ment 

for 

the 

year 

1921- 

1922. 



Rs. 



37 
160 

600 



Rs. 



19 



3,000 



33,200 



Amount 
spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

1922. 



6 



Rs. A. p. 



7,220 



18 



7,238 
2,268 4 6 



9,506 4 6 
33,200 



42,706 4 6 



37 



150 



600 



37 



63 



523 



5,66.*^ 



1,316 



4 



497 



1,189 
809 



141 



9,000 9,000 



• • 



3,263 
8,114 13 4 



861 8 



12,239 5 4 



54,9-15 9 10 



Remarks. 



183 



Stalement showing the expeiuUlm 



Appendix A—contd. 

n the ronservalion of mici^nt monumenln in the Fmnlier Circle 
fhirivfj the year 1921-22. 



DUtrict. I Locality, 



le of work Bud descriptioi 



Frostier ftuCLB. 



Tahpil Klardan! Conscrvatio 



Talieil Mardan 



Bazara . I NcarTaxik . 



I at .lamalgarhi . 
. at Takht-i-Bahi 



PatKloTar.-liSJto 



Consenation at Jaulian 

Works at Archiuclc^cal Bungalow 



Cost of boundary pillars, etc., for the 
acquiflition of the folloninff 



Jandjal . 
Tcfkian 
Badalpur 
1*1 Chak 
jRulian . 
Path to Fort Northern KaBr Kot 



Total (a) 



(h] Anmiat Hepairf and ifatjilenance ] 
(recurring charges). I 



Maintenance charpcs at Jamalgarlii 



ehar^oB at Jandial 



Amount spent 

during the veaf 

1921 -2J.' 



P.S. Ks. A. p. 

5.00U 3,240 C 

2,000 1.987 

fiOO ' 



40") 

fi.OiMt r,.H21 13 fi 

1,316 2 

. . 1 ( 297 3 



16,400 12,aiO 1 



500 1.19 I 



280 180 . 



1,020 l.lfiO 7 



184 



Appendix A—eontd. 



DiflUiot. 



Locality. 



Name of work and description. 



Amount i Allot- 

of ment ' Amount spent 

sane- for < during the year Rbmaiues. 

tioned 1921. 192122. 

estimate. 1922. 



6 



Hazara 



» 



Dera Ismail 
Khan. 



»> 



Mansehra 



(6) 



Brought forward 

Froittibb CmcLB — eonM. 

Annual Repairs and Maintenance 
{recurring charts) — oondd. 



Near Taxila . ; Maintenance charges at Nikra Arch- 

! Jirological Bungalow. 



Annual repairs to Asoka Rock Ins- 
criptions at Mansehra. 

Total (6) 

Grand Total (a) and (6) 



WorL'S executed from funds of Public 
Works Department, 

Repairs to pathway to Kafir Kot , 
(Bilot). 

Repairs Kafir Kot (Umar Khel) 



Rs. 



Ra. 



700 



200 



Rs. A. p. 
1,508 7 



679 8 



3,400 2,187 15 
19,800 14,998 6* 



1,001 14 



500 



* The total expenditure of Rs. 14,998'0-6 includes the following expenditure which was met from this office 
conj^ingenciee under head ** Excavation (Rs. 5,000) ": — 

Rs. A. K 

1. Maintenance charges of various sites 1,003 13 6 

2. Pay of a temporary modeller 63 3 7 



Total 



1,067 1 1 



This was necessitated by the fact that no funds were available for these charges until the grant-in-aid 
Rs. 13,900 and Rs. 5,900 was sanctioned late in the year. 



185 



Appendix A — cmtd. 



SkUemerU showing the expenditure incurred on the conservation of ancient monuments rw the Central 

Circle during the year 1921-22, 



District. 






Locality. ! Name of work and description. 



! Amount 

! of 

sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 




Rfi. 



1.- -Bihar and Orissa. 

{a) Special Repnirs (non -recurring 
chargen). 



Allot- 
ment 

for the 
year 

1921-22. 



5 



Rs. 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the vear 

1921-22. 



6 



Rs. A. p. 



Remarks. 







(Orissa Circle. ' 

1 




1 










Pun . 1 


Konarak 


Black Pagoda at — . . . : 


1,043 


1,043 ' 


900 








Completed, 


t* 


DhauHHill . 


Monument at — . . . ' 


39 


39 ' 

1 


39 








Do. 


Cuttack . 

1 


Jajpur 


1 
IMarhatta Bridge at — Providing 

stone wheel-guard to. 


279 


279 , 

i 


28S 








Do. 


»» • . 


tt • 


Marhatta Bridge at — 

Eastern Circle. 


685 


685 1 

1 

1 


687 








Do. 


Patna 


Patna City . 


Bcgu Hajjam's Mosque at — . | 


670 


170 


172 








In progress 


^f 


Rajpr and 
KaJanda. 


Providing Notice Boards to the 

1 monuments at — . 

1 


102 


52 ' 


48 








Do. 


»f 


Nalanda 


ConsiTvation of excavated remains i 
at — by Archieological Superin- 
tendent. 1 


. . 1 
1 


5.000 ; 


2,859 








Do. 

1 


>» • . 


>» • 


Museum at — .... 

Total (a) . ' 

{b) Annual He fairs (recurring 

charge's), 

1 


. . 


1 


4,150 








1 

1 




• • 


• • 

1 


9,215 










1 
■ 
1 




1 














, iSoN Circle. 

1 




' 










Siiababad . 


Arrah . 


1 Soklier's tomb at — 

1 


5 


5 


4 


12 





Complet'<.'d. 


»» • 


Deo Bonarak 


1 Sculpture Shed at — . . . i 


15 


15 


^ 
/ 


12 





In progress 


•f • 


Arrah . 


Arrali House at — 

1 , 


100 


1(H) 


S2 


8 





Completed. 


ft • 


Rolitas 


1 1 
i Rolitas Palace and Inspection 

Bunj^alow at — . 

1 1 


500 


i 
<>20 


p 

(>41 

24(a)* 





Do. 

1 


»» • 


Sasaram 


1 
Hassan Sur Shah's tomb at — 


100 


198 


192 








Do. 


. 




1 
1 
1 

; 1 

Carried over . ■ 




1 

• • 
1 


24(a)' 
970 


i> 




1 




• • 








1 

1 



♦(a) The expenditure was incurred from April to June 1921 against the t»stimate for 1920-2L 



186 



AprENDix A — contd. 



District. 


1 
Locality. 


! 

Name of work and description. 

1 

1 


Amount 
of 
sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 

i 

1 


Allot- 
ment 

for the 

vear 
192122. 


Amount 

sp(»nt 

during 

the year 

192i-22. 


1 

1 

1 

1 


Remark?. 


• 1 


2 


3 1 


4 


5 


6 




7 






1 


Rs. 

1 


Rs. 


Rs. A. 


p. 








j Brought forward 
1 I.— Bihar and kiss a — contd. 


• • 


• • 


976 























' Sox Circle — concli. 

1 




1 












(6) Annual Repairs {recurring 
charges) — contd. 












Shahabad . 


Sassaram 


Alwal Khan's tomb at — 

1 


20 


I 

25 


24 





Completel.- 


tt • 


»» 


1 
Sher Shah's tomb at — 


CO 


74 

1 


73 





Do 


•* 


»! • 


Do. lightning conductor — 
removing defects of. 


88 ' 


109 


95 





Do. 


» • 


»» • 


Salim Shah's tomb at — 


20 


25 


25 





Do. 


Gaya 


Bodh Gaya . 


1 
Bodh Gaya temple at — 


124 


124 


116 





Do. 


»» 


Guneri 


Buddhist statue shed at — . . : 


18 


18 


17 





Do. 


»> 


Ghenjan 


Ditto 


18 


18 


16 





Do. 


Patna 


Manair 


1 
Mukhdum Shah's tomb at — 


481 


481 


286 





In progress. 


Gava 

• 


Shamsher- 


Shamsher Khan's tomb at — 


62 


62 1 


46 





Complete J. 


Shahabad . 


nagar. 
Buxar . 


1 
Fort and Bastion at — 

1 


184 


184 


104 





Do. 


»» • 


»» 


Tomb at — .... 


15 


15 


12 





Do. 


»» 


Shergarh 


Fortress at — . . . . . 


184 


150 


104 





Do. 


»» • 


Buxar . 


Katkauli tomb at — . 


5 


5 


6 





Do. 


»» • 


Ramgarh 


1 
Mundeswari temple at — 


25 


.^•) 


25 





Do. 


i» • 


1 Chainpur 


1 
Bukhtiyar Khan's tomb at — 


130 


130 


127 





Do. 


»» 


Buxar . 


Monuments in tlie battlefield at — 

1 

Orissa Circle. 


50 


50 


44 





Do. 




2,155 







Cuttack . 


I Cuttack 


Mosque and moat wall in Barabati 

Fort. 
Barabati Fort gate Q.-R. to— 


80 
47 


80 
5 


39 
5 






Tn progress. 
Do. 


Puri 


' Bhubaneswar 

• 
j 

i 


1 

' Khandagiri and Udayagiri caves 
and temple at — Q.-R. 


100 
(1920-21) 
199 

(1921-22) 

1 


65 
60 


65 
72 






Do. 


»> • 


i Khurda and 
Ganjan. 

! Konarak 

1 

1 

1 


! Monuments — Q.-R. to — 
Sculpture shod at — . 

Carried over 


11 
15 


11 
15 


11 

■ • 





Complete J. 




• • 


• • 


192 








187 



Appendix A — conld. 



District 


1 
1 

Locality. 

1 


1 

Name of work and description. 

1 


Amount 
of 
sanc- 
tioned 

ostimat-e 


Allot- 
ment 
for the 
year 
. 192122. 


Amount | 
spent 

during i Remarks. 
the year ' 
1921-22. 
1 


1 


1 

2 


3 


* 


5 


1 6 7 




1 
1 

1 


Brought forward 
I. — BiHAE AND Orissa — contd. 


• • 


Rs. 

• • 


1 Rs. a. p. 
192 


1 












1 


Orissa Circle— concW. 






1 






(ft) Annual Repairs {recurring 
charges) — contd. 






1 


Puri 


Konarak 


Temple at — Q.-R. to . 


Ml 


341 


343 In progress. 


Cuttack 


Jajpur 


Ancient monuments at — Q.-R. to — 


68 


68 


65 Completed. 


Balasore 


Balasore Town 


Two Dutch tombs at — Q.-R. to — 
Eastern Circle. 


44 


44, 


44 


Do. 




644 


Bhagalpur 


Patharghatta 
Colgong. 
. j Madhipura . 


Ancient monuments at — 
Tomb of Charles Haye 


131 
5 


• ■ 

1 

5 1 

1 


• • 

4 Do. 


»> 


Bhagalpur . 


3rd Buffs cemetery 


9 


9 


9 Do. 


Purnea 


Gunamati 


Tomb of John Macquire 


5 


5 


4 Do. 


Monghyr 


Pirpahar 


Tomb of Mary Annie Becket 


25 


25 


24 1 Do. 


»» 


. Monghyr Fort 


Tomb of Pir Shah Naffa 


100 


89 


75 Do. 


Santel Par 

ganas. 

>» 


Rajmahal 


Juma Masjid and Bridge at Hadaf 
Endowed tomb of James Scott 


150 
2 


150 1 

2 

1 


51 In progress. 
2 Completed. 


t» 


Gudda 


Tomb of John Scott at— 


5 


5 


3 


Do. 


Patna 


. Rajgir 


Maniyar Math (temple) at — . ' 


20 


20 


7 


In progress. 


»» « 


. . >» 


1 

Mahadeo temple at — 


25 


25 


9 


Do. 


ff 


>> 


Jain temple at — 


10 


10 


9 


Completed. 


t» • 


1 Patna City . 


Agam Kuan (well) at — 


10 1 


10 


6 


In progress. 


» 


»» »» 


1 

Tall stone shaft at — . 

1 


10 1 

i 


10 


8 


Completed. 


»> • 


Ban ki pur 

1 


Gola (granary) at — . Spent Rs. 10 

(n)* 


90 


90 ' 


96 3 


Do. 


t» • 


>» • 


[U 1 . 

Major Knox's tomb ; cenotaph on — ' 


10 ' 


10 


10 


Do. 


»» • 


Bihar . 


Syed Ibrahim's tomb . . . , 

1 


40 


40 1 


22 In progress. 


If 


Nalanda 


Upkeep of monuments 

Western Circle. 


• • 


2.500 


560 






890 


Hazaribagh 


Chatra . ! 

1 
1 

1 


Monument to commemorate some 
soldiei-s who fell in combat with 
mutineers in 1857. 

Carried over 


13 

1 


13 

i 

! 


10 


Completed, 




1 

• ■ 


• ■ 

1 


10 

1 



*Ca) Spent between April and June 1921 against the estimate for the previous year. 



188 



Appendix A—corUd. 









Amount 


AUot- 












of sanc- 


ment 


Amount 




District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


tioned 


for the 


spent during 


RiCMARKfi. 






• 


esti- 
mate. 


year 
192122. 


the year 
1921-32. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


• 






Rh. 


Rs. 


Rs. A. p. 








Brought forward 
I. — Bihar and Orissa — coneli. 


. . 


. . 


10 


















W E8TBRN Circle— c<>t?dd. 






i 








(b) Annual Repairs (recurring 
charges)— contd. 






1 




Hazaribagh 


Hazaribagh 


Majot Roughsedg*? monument 
(No. 60). 


12 


12 


15 


Completed.. 


Sambalpur 


Sonepur 


Tomb of Amelia, wife of Captain 
Ruasell M S C 


16 


15 


15 


Do. 






XwUOodly XUL. tJa V^. 






40 








Gandak Circle. 




i 

1 






Saran 


Cbapra 


Soldiers' tomb at — . 


40 


40 


29 

1 


Do. 


»t • 


1 

Bargaon 


Ditto 


20 


20 


' 21 


Do. 


»» • 


Revelganj 


Ditto 


15 


15 


10 


Do. 


MuzafTar- 


Majorganj 


Ditto 


20 


1 20 


19 


Do. 


pur. 








1 






Champaran 


Lanriya 


Afloka Pillar at — 


20 


20 


16 


Do. 


ff 


Gobindganj . 


Ditto 


15 


15 


15 


Do.. 


»» • 


Rampurwa . 


Ditto 

1 

1 


25 


25 


23 


i 

Do. 




133 


1 






' Total 


. • 


• . 


.3,871 




Patiia 


Xalanda 

• 


Upkeep of Mu.9eum at — 


• • 


. . 


389 








Total (6) 
Grand Total (a) and (6) 


• • 


. " 


4,260 






• . 


• . 


13.475 


1 



(k 



18» 



Appendix A — contd. 



DiBtrict. 



Bflaspur 



fff 

Damob 



Sftogor 



9t 



Kimar 



•• 



•f 



N 



»ff 



Chhindwara. . 



Ainraoti 



9f 



Akola 
Buldana 



Nagpnr 



Raipur 



Locality. 



Pali 
Arbhar 
Ratanpur 
Rajnagar 



Rahatgarh 
Kbimlassa 



Aairgarb 



»9 



f> 



Burhanpur 



»f 



Deogarb 



Chikaldah 



I-Asur 



Shahnoor 



Lonar 



Ohogra and 
Khapa. 

Sirpur 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



II. — Central Provinces & Berab. 

(a) Special RefXiire (tion- 
recurring charges), 

Mahadeo temple at — . • 

Temple at— . . . • • • 

Kanthi Deval temple at — 

Jungle clearance from tbe Fort 
and uprooting big trees inside 
the Fort. 

Old Fort — certain repairs to tbe — 

Ancient monuments ; Old mosque 
and Idgah, etc., etc. 

Compound wall of tbe tomb of 
Sbab Gobar. 

JummaMasjid — ^replacing brdken 
brackets of chhajja stones by new 
ones at — 

Fort ; removing jungle from — . . 

Nadir Shab 's tomb at — 

Fort — repairing damaged walls 
and roof, etc. 

Foit — repairs to tbe buildings in 
tbe — 

Gawilgarb Fort — certain repairs 
to biiildintrs in tb 



Anandeswar temple at — 

Narnalla Fort at — 

Old mosque adjommc; the Dhar 
t' miilc. Pro\iding barbed wire 
fonciri^ to the — 

Mahadeo temple at — . . 



Construction of a shelter for sculp- 
tures near Laxman temple. 



Total (a) 



Rs. 



121 
365 
349 
107 



Allot- 
ment 
for tbe 
year 
1921-22. 



1,656 
2,436 



148 



6,431 



1,551 

6,208 
1,680 

1,841 

1,441 

2,1.32 

3,111 

542 



911 



4,249 



5 



Rs. 



92 
283 
219 
107 



1,656 
1,000 



148 



M60 



1,350 
1,255 



700 



1,841 



332 



875 



1,777 



51 



Amount 

spent 

during 

tbe year 

1921-22. 



Remarks. 



388 



6 



Rs. 



1,258 

1,000 



118 



<C« 



864 



858 



507 



978 



332 



875 



1,777 
51 



388 



2,539 2,539 



13,0S0 



92 ' In progress. 
283 Do. 

219 Do. 

102 Completed. 



Do. 



In progress. 



Completed. 



Id progress. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Complet *ri. 



Do. 



Do. 



4 



190 



Appendix A — contd. 



District. 



Nagpar 



ft 



Rftipor 
Drug 



M 



BilaBpur 



»f 



»» 



99 



Locality. 



Balaghat .. 



Junapani . 
Ubali. 
Takalgbat. 
Nildho. 
Ghogra and 
Khapa. 
Wathoda. 

Ramtek Hill 

DongartaL 

Nagardhan. 

Langi 

Garhi 

Baihar 

Arang 

Deo Baloda 

Gandai 

Pali 

Janjgir 

Kharod 



i> 



Ratanpur 



Name of work and description. 



II. — Central PEOvfNCES — contd, 

(6) Annual Repairs {recurring 
charges). 

Masonry, etc. 



Do. 



Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



I 



•» 



Janjgir 
Arbhar 
Sheorinarayan 
Bamhu 



Fort and temple 

Fort at — • • . . • • 

Temple • . . • • • 

Jain temple at — 

Temple at — . . • . 

X.fO, . . . • • • 

Mahadeo temple at — . . 

Large Vaishnab temple at — 

Brick temple of Savari south of the 
village. 

Small brick temple north of the 
village. 

Doorway built into the ruined wall 
beside the north gateway of 
the fort ; and the carved 
stones and images lying 
about within the boundaries 
of the village. 

Whole area round the Ratanpur 
Town. 



Small temple at — 
Temple at — . . 



Do. 



Do. 



Carried over 



Rs. 



Allot- 
ment 

for the 
year 

1921-22. 



90 



370 



60 
10 
25 
15 
20 
20 
40 
40 
8 



I 



20 



20 

40 
60 
36 
10 



Rs. 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the year 

192122. 



90 



370 



60 

I 
10 

26 

16 : 

I 

20 
20 
40 
40 

I 
I 

8 



20 



20 

40 
60 
36 
10 



I 



6 



Rs. 



110 



Rrmases. 



Completed. 



440 



48 
9 
19 
32 
18 
46 
16 

3 : 

i 

6! 



20 



25 

46 
22 
38 
12 



912 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Da 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



191 



Appendix A — contd. 









Amount 


Allot- 


Amount 




District 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


of sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 


ment 

for the 

year 

1921. 

■ 

5 


spent 
during 
the year 
1921-22. 


Remarks. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


6 


7 






Brought forward 
II. — Central Provinces — contd. 


Rs. 


Rs. 

• • 


Rs. 
912 


















{b) Annual Repairi {recurring 
charges) — contd. 










Bilaspur 


Gatora 


Temple at — 


10 


10 


12 


Completed. 


f » 


Bhatgaon . . 


Do. 


8 


8 


10 


Do. 


f* 


Belpan 


Do. 


8 


8 


10 


Do. 


»» 


Mai bar 


Image of Parvati 


5 


5 


4 


Do. 


»> 


Kampti 


Temple of Sankarji 


10 


10 


12 


Do. 


f» 


Khaira '* 
Waigan. 


Temple of Ram Chandra Swami . . 


10 


10 


12 


Do. 


9* • • 


Semarsol . . 


Stone with Pali inscription 


5 


5 


4 


Do. 


»» • • 


Sheorinarayan 


Ruined brick temple (Keshonara- 
yan). 


35 


35 


23 


Do. 


M • • 


Kharod 


Very old Sura] temple . . 


15 


15 


21 


Do. 


t» • • 


»> • • 


Two inscriptions inside the Lux- 
maneswar temple. 


2 


• • 


• • 


Not repaired. 


ft • • 


Chandrapur 


Temple of Mahadeo 


15 


15 


19 


Completed. 


9* • • 


Kanki (Kor- 
bad). 


Do. do. 


15 


15 

1 


26 


Do. 


99 • • 


1 

Kudarmal 
(Korbad). 


A walled enclosure containing 3 
tombs of Kabirpanthi Satgurus. 


29 


29 


36 


Do, 


f » 


Panditole 
Chhuri. 


Kosizaijiarh . . 


15 


, 15 


23 


Do. 


f » 


Dhinpur 


Rock 


5 


o 


6 


Do. 


»t • • 


Bagdera 

1 


Lafa Fort 


35 


35 


5 


Do. 


»» 


1 
Ramgarh . . 


Fort 


20 


20 


8 


Do. 


»f 


Kotini 


Do- . . . • • . 


35 


35 


44 


Do. 


W • • 


Malhar 


Do. 


20 


20 


30 


Do. 


»f 


Bawan Badi 


Kashigarh Fort 


25 


25 


11 


Do. 


W 


Konar 


Konargarh Fort 


25 


25 


40 


Do. 


»» • • 


Amnalla 


Ajmirgarh Fort 


5 


5 


6 


Do. 


*9 • • 


Ratanpur . . 


Musa Khan *s Dargah 

Carried over 


5 


5 


6 


Do. 


1 


• ■ 


• • 


1.280 





192 



Appendix A — cuntd. 









Amount 


Allot- 


Amount 




District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


of sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 


ment 
for tho 

year 1 
1921-22. 

1 


spent 
during 
the year 
1921-22. 


Remarks. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


f 







Erought forward 
II. — Central Provinces — conld. 


Rs. 


Rs. 

1 
1 


Rs. 
1,280 


















(6) Annuil Repairs {recurring 
charge^) — contd. 










fiilaspor 


Balanpur . . 


Gateways in the Fort . . 


10 


10 


19 


Completed. 


99 • • 


»» • • 


1 Pandrinatli temple, Qila 


10 


10 


16 


Do. 


ff • • 


»» • • 


Madarbada . . 


5 


5 


6 


Do. 


Narsinghpur 


Chaihragarh 


Temple in the Fort 


47 


47 


30 


Do. 


Hoshangabad 


1 
Pachmarhi . . 


Caves at — 


15 


15' 


15 


Do. 


Nimar 


Burhanpur . . 


Tomb of Shah Nawaz Khan 


116 


}20 


\ 








Adil Shah 


201 


281 








„ Nadir Shah 


• • 


1 










Chun walon ki Masjid 
Rajas* chhatri 


• • 

113 


147 


) 1,215 


Do. 






Tomb of Shah Shuja . . 


90 


165 










Bibi ki Mas j id 


120 


236 ; 










Palace in the Fort 


208 


266 


/ 








Juma Masjid . . 


• • 


• • 






•» • • 


Asirgarh 


Tomb of Shah Nuraa . . 

Fort 

Sat Darwaza . . 


88 

648 

43 


62 
158 

81 i 

1 


1 








Mosque 


145 


84 

1 










Temple inside the Fort 


195 


157 




. 






Mahadeo temple 

Tomb of Shah Gohar .. 

Idgah 


90 
135 

104 


■ ■ 

60 
46 


\ 638 


Do. 


»» • • 


Mandhata .. 


i 
Chaubis Avatar temple . . ' 

Sidhnath temple 

Chand Suraj gateway . . . . i 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• ■ 

1 

• • 

• ■ 

1 






f» • • 


Nimbola 


Tomb of Colonel Fraser 
Carried over 


55 


/ 

• • 








• • 


• • 


3,219 





193 



Appendix A — conld. 



District. 



1 



Jubbulpur .. 



Damoh 



9> 



t» 



99 



99 



99 



99 



«» 



• • 



Locality. 



KaraDpur kari 
talai. 



Tegowa 



Nanhwara 

Bilhcri 

Bhoraghat 

Burgaon 
Karitalaj 

Do. 
Padaria 
Panagarh 
Damoh 



Kundalpur . 



Xolita 
Rajnagar . . 
Hatta 

Kanorabari . . 
Jatashanker 
Hatta 



w 



Kadol 



Narsinghgarh 



Name of woric and descriptiou. 



3 



Brousfat forward 

II. — CKimuL Pbovincbs — contd, 

(h) Annual Repairs (recurring 
charge.t)—Qoxx(A, 

Temple and Tumuli, and linga of 
8iva. 

Kankali Devi temple . . 

Temple of Siva 

Vishnu Varaha temple . . 

Chausath Jogini temple Panch 
Matha and temple of Gouri 
Shankar. 

Temple of Somnath 



• • 



• • 



Kacha and Maohft 
VaFafas temple 



Rupnath; Aaokft inaoriptioii 

Large effigy of l^hnu Varaha . . 

Sculptures at Phutera Tank 

Slabs in Deputy Commissioner's 

garden. 
Jain temples on the hills (1 — 43) 

Jain temples below the hills (1 — 16) 

One flat roofed temple below the 
hill. 



Temple at - 
Fort • • 

Rang Mahal Palace 
Temple 



Fort 



Sakhar temple 
Matha at Raneh 



Amount Allot- Amount 

of sane- : ment Hpent 

tioned j for the during 

esti- year the year 

mate. 1921-22. 1921-22. 



Old temple • • 



Mosque 



• • 






• • 



Gwricd ov6f 



• • 



.1- 



Rs. 



26 

12 

12 

12 

218 

36 

4 

27 



5 ! 



109 



Rs. 



26 

12 
12 
12 

218 

36 
4 

27 
5 
6 



199 



Rrsiabks. 



6 



Rs. 
3,219 



* 193 



Complete 1. 



159 



3,571 



Do, 



194 



Appendix A — contd. 



Bieiriot 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 


Allot- 
ment 

for the 
vear 

1921-22. 


Amount 

spent 

during 

the year 

1921-22. 


Remarks. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 










Brought forward • • 
II. — Central Provinces — contd, 

• 


• « 


• • 


3,571 




















(6) Annual Repairs {recurring 
charges)- —contd. 












Sangor 


Garhpahra . . 
Dhamoni . . 

9f 


Fort Mahal . . 

Fort Mahal 

Tomb of Baljati Shah .. 


> 












Eran 
Bamora 


Ruined temple 
Temple 


903 


903 


468 


Completed. 






Khimlassa . . 


Tomb of Panj Pirs 








1 

1 






»» 


Old mosque, etc. 




1 
1 




1 

t 
1 






Rahatgarh . . 


Fort 


J 






j 




Betnl 


Bhainsdehi . . 


Mahadeo temple 


20 


20 


20 


Do. 




Chhinciwara . . 


Nilkanthi . . 


Temple 


10 


10 


9 


Do. 




99 • • 


Deogarh 


Fort . . . . . . 


30 


30 


25 


Do. 




Amraoti 


Amner 


Tomb of Tial Khan 


185 


185 


147 


Do. 




Teotmal 


Ciiikalda 
Lohara 


Gawilgarh Fort and Tomb of 

Lieutenant G. Young. 
Lohara mouumejits 


510 
25 


510 
25 


354 
16 


Do. 
Do. 




Akola 


Balapur 


Fort 


100 


100 


123 


Do. 




» • • 


Barai Takli 


Black stone temple of Bhawani . . 


60 


60 


95 


Do. 




»> 


Shahnoor . . 


Narnalla Fort . . 


500 


500 


113 


Do. 




»> • • 


Patur 


Two caves 


50 


50 


54 


I>a 




Buldaiia 


Sindkhed Raja 


Well near Chandni Talao 


25 


25 


49 


Do. 




ft • • 


1 
Sakegaon . . 


Old temple of Mahadeo 


30 


50 


47 


Do. 




99 • • 
» • • 
99 • • 


99 • • 

I 

Dhotra 


Old temple of Vishnu . . 

Images in the vicinity of the old 

tepiple of Vishnu. 
Three old temples 


50 

40 

100 


}- 90 
J 

100 


127 
117 


Do. 
Do. 




99 •• 


Kothali 
Kohinkhed . . 

j 

1 


Old temple inside village, and 

others outride village. 
Mosque . . ,i 

Carried over 


60 
40 


50 
40 


60 
45 


Da 
Do. 






• • 


• • 


6,440 





195 

Appendix A—cotUd. 



District. 


Locality. 




Amount 
of 

Banction 
ed esti- 
mate. 


Allot- 
ment 
for 

the 

22. 


Amount 

spent 
during 
the 
year 
1921. 

2. 


Rmiakkb. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Bb. 


Re. 


Rs. 








Bronght forward 






5,440 






















(6) Anniml /lepaim (recurrivg 
ehargsK] — I'onld. 










BnMamt .. 


Lomt, .. 




75 


76 


38 


Completed. 


» 


Mehliar .. 




60 


50 


76 


Do. 


Cbudi 


dMnda .. 


Good Raja 'a tomb 


160 


150 


188 


Do. 


, .. 


- 


the ■!(«(» of Chanda atiy (No. 6). 


30 


30 


7 


Do. 


» 


» 


Fort wall 


430 


430 


6B8 


Do. 


» 


.. 


BritiflhmonnmentoKtLalpeth .. 


20 


20 


12 


Do. 


- •■ 


., 


Temple of Mahadeodoae to Muni- 
cipal Office. 








Not repaired. 


. 


.. 




4 


4 


11 


Completed. 


„ .. 


,. .. 


coloaaal stone images. 


50 


60 


72 


Da 


- •• 


BaUarpur .. 


Fort wall, with the niinB ol a 
palace and gateway. 


50 


CO 


49 


Do. 


H 


Dewalwada. . 


Old fort and ruined temple 


ID 


10 


15 


Do. 


» 


Bhandak . . 


Old temple near Taka Talao 


20 


20 


4 


Do. 


.. 


» 


Bije-awcave 


4 


4 


2 


Do. 


» 




Old temple of Chandika Devi .. 


IS 


15 


6 


Do. 


» 


Bhatala . . 


Mahadeo temple 


12 


12 


13 


Do. 


. 


Neri 


Uahadeo t«mple 


18 


IS 


10 


Da 


- 


Markhandi . . 


Group of temples 


16 


16 


15 


Do. 






Total (6) 
Gkaxd Total (a) txv (6] 






6,527 










19.007 





196 



Appendix A — contd. 

Sialemenl showiwj the expenditure incurred on the Conservation of Ancient Monutrumts in Bengal and Assam during 

1921-22. 



Dirtriot 



Dacca 

Bakargmnj 

MarahidAbad 
Bankora 



X^alcatU 



li-Farganas 



Locality. 



Gaur . 



»» 



99 



»» 



Rajabari 
Masjidbari 

Katra . 

Vishnupur 



Calcutta 



» 



Namo of work and deeoription. 



Amount of 
sanctioned 
estimate. 



I. — Bengal. 

(a) Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charges). 

Providing wire fencing to the com- 
pound of the Gumti gateway. 

Special repairs to the Gumti gate . 

Special repairs to the Darasbari 
mosque. 

Special repairs to the Chamkatti 
mosque. 

Repairs to Moth 

Certain additional works to the 
mosque. 

Repaire to the tomb and mosque of 
Murshid Kulikhan. 

Repairs to Radhahcnode, Rash- 
mancha, Murali Mohan temple, 
etc. 



Sundarbans . 

Gaur and Pan- 
dua. 



Total (a) 



(h) Annual Re pa irs ( rrcn rring 
charges). 

Repairs to the 2 and 12 tombs at 
North and South Park Street 
cemeteries respectively. 

Repairs to 6 tombs at Lower Cir- 
cular Road cemeter}'. 

Jatardeul temple 

Repairs to the Archseological build- 
ings at Gaur and Pandua. 



Carried over 



Ro. 



840 

1,594 
1,950 

1,235 

300 
860 

1,729 

1M20 



188 



138 

274 
1,812 



Allotment 
for 

the year 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



I 



i 



Rs. 



2,000 



1,100 



270 
860 

1,000 

4,000 



188 



138 

274 
1,450 



Amount 
spent during 
the year 
1921-22 
(excluding 
P. W. D. 
charges). 



Remarks. 



6 



lis. A. r. 



146 In progress. 

I 

1,361 Jthsdone. 

855 Jrddone. 

267 Ithsdone. 

147 6 
427 

572 . In progress. 



3,998 11 Executed by the 

Archseological De- 
partment. (In 
progress). 



7,774 1 



181 



Completed. 



138 



Do. 



298 , Do. 
1,251 , Almost completed. 



1,868 



197 
Appendix A — conld. 



District. 



Rajshahi 



D&rjeeling 



Daocft . 



«f 



99 



Mymensingh 



ft 



99 



9* 



Khulna 



Joflsore • 



Locality. 



9> 



Name of work and description. 



3 



Bagha 
KuHumba 
Darjeeling . 



Satmasjid 
Munshiganj . 

Laibagh 

Dacca . 
*>» • • 

Masjidpara . 
Agarsindur . 

Astagram 
Bagerhat 

Masjidkur 

Sagardhari . 



Brought forward 

I. — Bengal — eonid, 

{b) Annval Repaira {recurring 
chai ^)-— Gontd. 

Repairs to Bagha mosque . 

Repairs to Kusumba mosque 

Repairs to monument over the 
grave of Cosma-dekoros. 



Repursto the tomb of Qeoexal 
Uoyd. 

Repairs to Satgumbas moaqiM 

Repairs to rematins at Idiakpn 
Fort 

Repairs to old mosque 

Repairs to tomb of Bibi Peri 

Repairs to remains of old Fort 

Repairs to Hussaini Dalan • 

Repairs to Dewan Bazar mosque 
in the Dacca college compound. 

Repairs to Aurangzeb mosque • 

Repairs to Shah Mahmud 
mosque. 

Repairs to Sadi mosque • 

Repairs to Kutub mosque • 

Repairs to Satgumbaz and Khan 
Jehan Ali's tomb near Bagerhat. 

Repairs to Khan Jehan All's 
mosque. 

Repairs to Memorial tablet of 
Michael Madhusudhan Dutta. 



Carried over 



Amount of 

sanctioned 

estimate. 



Ra. 



200 

134 

5 



80 

38 

40 

400 

500 

349 

10 
21 

24 

15 

431 

40 



Allotment 
for 

the vear 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



Rs. 



Amount 
spent during 
the year 
1921-22 
(excluding 
P. W. D. 
charges). 



150 
150 



• • 



35 



• • 



6 



lis. A. P. 



1,868 



200 



134 



5 



4 



160 


78 


3 





82 


30 


7 





82 


37 


4 





165 


38 


10 





495 


373 


15 





500 


488 


8 





120 


358 


1 





10 


6 


8 





20 


13 


3 





24 


11 








15 


13 


3 





360 


138 









21 



4 



3,822 14 



R 



Completed. ^ 

Do. 

(Included in list«B' 
for being maio- 
tained from the 
Provincial funds.) 

Ditto. 



198 



Appendix A — contd. 




Tippera 



Hooghly 



»» 



»y 



»> 



»» 



Burdwan 



9» 



t» 



»9 



n 



>s 



»» 



>» 



Birbhum 



Chittagong 



Fatehpur 



Barkamta 



Chinsurah 



99 



Name of work and description. 



Serampur 



Bullavpur 
Saptagram 



Tribeni 



Near Sabibganj 
Kalna . 



»> 



Buddipur 
Burdwan 



M • 

Arrah, (Asan- 
sol Sub-Di- 
vision). 

Gaurangapur 

Sanatore near 
Suri. 



Survejnng the land for preparing 
the site plan of the mound. 

Repairs to the cemetery (English 
portion). 

Repairs to the cemetery (Dutch 
portion). 

Repairs to Danish cemetery includ- 
ing tomb of Mr. J. H. Munjir. 

Repairs to Henry Martin's Pagoda 

Repairs to mosque and tomb 

Repairs to mosque and tomb of 
Jafar Khan Gazi. 

Repairs to Clerk's temple . 

Repairs to mosque 

Repairs to mosque and tomb of 
Majlis Saheb. 

Repairs to two ancient temples . 

Repairs to Behram Sakka . 

Repairs to tomb of Sher Afghan . 

Repairs to tomb of Kutubuddin . 

Repairs to Rarheswar Siva temple 



Repairs to Ichai Ghosh's temple . 
Repairs to temple of Damodar 

Carried over 



Brought forward 

I. — Bengal — conid. 

(h) Annual Repairs {recurring 
charges) — contd . 

Repairs to Alwal mosque . 



47 
88 

77 

149 

59 

194 

30 
47 
45 

41 



90 



1 



96 



240 
62 





Allotment 


Amount 


Amount of 
sanctioned 


for 
the year 
1921-22 


spent during 
the year 
1921-22, 


, estimate. 


(excluding 
P. W. D. 


(excluding 
P. W. D. 




charges). 


charges). 


4 


6 


6 


1 Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. A. p. 


• • 


• • 


3,822 14 


95 


45 


33 


• • 


• • 


2 



Remarks. 



cided to have the 
mosque main- 

tained from the 
Provincial funds. 
Only the inscrip- 
tion is on the books 
of this Department. 



41 



64 



150 = 



20 1 



73 4 



62 



Completed. 



Do. 



Do. 



60 



164 



30 



140 13 Do. 



vy[ 



41 



82 



83 



200 



42 




•40 



139 6 



36 



47 



35 



36 7 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Da 

Da 



76 9 



96 d 



230 13 
28 



4,928 10 



Do. 



Da 



Do. 
Do. 



199 
Appendix A — contd. 



District. 



1 



Birbhum 
Nadia • 



99 



99 



Marehidabad . 



»» 



»9 



99 



99 



99 



»» 



M 



M 



»» 



99 



Locality. 



Kenduli 
Piassev 



f9 



Name of work and description. 



Amount of 

sanctioned 

estimate. 



Brought forward 

L— Bei^gal — c(mtd, 

(h) Annual Repairs (recurring 
charges)— hsotlXA, 

Repairs to temple of Joydeb or 

Radha Binode. 
Repairs to new Plassey monument 

R<*pair8 to the pillars demarcating 

the battle field. 
Repairs to the Palpara temple 

Repairs to the tomb of Mirmadan 

Repairs to the tomb of Azimun- 
nessa Begum. 

Repairs to tomb of Nawab Sazfarai 
Khan. 

Repairs to Mausoleum of Aliyardi 

Khan. 

Repairs to tomb of Sirajuddoula . 

Repairs to tomb of Sujauddin 

Repairs to tablet of Mirjafar 

Repairs to tablet of Maharaja 
Nanda Kumar. 

Repairs to tomb and mosque of 
Murshid Kuli Khan. 

Repairs to mosque 

Repairs to residency cemetery 

Repairs to tlio tomb of Burmese 
prince and princess. 

, Repairs to Dc^rankhana of Mir- 
jafar. 

' Repair? to old ixisidency burial 
ground. 

Repairs to tombs of Mary Hastings 
and her daughter. 



Chakdah 
Near Dadpur 
Katra 

Nadmbagh 

Khoflhbagh 

Roshnibagh 

Jaffarganj 

Kunjaghata 

Katra 

Kharaul 

Babulbona 

Panchaiion- 
tola. 

Jaffarganj 
Cassimbazar 



Kalikapur . I Repairs U> Dutch cemetery . 

Carried over 



Rs. 



Allotment 
for 

the year 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



Amount 
spent during 
the year 
1921-22 
(excluding 
P. W. D. 
charges). 



88 

48 
60 
76 
15 
35 

10 

10 

5 

10 

2 

2 

209 

150 
220 

70 

200 
45 
12 
46 



Rs. 



40 I 

I 

40 

50 

63 

13 



27 

8 

8 

4 
8 
2 
2 

165 

124 

183 

65 

200 

40 

10 

38 



6 



Rs. A. p. 

4,928 10 



38 

30 13 

49 14 

62 13 

11 14 

21 9 

7 14 

7 14 

4 

6 5 

18 

1 8 



RXKABSa. 



165 





126 





167 2 





55 1 





151 5 





36 1 





9 12 





32 10 





5,915 9 






Completed* 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 

Da 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Da 

Da 

Da 

Do. 



200 



Appendix A — cantd. 



District. 



Locality. 



Murshidabad 



M 



9t 



Hooghly 



Murshidabad 



»» 



ft 



Bankura 



»> 



Midnapur 



Darraug 



M 



2 



- Kalikapur 
; Berhanipiir 



» 



C-hinsurah 



Kalikapur 



Khoshbagh 



Name of work and description. 



Hoshnibagh . 



Vishnupur . 
Shushunia Hill 



Midnapur 



Te7.pur 



9f 



Bishnath 



Brought forward 

1. — BsNOAli — roncM. 

(b) Annual Repdira {rer.nrring 
chargeM) — conoid. 

IU*pairs to seventeen other tombs 

bearing no inscriptions. 
Repairs to the monuments of 

Henry Sherwood. 

Repairs to the monument of 
Henr>' ( Veighton. 

Re[)airH to five tombs in (Dutch 
portion). 

Repairs to minor tombs in Dutch 
cemeter\'. 

Repairs to Khoshbagh tomb and 
Mousoleum with compound wall 
and gate. 

Repairs to Roshnibagh t')ml>s iiath 
compound wall and gate. 

Repairs to nineteen temples 

Repairs to Rock inscription of Raja 
Chandravarman. 

Repairs to John Pierce tomb 



Total (6) 

Total (a) and (6) 
P. W. D. charges (a] 21 % 

Grand Total Benoai. 

II. — Assam. 

(o) Specini Repairs [mm-recurring 
charges). 

Clearing jungles, arranging and 
staking stones in the Bamuni 
Hills. 

Collection of ancient sculptures 
and curved stones in the Tezpur 
Municipal Park. 

Special repairs to Bordole temple 

Carried over 



Amount of 
sanctioned 



Allotment 

for 
the year 
1921-22 



estimate, (excluling 
P. W. D. 
charges). 



Ra. 



99 

7 



47 



30 



362 



762 
24 

30 



5,982 



3,086 



1,912 



Rs. 



83 
6 

6 

100 

25 



290 



620 



20 



26 



300 



797 



1,346 



Amount 

spent during 

♦ he year 

1921-22 

(excluding 

P. W. 1). 

charges). 



Rkma';k^. 



6 



Rs. A. V. 
5,915 9 



82 9 



6 



25 13 



23 3 ■ 



310 9 



456 





16 





25 





6,834 13 





14,608 14 
2,238 15 



6 



16,847 13 6 



300 



814 



994 



Completed. 
Do. 



5 0' Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



In progress. 



2,108 



Do. 



Do. 



201 



Appendix A—contd, 



Dittrioti 



Locality. 



Cachar . 
SOMSgar 



EJiaspar 
Sibsagar 



9* 



99 



Kamnip 



Gauhati 



Ckehar . 



NagaHillB 



Maibong 



Badarpur 



Dimapnr 



Name of work and deacriptioiL 



Brought forward 

II. — ^AssAM — eontd. 

(a) Special Repain {non'recumng 
charges}"~OGD.cld» 

Improvement to the CSaohari mmB 

atE^haspor. 
Providing platform and a concrete 

bed for the erection of the old 

cannon in the Kutchery com- 

pound. 

Special repairs to Garhgaon palace 
at Nazira. 

Reconstruction of the Namghar 
attached to the Bishziiidole 
temple. 

Providiiig a widkot gKto to tha aib- 
dole temple. 



Special repairs to Sibdole temple . 



Conservation of the Rock-cut 
sculptures of Vishnu-Janardan. 

Total (o) 

(b) Annual Repairs {recurring charges). 

Annual repairs to two inscriptions 
and a temple made of one stone. 



Amount of 

sanctioned 

estimate. 



Rfi. 



1^7 
342 



1,437 



1,654 



498 



101 



Allotment 
lor 

the year 

192i-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



Rfi. 



1^7 
342 



Amount 
spent during 

the year 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



6 



Rs. A. p. 
2,108 



1,323 
344 



350 



115 



fjunpgniit 
Bs. 860 for 

petty items' 
below Rs. 
50. 

1,000+250 
for employ- 
ment of 3 
chowkidare 
at Sibsagar 
for 8h 
months. 

101 



348 



115 



20 



302 



00 



4,655 



5 



Annual repairs to old Fort at 


20 


Badarpur. 


1 


Annual repairs to ruins at Dima- 


Part of esti- 


pur. 


mate for 




Rs. 5,365 




for 1920- 




21, and ; 




Rs. 400 




for 1921- 




22. 

1 


Carried over 


• • 



20 



400 



5 



20 



RBMABX9L 



In progress. 
Do. 



Do. 



Completed. 



Da 



Dow 



393 I Do. 



In progress. 



Completed. 



Da 



418 



202 



Appendix A — contd. 



Distiiot. 



Sylhet . 
Sibsagar 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Kamrup 

Da 



Do. 

Khasi and 
Jaintia Hills 

Darrang 



Locality. 



Sibsagar 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Kamjikhya 

Gauhati 

Jogighopa 



Tezpur 



Name of work and description. 



Amount of 
sanctioned 
estimate. 



Brought forward 

II. — Assam — concld. 

(h) Annual Repairs {recurring 
dt argea ) — contd. 

Surveying tlie site of enclosure wall 

of Jaintiapur Nizpat. 
Repairs to Joysagar temple 

Repairs to Karangliar Ruins 

Repairs to Runghar Ruins . 

Repairs to Gaurisagar temple 

Repairs to Ahom Rajahs palace at 

Garhgaon. 
Repairs to temples at Sibeagai 

Repairs to Duarganga rock inscrip- 
tion at the foot of the hiU. 

Repairs to carving inscription and 
pillar on tbe Urbasi Island. 

Repairs to ancient tombs 

Repairs to ancient monuments and 
buildings of historical interest. 

Clearing jungles round the Bamuni 
Hills. 

Total (b) 

Total {a) and (6) 

P. W. D. charges calculated by 
pro-rata distribution. 



Grand Total Assam 



Allotment 

for 
the year 
1921-22 
(excluding 
P. W. D. 
charges). 



Rs. 



4 
413 
202 
100 
198 
210 
271 
10 

60 

120 

50 

60 



Rs. 



1,284 



10 



50 



120 



60 



75 



Amount 

spent during 

the year 

1921-22 

(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



6 



Remarks. 



Rs. A. p. 



418 



'I 



1 



3 



449 



123 



126 



181 



120 



249 



13 



59 



124 



50 



62 



Completed. 
In progress. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Da 

Do. 



1,977 



6,632 



2,551 8 



9,183 8 0*1 



* Rs. 9,458-0-3 according to the calculations of the Comptroller, Assam. 



203 

Appendix A — contd. 



Statement showing the expenditure incurred on the Conservation of Ancient Monuments in the Bombay 

Presidency including Sind during the year ending Slst March 1922. 









Amount 
of 


Allot- 
moat 
foi 


Amount 
spent 
during 


■ 


District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


sanction- 
ed esti- 


the 
year 


the 
year 


Remabks. 


(P. W. D.) 






mate. 


1921- 
22. 


1921- 
22. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 








Ra. 


Rs. 


Rs. 








BoiCfiAY PRESIDBN07. 














Northern Division, 














(a) Special Repairs (non-recurring 














charges). 










Ahmedabad 

■ 


Ahmedabad • 


Rani Sipri*s mosque and tomb :-*• 
Resetting old coping on the top 
of the compound wail ; provid- 
ing new coping for compound 
wall ; providing collapsible gate ; 
making new water connection in 
the new tank and urinals; pro- 
viding new steps to the urinak ; 
removing piUan ci the gate and 
zeeettang them with addttk»al 
maaonry and levieDiDg the com* 
pound by fiUhig tlM hollowv 


840 

• 


840 


671 


Completed. 

• 

i 


Da 


Dholka 


Khan Masjid : — Erecting scaffold- 
ing for the repairs of the chhattri 
on the south pylon, making rein- 
forced concrete for the platform 
of the chhattri and superstruc- 
ture of the missing pillars of the 
same. (Total expenditure up to 
dn\/h Rs. 7,289). 


5,373 

• 8,568 


2,802 


2,797 


In progress. 


Do. 


Ahmedabad . 


Providing leather belts and brass 
badges for caretakers. 


100 


100 


100 


Completed 


Kaiia and 


Thasra 


Galtesvara Mahadeva*s temple : — 


12,084 


800 


748 


In rroeress. 


Panoh 




Construction of retaining walls. 










Mahals. 




(Total expenditure up to date is 
Rs. 7,948). 










Do. 


Champaner . 

• 


Certain monuments at Champaner 
(15 in number, revised) : — The 
dome over the porch of Idla 
Gumbaz and the tops of the 
minars of Bohra-ki-Masjid were 
repared. Repairs to the bulged 
walls of Sat Manzil were partly 
carried out. (Total expenditure 
up to date is Rs. 59,844). 


1,05,223 


6,200 


3,486 


Do. 






Carried over 


• . 


. • 


7,802 





204 
Appendix A — contd. 



District. 
(P. W. D.) 



Locality. 



Kaira and 
Panch 
Mahals. 



Champaner . 



Do. 

Thana 

Do. 



Do. 
Bassein 
Do. 



Preiidenoy 
Do. . 



'..i 



Name of work and description. 



Qharapuri 
Do 



Brought forward . . 

BoBiBAY PassiDSNCY — conttL 

(a) Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charges) — contd. 

Clearing the debris and opening 
the plinths of certain monuments 
at Champaner : — ^The work of 
clearing the debris and opening 
buried plinths by excavating all 
round Kevda, Lila Gumbaz, 
Khajuri, Nagina, Kamani, and 
Baba Man's Masjids have been 
done. 

Providing leather belts and brass 
badges for caretakers. 

Providing leather belt and brass 
badge. 

Portuguese monuments : — Trees, 
jungles, and weeds, etc., were re- 
moved from the top of the ram- 
part wall Various, 241 big and 
small pipal, baniyan, pimpar 
trees of average diameter of 
roots var3ing from 5' to 9^ were 
cut down and i^x>ts removed 
completely by chiselling from 
the inner face of the fort wall. 
The dangerous overhanging por- 
tion of the barrel vault of the 
Dominican Church was removed^ 
stones and debris were separated 
and stacked at different places. 
Cut timber has been stacked 
at different places. 

Providing leather belts and brass 
badges for caretakem. 

Elephanta Caves : — Cutting jungles 
from all round the seven caves 
on two hills, removing huge ac- 
cumulation of debris and big 
boulders from the fronts of all 
the caves except No. 1 ; opening 
out two blocked up drains to 
Cave No. 1 , providing a pathway 
to go up to Cave Nos. 5 and 6 ; 
clearing tops of all caves for 
building water channels as at 
Bedsa and Nasik ; new steps 
built by P. W. D. in Cave No. 1 
were removed ; tools and plant 
were purchased for the Depart- 
ment. 

Carried over 



Amount 

of 
sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
year 
1921- 
22. 



Amount; 

spent ' 

during : 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



6 



Rs. 



Rs. 



Ba. 

7,802 



3,006 



70 



10 



24,621 



70 

7 esti- 
mates. 
33,831 



2,399 



Rkmarks. 



Completed. 



70 



10 



3,000 
1,000 



70 

10 

4,000 



70 



Da 

Do. 

In progress. 



70 



14,000 14,000 



28,351 



Completed. 



In progress. 



205 



Appendix A — ccntd. 



Distriot. 
(P. W. D.) 



Presidenoy 
Kdaba 



Looality. 



Do. 
Da 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 



Gharapuri 
Revdanda 



Name of work and description. 



Da . 


Do. 


Da . 


Do. 


Da 


Do. 


Da 


Do. 


Da 


Do. 


Da 


Do. 


Da 


Do. 


Da 


Do. 


Da . 


Do. 


Da 


Do. 


Da . 


Do. 



■od Snbnrbk. 
Da 



Da 
Da 
Da 
Da 



Brought forward 

BOBIBAY PBESIDENOT— CORldL 

(a) Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charge8)^conid, 

Elephanta Cave No. 1 

Portuguese remains. (Total expen- 
diture up to date is Rs. 1,126). 

*The allotment could not be 
utilised by P. W. D. 

Total (a) Northern Division . 



(6) Current Repaira and Mainien- 
once {recurring cMarges). 



Play ci a Karkun for Avohaolpgi- 
oal bnildiiigi lor 12 montlH. 

Sidi Sayyad*s mosque 

Asam Khan*s palace . 

Ahmedshah's mosque . 

Three gates 

Bhadar tower . • 

Rani Sipri's mosque and tomb 

Muhafiz ELhan*s masjid • 

Queen's mosque at Sarangpor 

Baba Loli's mosque . 

Dutch tombs on Kankaria tank 



Dada Harir's well 



Dada Harir's mosque . 
l&fian Khan Jahan's masjid . 
Tomb of Mir Abu Turab 
Sidi Basir's minars and tombs 
Achyut Bibi's mosque and tomb 



Carried over 



Amount 
of 

sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Rs. 



11.128 



420 

204 
00 

232 
60 
80 

212 
20 
30 

232 
60 

222 
60 
60 
60 
70 

222 



Allot- Amount 
ment spent 
for I during 



the 
year 
1921- 

22. 



6 



the 
year 
1921. 
22. 



6 



Rs. 



Rs. 
28,351 



1.000* 



130 



25 



28,506 



420 

204 
60 

232 
50 
80 

212 
20 
30 

232 
60 

222 
60 
50 
60 
70 
222 



420 

163 
10 

160 



20 

134 
17 
23 

148 
10 

159 
19 
34 
33 
30 

114 



Remabks. 



In progress. 
Do. 



Oomploted. 

Da 
Da 
Da 
Da 
Da 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 
Da 
Da 
Da 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 
Do. 
Do. 



1,531 



206 



Appendix A~co?Ud. 



District 



(P. W. D.) 



Ahmedabad. 



Du. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Kaira and 
Panch 
Mahals 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Surat and 
Broach. 



Do. 



Da 



Locality. 



Name of work and description. 



Ahmedabad 
and Suburbs. 

Do. 



Vasna 



Brought forward 

Bombay Psesidei^cy — contd, 

(6) Current Repairs {recurring 
charges) — contd. 

Maintaining a garden in Ahmed- 
shah's mosque. 

Maintaining a garden in Sidi 
Sayyad*8 mosque. 

Tomb of Azamkhan and Muazzam- 
khan. 



Kochrab-Paldi. Small stone masjid 



Adalaj 
Dholka 

Do. 

Do. 
Isanpur 

Vatwa 

Viramgam 

Sojali 

Mehmedabad 
Champaner . 
Halol 
Dhao 



Stepped well 



Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



I 



Rajgiri (Suv 
ah). 



Broach City 



; Bahlol Khan Qazi*s mosque 

Khan masjid .... 

Khan tank .... 

Small stone mosque to the south 
of Malik Isan-ul-Mulk's mosque. 

Tombs ..... 

Mansartank . . . . 

Tombs of Saif-ud-din and Nizam 
ud-din 

Bhamaria well 

Archieological buildings 

Sikandar Shah's Uauza 

Vaux's tomb at the mouth of the 
River Tapti near Hajira : — Re- 
pairs to masonry and plastering 
done where found necessary and 
all other required repairs were 
carried out. 
Tomb : — Removing rank vegeta- 
tion and other required petty 
repairs were carried out 

Dutch tombs : — Removing rank 
vegetation and fiUing in cracks 
where found necessary were car- 
ried out 

Carried over 



Rs. 



145 

145 

50 

20 

242 
232 
232 

lOJ 
60 

336 

60 

172 

150 

1.810 

30 

31 



6 



35 



Allot- 
ment 
for the 
year 
1921- 
22. 



Rs. 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the year 

1921-22. 



Remabks. 



145 

145 

50 

20 

242 
232 
232 

100 
60 

336 

60 

172 

150 



I 



30 



31 



6 



35 



6 



Rs. 
1,531 



136 

48 

30 

13 

49 
135 
45 
23 
34 

200 

23 

172 

150 



1,810 j 1,810 



30 



30 



35 



4,499 



Completed. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Da 



Do. 



Do 



207 
Appendix A — conid. 



DirtriPt. 

(P.W.D.) 


Locality. 


N'aiiii lit work and dNcnption. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 


Allot- 

f or the 
year 

1921- 
22. 


Amount 
spent 
during 
thevear 
1921-22. 


Bbuarrs. 


I 


2 


n 


i 


S 


6 


7 






Broiiijht. forward 
BoareAT Peesidbmcy— con/d. 


Rk. 


Bs. 


Ba. 
4,499 


















(6) Current Btpaira (recurring 
charges}-— contd. 










Surat and 
Btoftch. 


Broach City. 


vegetation from the maaonry, re- 
cetsed pointing to maaonry inside 
the building, tilling in craclu to 
the terraced roof, etc., were 
carried out. 


160 


160 


160 


Completed. 


Thana 


Ambernath . 


Temple at Ambernath i— Clearing 
and removing grass and repair- 
ing foot-path in the compound. 


35 


35 


35 


Do. 


Do. 


Kalyan 


Motabar Khan's tomb and Kali 

mas j id. 


24 


24 


24 


Do. 


Do. 


Tbana 


Graves of two English faoton 


10 


10 


10 


Do, 


Do. 


WwheU . 


Caves :-Clearing Uw> preoinots of 
vegetation, rabtnah and alao 
of big trees obstnicting the ap- 
proach road is done, and also the 
WBt«r tank is cleared of rubbish. 


IS 


IS 


16 


Do. 


Do. 


Nanagbat . 


Brahmanical Caves :— So work 
was done during the year ae no 

carrying out the work, who 
could be deapatched to such an 
out of the way place as Nanagbat 
to do petty worka costing Rs. 
16. Neit year a S. 0. or 8. D. 0. 
or Executive Engineer will 
visit it. 


15 








Do. 


M&huU 


Fort :— The precincts of the moeque 
and one temple have been clear- 
ed of rank vejjetation and big 

the remnina. also the difficult 
portions of the approach road 
to the fort have been made easy 
by providing a 4' wide level 
pathway by escavaljon from 
the bill Bide. 


80 


SO 


. 


CompleteJ. 


Do. 


Andberi 


Caves at Jogesvari : — Catch water 
guttcra were eicftvated, gutters 
cleared and oaves cleaned where 

necesaarv. 


66 


6S 68 


Do. 


Do. . 


Do. 


Caves at Kondivata:— Do. 

Caraw) over 


64 


54 I 64 

i 


Do. 






.. 1 4,919 





208 



Appendix A — cotUd. 



District. 



(P. W. D.) 



Thana 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



PretideDoy 
Do. . 
Do. . 
Da 



Looality. 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 
of 

sanc- 
tioned 
esti- 
mate. 



Mandapesvara 



Da 
Da 



Kanheri 



Bandra 



Bassein 



Arnala 
Barat 



Gharapuri 
Do. 



Da 



Da 



Kolaba Agarkot 



Revadanda 
Korlai 



Brought forward 



Bombay Pbssidbkoy — contd, 

{h) Current Repairs {recurring 
charges) — contd. 

Caves : — Catch water gutters 
were excavated, gutters cleared 
and caves cleaned where neces- 
sary. 

Caves : — General clearing was 
started and some work was done 
but as the khot in whose limits 
the caves are situated objected 
to the further work being done, 
work had to be stopped. 

Fort : — The area was cleared 

Fort : — Clearing jungle and remov- 
ing rubbish and pay of care- 
taker. 

Fort : — Clearing jungle 

Caves : — Clearing jungle, removing 
grass, whitewashing, repairing 
footpath, etc. 

Elephanta caves 

Custodian* s quarters . 

Assistant Custodian*s quarters 

Police Chowki and watchmen*s 
quarters. 

Portuguese remains : — Weeds and 
shrubs were removed from the 
masonry of (l)Chowkoni buruj, 
(2) Fort walls, (3) Kothi, (4) 
Two gates. (5) Fort wall of the 
old factory at Revadanda, (6) 
Mosque, (7) Hammam Khana, 
(8) Arch, and (9) Barber^s 
mahal. 

Portuguese remains 

i 

1 Fort : — OverproTm shrubs on the 
fort walls were removed and 
other ordinary repairs to the 
read executed. 



Carried over 



Allot- : Amount 
ment | spent 

for the I during 
year ' the year 



Rs. 



95 



190 



40 
342 



60 
75 



3,194 

112 

18 

18 

595 



1921 
22. 



350 



50 ; 



5 



Rs. 



95 



190 



40 
342 



60 
75 



3,194 

112 

18 

18 

595 



350 
50 



1921 
22. 



6 



Rs. 
4,919 



Rkmabks. 



95 



35 



Completed. 



Stopped. 



40 



257 



60 
75 



Completed. 
Do. 



Do. 
Da 



3,219 

106 

15 

15 

109 



I 



Da 
Do 
Da 
Da 

Da 



86 
53 



Da 
Da 



9,084 



209 
Appendix A — contd. 



District. 



(P. W. D.) 



Kolaba 



Locality. 



Alibag 



Do. 



Ambivli 



i 



Do. Peth 



Do. 



Pal 



Do. • Raigadh 



Do. 



Kuda 



West Khan- '< Balsana 
desh. 



Name of work and descripticm. 



I 

Amount 
I of 
jsanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Brought forward 



Bombay Pbesidkncy-— oem^. 

(6) Current Repaira (rteurring 
charges)— rcontdi. 

Fort : — Portion of the footpath was 
improved by removing d^nis. 
Fallen portion of the Fort wall 
near the storm signal is under 
repairs. Weeds and shmbs were 
removed. 

Caves : — Grass and vegetation 
were removed, caves and sur- 
roundings cleared and S3uid 
spread. 

Kotali Fort. : — Footpaths leading 
to the fort and guns were cleared. 
Shrubs and grass round the tomb, 
the gun, and on the top of 
the fort were remored. The 
fallen boulders obetraoting the 
footpaths were removed. 

Caves : — 3 furlongs of the footpath 
was broadened so as to enable 
visitors to approach caves easily^ 
kerbing put in order ; weeds re- 
moved. Small tanks and caves 
were cleaned. 

Shivaji's Samadhi and Mahadeva 
temple . — Footpaths toShivaji's 
Samadhi and Mahadeva*s tem- 
ple were repaired. Weeds and 
shrubs removed ; cement point- 
ing done to the sides of the 
Samadhi and the terrace. 

Caves : — 1,600 r.ft, of footpaths re- 
paired \inth murum, and kerbing 
stones put in order; weeds re- 
moved and caves were cleared of 

dirt, etc. 

Total (6) Northern Division 



Central Division. 

{a) Special lieixiirs {non-recurring 
charges) * 

Providing; leather belt and brass 
badge for caretaker. 

Carried over 



Bs. 



176 



60 



76 



60 



126 



80 



10 



AUot- 

ment 

for 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



Amount 
spent 
duriivg 
the 
year 
1921- 
22. 



176 



60 



76 



60 



126 



60 



10 



RSMABXa. 



6 



Rs. . Rs. 
. i 9,084 



66 



60 



76 



69 



107 



60 



9,600 



U) 



Completed. 



Do. 



Do. 



Da 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



10 i 



210 
Appendix A — oontd. 



Dutncth 
(P. W. D.) 



Nftm« of work uid dcacriptioiL iBsnotion- 



Amount i 
during ' 



I 



Nutk 
Abmednagar' 



Anjuineri 

Abmednagar 

Pedgaon 
AlimednagBr 



Bombay Pbesidehov — eonttl. 



{a) Special Bepairs (non-reeumiig 

tharges ) — CO ntd. 



Providing leather belts and braaa 
badgn for (saretakers. 



Providing leather belt and brass 
badge for (-Aretaket. 



Tiak Mhii' Narayan temple 



Faria Bagb Palace .—Unsightly 
additions and Hltcmiioiis ■wert 
removed ; earth and dibris ^ 
atflo wen- reraovod; stone and ' 
dchri" Irom topoftht .Joiufsoci 
top were removed ; urin-nt iindf^r- , 
pinnings to jamba of door and 
arch wiTc omipU'tcd ; all trees i 
were out down from the plat- | 
form as well as from the bed ' 
of the Hurroiindinu tAnk. ' 

Providing li-athcr Mt« and brass 
badges for i-fkrctakcre. 

Shanwar Wada:— The collapsed 
portions of masonrc on the 
north, east and west of the 
citwlcl w!ilU. (.oth from in- 
side and outside were repair- 
ed with brick in lime on the 
lines of old construction. 
Numerous additions and alter- 
ations to the Naqqarkhana 
were dismantled and rem 
ed. One wooden chajja a 
able to the design of the ati 
ture was constructed before 
the visit of His Royal Hifih- 
ness the Prince of W'oles. Tht 
floors of the hall of Uip Nn(i/)flC 
khana and D'^llii y.at-- \nrfi 
paved with stoiii-.--. Tlic i'Ti. 
tire old wood-work was wash- 
ed with hot water afid soap 

wooden railings were ; 
vided. Numerous other mi 
items of work were also carried 

Carried over 



10,800 10,800 



Completed. 
In progress. 



211 



Appendix A — contd. 



District. 



(P. W. D.) 



Locality. 



1 



Poona 



Sholapar. . 



Do. .. 



Da •• 



EastKhan- 
desh. 



Do. .. 



Do. .. 



Do. 



Bhaja 



Sholapur 



Do. 



Do. 



Patna 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Name of work and description. 



Brought forward 
Bombay Presidency — contd. 

(a) Special Repairs (non^ecwrtiim 

charges) — contd. 

Caves : — ^Providing compound wall 
with self-closing gate and some 
other minor addQtions. (The 
total expenditure up to 31st 
March 1922 is Rs. 4,164.) 

Old fort: — Closing the breach in 
the fort wall and sorting and 
stacking carved stones. 

Providing leather belt and brass 
badge for caretaker. 

Excavating the old temple in the 
fort : — nniflhing the rides of 
the excavation with stone 
pitching, dry stone retaining 
wall and providing steps to go 
down to the excavation and un- 
derpinning the gaps in the 
wall. (The total expendi- 
ture up to 31st March 1922 
is Els. 7,133.) 

Total (a) Central Division 

(b) Current Repairs and Main- 
tenance {recurring charges), 

Mahesvara Mahadeva temple : — 
Repairs executed to floors, 
compound, approach road, 
and roof. Preserved the 
temple by removing stumps of 
trees and weeds. 

Shringar (^havdi : — Repairs done 
to the approach road and the 
compound cleared of d^ris, 
etc. 

Nagarjun Cave : — Cleared the 
temple and repairs done to the 
approach road. 

Caves (Si ta's Nahani) : — Cleared 
the caves and the approach 
road, and paths repaired. 

Carried over 



Amount 

of 

sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Rs. 



4,635 



289 



10 



9,054 



55 



80 



80 



80 



AUot- 

ment 

for 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



Remakes. 



Rs. 



6 



Rs. 
15,106 



1,200 



289 



843 



282 



10 



1»000 



10 



1,000 



17,241 



55 



80 



80 



80 



55 



80 



8i) 






In progress. 



0>mpleted. 



Do. 



InprogreflBL 



Completed. 



Do. 



80 ! Dj. 



Dj. 



212 
Appendix A—contd. 



Difllriot. 
(P. W. D.) 



Locality. 



fiast Khan- 
desh. 



Waghli 



Do. 



Dighj 



Do. .. 



Sangamesvara 



Do. .. 



Changdeva . . 



West Khan- 

desh. 
Nasik 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Di*. 

Do. 

Ahmed- 
nagar. 

Do. 



Do. . . 



Do. . . 



Do. 



Balsana 
Sinnar 
Do. 
Pathardi 
Ankai 
Jbodga 
Anjanneri 
Tisgaon 



Harischandra- 
gadh. 

Tahakari . . 

Ratanwadi . . 

Bamni 



Name of work and description. 



Brought forward 

Bombay Pbbsidency — contd. 

(b) Current Repairs (recurring 
charges}— ixmtd. 

Mudhai Devi *8 temple : — ^Repairs 
done to the floors, vaulted 
roof, back yards, steps and the 
compound. 

Temple of Devi and Sambha : — 
Cleared the floors, repair- 
ed the front portion and 
plinth with earth bank, stray 
stones and dibris removed 
and the compound cleared. 

Temple of Mahadeva : — Repaired 
the cracks in walls with chips 
and mortar with cement point- 
ing ; also repaired the roof 
and the compound. 

Changdeva *s temple : — Cleared the 
jungle and repairs done to the 
terraced roof and masonry of 
the parapet walls. 

Temples : — Caretaker 's pay 

Gondesvara temple 

Aisvara temple 

Pandu Lena caves 

(.^ves . • . . . . 

Mankesvara Siva temple 

Old temple 

Five stone gates 



Caves and temples 



Tripad Srinivas temple 
Temple of Amritesvara. • 
Hemadpanti tank 

Carried over 



Amount 

of 
sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Rs. 



80 



35 



70 



160 



36 

188 

15 

218 

272 

130 

46 

50 

10 

10 
10 
22 



Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
year 
1921- 
22. 



5 



Rs. 



80 



35 



70 



160 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



36 
188 

15 
218 
272 
130 

46 

50 

10 

10 
10 
22 



6 



Rs. 
295 



79 



Rema&ks. 



Completed. 



34 



70 



159 



.')6 
186 

15 
218 
271 
130 

46 

50 

10 

10 
10 
22 



1,638 



Da 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Dc. 
Do. 



213 



Appendix A.—contd. 



District. 
(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 

of 
sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 


Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
year 
1921- 
22. 


Amount 

spent 

during 

the 
year 
1921- 

22. 


1 

1 Remarks. 

1 


1 


2 


:i 


4 


5 


6 


7 






Brought forward 

BOAfBAY PBESlDENCY^O»/rf. 


Rs. 

• • 


Rh. 

• • 


Rs. 
1,638 


1 










1 






(6) Current Repairs {recurring 
charges) — contd. 








! 


Ahmed- . . 
nagar. 


Kokamthan 


Old temple 


96 


96 


96 


Completed. 


Do. . . 


Ahmodnagar 


Damri masjid 


20 


20 


20 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Do. 


Faria Bagh Palace 


228 


228 


228 


Do. 


Do. . . 


r 

Dhoka 


(,'ave.s at Dhokesvara . . 


22 


22 


22 


Do. 


Do. . . 
Do. . . 


Mandavgaon 
Katrabad. 
Karjat 


Temple of Devi 
Mallikarjuna's temple . . 


19 
20 


19 
20 


19 
20 


Do. 
Do. 


Do. . . 


Pedgaon 


Bablesvara temple 


22 


22 


22 


Do. 


Poona 


Karla 


Caves 


1,159 


1,159 


799 


Do. 


Do. 


Ghatgliar . . 


Do. 


50 


50 


60 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Bhaja 


Do. .. ... ^ 


310 


310 


141 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Shelarwadi ., 


Do. 


160 


160 


153 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Bedsa ^ 


Do 


143 


143 


138 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Junnar 


Do. 


868 


868 


472 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Lohagadh . . 


Fort 


240 


240 


240 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Rajmachi ... 


Do. 


200 


200 

1 


200 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Visapur 


Do. 


160 

1 


160 1 


162 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Bhamburda . . 


Caves 


321 


321 ' 

i 


249 


Da 


Do. . . 


Tulapur 


Sambhaji's Samadhi .. 


110 


110 


110 


Do. 


Do. 


Sinhagadh . . 


Fort 


125 


125 


66 


Do. 


Do. .. 


t 

Do. 


Rajaram 's Samadhi 


167 


167 


160 

1 


D) 


Do .. 


Poona 


Kotwal 's residence 


23 


23 


11 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Poona Citv. . 

V 


Shanwar Wada 


1,652 


1,652 


1,665 ' 


Do. 


Do .. 


Do. 


Old European tombs . . 


38 ' 

1 


38 


27 1 


Do. 


Do. .. 1 


Koregaon . . 


Monument Memorial pillar 

Carried over 


1 

67 


67 


56 


Da 




• • 


• • 


6,764 ' 





214 



Appendix A — contd. 



District. 
(P. W. D.) 



Satara 
Do. 



Do. 



Sholapur. 
Do. 



Locality. 



Belgaum . . 



Jakhinwadi.. 
Pratapgadh. . 
Karanja 



Sholapur 
Elarmala 



GokakfaUs . 



Kanara . . 



Dharwar . . 



Bhatka) 



Rattihalli . 



Name of work and desoriptioiL 



Amount 
of 

sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Brought forward 

Bombay Pbesidenot — contd. 

(6) Current Jtiepairs {recurring 
charges) — contd. 

Buddhist caves 

Afzulkhan*8 tomb 

Brick column erected by Aurang- 
zeb. 

Old fort 

Old fort 

Total (6) Central Division 

SouTHBBN Division. 

(a) Speded Repairs (rum-recurring 
charges^. 

Group of temples on the right and 
left sides of Gokak falls — 
The work was not in progress 
owing to want of funds. (Total 
expenditure up to 31st March 
1922 is lU. 1,01912-7.) 

Narasimha Devasthan : — Purchase 
of steel clamps and copper 
dowels. 

Kadambeshvara temple : — Remov- 
ing the whitewash clearing 
the interior and tilling gaps 
with single stones including 
scaffolding, and removing 
whitewash and paint from 
exterior, clearing compound 
and levelling, clearing drain 
and washing tank including 
repairs to north side of temple, 
collecting and setting up in- 
scribed stones and providing 
notice boards. (Total ex- 
penditure up to 31st March 
1922 is Rs. 198-7-0.) 



Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
year 
1921- 
22. 



Carried over 



Re. 



100 
10 
10 

641 

100 



2,598 



1,226 



1,425 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



6 



Rff. 



100 
10 
10 

641 
100 



RSICABXS. 



■ 



6 



Rs. 
6,764 



84 

8 

10 

479 



7,420 



917 



18 



935 



Completed. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



In progress. 



Do. 



Da 



215 



Appendix A — contd. 



District. 
(P. W. D.) 



Locality. 



Dharwar 



Haralhalli 



Bijapur 



Bijapur 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Name of work and description. 



.3 



Brought forward 

Bombay Prksidency — contd, 

! (a) Special Repdirs (non-rfcurring 
charges) — contd. 

Somesvara temple : — Putting in 
copper clamps, big and small, 
including jackinjy up and fixing 
tog'»tlier broken chhajja, cement 
concrete IJ" thick on chunam 
terrace. Metal has been collected, 
lime has been conveyed to the 
site of work ; sand is collected. 
Clearing vegetation and level- 
ling up the ground and scrap- 
ing off whitewash coating. 
(Total expenditure up to 31st 
March 1922 is Rs. 2,189 13-3.) 

Gol Gumbaz : — Erecting a com 
pound wall round the open 
site of Gol Gumbaz. The com- 
pound wall has almost been 
completed except at four places. 
Passage is left open to the 
people and the cart traffic as the 
question of land comp<.'nsation 
has not yet been settled by the 
Pvcvenue Department. (Total 
expenditure is Rs. 9,642.) 

Gol Gumbaz : — Payment of land 
compensation for diversion 
of the sta,tion road (original- 
ly passing through Gol Gum- 
baz area). 

Jumma masjid : — Providino; ^ 
galvanised water pipe con- 
nection. 

Ibrahim lloza : — Paying compen- 
sation for extending the 
compound. 

Fort wall : — Near Malik-i-Maidan 
Gun : — Reconstructing the fallen 
portion of the Fort wall. 

Masabavdi near Gol Gumbaz : — 
Fixing pumping plant and emp- 
tying water of the bavdi. As 
the water level was about .30' 
the work could not be taken 
in hand. The expenditure is 
on account of making prelimi- 
nar}' arrangements. 



Amount 

of 
sanction 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
year 
1921- 



Carried over 



o 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

vear 

1921- 

22. 



6 



Remarks. 



Rs. 



Rs. 



Rs. 



93.-) 



2,167 



285 , In progress. 



10,110 



6.826 



6.353 ; IJo. 



759 



275 



1,433 



249 



2,400 



759 



759 Completed. 




275 



863 



307 



250 



1,433 



230 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



151 194 I In progress. 

plus 
40 



10.439 



216 



Appendix A — contd. 



District. I Locality. 



(P. W. D.) 



1 



Bijapur . 



Do. 



Do. . 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



2 



Kuroatgi 



Bijapur 



Do. 



Ainapur 



Do. 



Bijapur 



Torvi 



Bijapur 



Name of woric and description. 



Brought forward 

Bdbcbay Pbehidenct— caii<<f. 

(a) Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charges) — ooudd. 

Water pavilion No. 1 : — Fallen por- 
tion of the back wall was re- 
constructed. 

The bridge of old approach road 
to Bijapur Station : — ^The bridge 
was dismantled. 

Masjid attached to the Ibrahim 

Rouza: — Expanded metal 

frames were fixed to the win- 
dows of the masjid. 



Way to the south of the masjid at 
.^dnapur : — ^The way to the south 
of the masjid was widened. 

Palace of Jahan Begum : — ^The 
work consisted of dismantling 
the terrace roof of the verandah 
of the Mahal, etc., and was 
completed. 



Gagan Mahal : — ^Underpinning 
work of fort wall with recessed 
pointing was completed ; work 
of filling open chases in ma- 
sonry wall with stone and 
lime concrete (gauge) includ- 
ing raking ; providing rein- 
forced concrete lintels, filling 
cracks, lime plaster, repair- 
ing plinths, providing gate, 
etc., are in progress. 



Sangit Mahal : — Building two sup- 
port pillars, underpinning and 
water-tightening the tops of 
walls and making approach road 
were in projrress. 



Providing leather belts and brass 
badges for the caretakers. 



Total (a) Southern Division 



Amount 

of 
sanction' 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Rs. 



Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
year 
1921- 
22. 



6 



Rs. 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



Remarks. 



6 



432 



154 



432 



Rs. 

10,439 



425 



154 



197 



197 



328 



370 



5,991 



4,389 



1 

X 784 

J 



102 



192 



f 328 



367 



5,352 i 5.100 



4,389 . 3,176 



240 



240 ' 



24) 



20.369 



Ck>mpleted. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



In progress. 



Do. 



Completed. 



217 
Appendix A — contd. 



District. 
(P. W. D.) 



Name of work and dMcriptioi 



Amount 
during 



Bombay PBEsmBSCv— conf<f. 

{fi) Camnt Repairs and Main- 
tettantx {recurring chargea). 

Old Jain temple : — Repaira to 
xtone pitehinit, roof, and stop- > 
ping ieakagcj with cement : 
and dry dammcr, pointing | 
atone slabi and removing i 
ahniba and bushes, cto. 

Tfniples of Ramlinifdcva, Shidling- 1 
ileva and Kalnifavara with tr 
Ncriptions Removing tl: 

growth of vi'^fetation round I 
the building and repairing i 
the doora. 

Dolmens on the road from Gokak { 
Road Railway _ Station to 
Uokak mills ; — RemoTing priok- 

iv {•fat-' uni! rubbish round the 
luonunienta. 

Fort wall : — Cutting trees and 
nxita, etc., from the fort walla , 
and I'c'pairM to masonry 

^inilliudurffa (fort) : — Cutting ti 
and riHitii, etc., from the fort | 
walls and rciiaiis to masonry t 
pla«.. 



'ortwall: — Removing roots, ctfar- j 
iiti: fort wall, elearing 
|iiiiind and filling in cracks, | 
etf. ' 

I Siivarnaduiga (fort) : — The tret's 
and shrubs grown on the fort 

i wall have been cut down from 
inside and also some from 
tuiuth and north sides of the 
fort gate. 






—The trees and shrubs 
been removed from the 
masonry and some patches of 
ehunam plaster have been ro- 



33 


33 


32 


35 


:ir, 


35 


150 


190 


160 


300 


300 


290 


225 


22.5 


201 


130 


150 


149 


150 


150 


ISO 


65 


63 


64 






1,071 



218 



Appendix A — contd. 



DiBtiict. 
(P. W. D.) 



Locality. 



1 



Kanara • 



Da • 



Do. . 



Do. .. 



Do. .. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. .. 



uv. 



Do. 



Name of work and description. 



Bhatkal 



Nagar Basti- 
ken, Ger- 
sappa. 

Do. 



Do. 



Kumta • • 



Mirjan 



Bilgi 



Sonda 



Do. 



Somsagar . . 



Amount 

of 
sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Brought forward 

Bombay Presidency — eontd. 

(6) Current Repairs {recurring 
charges) — contd. 

Jettappa Naikan Chandranathe* 
svara Basti : — ^Murum filling 
for making the uneven ground 
level. 

Chaturmukha Basti : — ^fixing 
notice board, clearing com- 
pound and making passage. 

Vardhamanswami's temple : — ^Fix- 
ing notice board, clearing com- 
pound and making passage and 
clearing inscription stones. 

Virbhadra temple : — Clearing com- 
]x>und and making passage. 

Tombs on the right side of Manki 
Kumta Road : — Cleaning and 
painting inscriptions and re- 
pairing plaster. 

Fort: — Repairing approach road 
by removing shrubs, etc., and 
la3ring munim on the path. 

Small deserted temple dedicated to 
Siva : — Removing rank vege- 
tation and clearing com- 
pound. 

Temple close to the south of the 
King 's seat : — Removing rank 
vegetation, clearing compound, 
replacing missing parts of the 
compound wall and clearing 
the temple. 

King's seat: — Removing rank ve- 
getation and repairing the 
floor and roof. 

Temple of Siva : — Clearing the 
compound, removing rank ve- 
getation and clearing the 
building. 



Carried over 



Rs. 



29 



20 



20 



10 



50 



9 



14 



20 



9 



Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
year 
1921- 
22. 



5 



Rs. 



29 



20 



20 



10 



60 



9 



14 



20 



9 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



6 



Remarks. 



Rs. 
1,071 



6 



Completed* 



29 



20 



20 



10 



47 



9 



14 



19 



9 



1,254 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Da 



Do. 



Do. 



Da 



Do. 



Do. 



219 



Appendix A — contd. 



District. 
(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 

of 
sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 


Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
vear 
i92l- 
22. 


Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

vear 

1921- 

22. 


Remabks. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 






Brought forward . 
Bombay Presidency — contd. 


Rs. 


Rs. 

• • 
ft 


Rs. 
1,254 


















(6) Current Repairs {recurring 
charges) — contd. 






t 




Dharwar . . 


Bankapur . . 


Nagaresvara temple : — Clearing 
compound, removing small 
shrubs from Sikhara and sides 
and cleaning spots on masonry. 


32 


32 ' 

1 
\ 


32 


Completed. 


Do. • • 


Unkal 


Four-ixjrched temple . . 


7 


7 


7 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Amargol 


Sankarlinga temple 


11 


i 
11 


11 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Naregal 


Sarvesvara temple 


12 


12' 


12 


Do. 


Do. .. 
Do. .. 


Hangal 
Do. 


Old mined temple between fort 

and tank. 
Tarakesvara temple 


45 
50 


45 
60 


44 
46 


Do. 
Do. 


Da •• 


Balambid . . 


Kalmesvara temple 


40 


40 


40 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Haven 


Sidhesvara temple 


16 


16 


16 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Lakhundi . . 


Namesvara temple 


15 


15 


15 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Do. 


Jain Basti 


15 


15 


15 


DOa 


Do. • . 


Do. 


Kumbhargiri temple . . 


24 


24 


21 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Do. 


Kashivishvcshvara temple 


25 


25 


24 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Dambal 


' Dodda Basavanna temple 


15 


15 


15 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Do. 


Somesvara temple 


15 


15 


15 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Gadag 


1 
Somesvara temple 


30 


30 


30 


Da 


Do. .. 


Do. 


1 
Sarasvati temple 


20 


20 


1 20 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Chowdhanpur 


Muktesvara temple 


25 


25 


21 


DOa 


Do. .. 


Galagnath . . 


Galgesvara temple 


45 


45 


42 


DOa 


Do. .. 


Rattihalli .. 


Kadambesvara temple 


25 


25 


31 


Do. 


^JApur .. 
Do* 


Bijapur, 
Badamiy 
Aiholi and 
Pattadkal. 
Do. 


Archaeological buildings in the Dis- 
trict. 

1 
1 

Pay of the Establishment 


2,055 
6,636 


2,055 
6,636 


2,050 
6,154 


Do. 
Do. 


Do. .. 


Bijapur 


Bijapur museum : — Contribution 
for the maintenance of the Bija- 
pur museum. 

Total (5) Southern Division 


1,064 


1,064 


1,064 


Do. 




a . 


a • 


10,978 





220 



Appendix k—contd. 



District. 
(P. W. D.) 



Locality. 



1 



Karachi 
Buildings. 

Do. .. 



Hyderabad 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Karachi 



Do. 



. • 



Makli Hills.. 



Canals. 



Do. .. 



Western 
Nara. 

Do. 



Tatta 



Khudabad .. 



Do. 



Do. .. 



Shikarpur 
Canals. 



Do. 



Rohri 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 
of 

sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



SIND. 



Indus RroHT Bank Division. 



(a) Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charges). 



Ghulam Shah Kalhora*s tomb 
(Total expenditure up to date 
from 1908 is Rs. 3,196.) 

Ghulam Nabi Kalhora*s tomb 
(Expenditure up to date from 
1908 is Rs. 10,199.) 

Sarfaraz Khan Kalhora*s tomb 
(Expenditure up to date is 
Rs. 869.) 

Providing leather belts and brass 
badges for caretakers. 

Arehsological remains on Makli 
Hills. (Expenditure incurred 
up to date by the Executive 
Engineer amounts to Rs. 4,213.) 



Providing leather belt and brass 
badge for caretaker. 

Providing leather belts and brass 
badges for caretakers. 

Yar Muhammad Khan*s tomb. 
(Expenditure up to date is 
Rs. 1,350.) 

Jami Masjid : — Expenditure up to 
date is P^. 1,652. 

Satyan-jo-than : — Expenditure up 
to date on S. R. amounts to 
Rs. 3,348. 



Total (a) Indus Right Bank 
Division. 



Bs. 



1,744 



1,298 



1,203 



40 



14.240 



10 



20 



1,356 



2,561 



1,383 



Allot- Amount 



ment 

for 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



Rs. 



40 



3,800 



I 



10 



20 : 



6 



Rs. 



30 



10 



20 



1,383 1,349 



Remarks. 



In temporary abey 
ance. 



Do. 



Do. 



Completed. 



In progress. 



Completed. 



Do. 



In progress. 



Do. 



Completed. 



• 1,409 



^: ■■■. 



*. 



221 

Appendix A — contd. 



Distriotte 
(P. W. D.) 



Locality. 



2 



ELaracbi 
Buildings. 



Bo. •• 



Hyderabad 



Da 



• • 



Do. .. 



Do. •• 



Do. •• 



Do. 



Do. 



Gidu BuDder 



Name of work and description. 



SIND— eo]i<(2. 

(5) Currtni Repaira andMainten' 
ance {recurring eharffea). 

Gulam Shah Ka1hora*8 tomb: — 
Resetting faUen tike and 
lime-plastering wherever ne- 
cessary both on the waDs 
and floors inside and outside 
the tomb. Roo£b were also 
repaired with lime plaster 
in some places, repairs to 
other tombs in the oompoimd 
and repairs to notioe boards 
were done. 



Qulam Nabi KaDion*s tombt— 
ResetUng IsUen tOes and 
lime-plastering wherever 

necessary both or; the walls 
and floors inside and outside 
the tomb. Roofs were ako 
repaired with lime plafter in 
some places, repairs to other 
tombs in the compound and 
repairs to notice boards were 
done. 

Sarf araz Khan Kalhora *s tomb : — 
Resetting fallen tiles and 
lime-plastering wherever ne- 
cessary both on the walls 
and floors inside and outside 
the tomb. Roofs were also 
repaired with lime plaster in 
some places, repairs to other 
tombs in the compound and 
repairs to notice boards were 
done. 

Haram of Mirs in the fort »— Swee- 
per *s pay. 

Memoiial pillar at the site of 
the old Residency at Gidu 
Bunder : — Repairing, fencing 
round the stone pillars. The 
stone was given a **Metore 
wash and the area inside fenc 
ing was cleared. 



>* 



Carried over 



Amount 

of 
sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Allot- 
ment 

for 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



Rs. 



Rs. 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



Remarks. 



6 



Rs. 



102 



UO 



263 



24 



76 



102 



UO 



263 



24 



75 



88 



Completed. 



Da 



259 



22 



41 



Do. 



540 



Do. 



Do. 



* • 



222 

Appendix A — conid. 



District. 
(P. W. D.) 



Karachi 
Canals. 



Western 
Nara. 



Do. 



Ghar 
Canals. 



Eastern 
Xara. 

Northern 
District, 
Jamrao 
Canals. 



Fuleli 
Canals. 

Nasrat 
Canals. 



Locality. 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 

of 
sanction- 
ed esti- 
mate. 



Makli Hills . . 



Khudabad . . 



Do. 



Near Ratodaro 



l^lirpurkhas . . 



Brahmanabad 



Near Gaja 
mouth. 

Tul-Mir- 
Rukan. 



Brought forward 

Sl^B—contd, 

(6) Current Repairs and Mainten^ 
ance {recurring charges) — contd. 

Archfeological remains on Makli 
Hills : — Lime or cement plaster 
or pointing where necessary and 
renewing rusty wire netting. 

Yar Muhammad Khan 's tomb : — 
Cement pointing, chunam 
pointing, B. B. and mud ma- 
sonrj' mud plaster, J* thick, 
chunam plaster, J' thick, re- 
moving and relaying flat 
bricks in 3^ard. 

Jami masjid : — Chunam plaster }', 
earth fiHing, ramming and 
lime pointing. 

Rato-bhando (tomb): — Earth work 
for platform and painting doors. 



Tolal (6) Indus Right Bank Division 



Indus Left Bank Division. 

(a) Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charges). 

Providing leather belt and brass 
badge for caretaker. 

Providing leather belt and brass 
badge for caretaker. 



Total (a) Indus Left Bank Division 

(6) Current Repairs and Mainten- 
ance {recurring charges), 

Buddhist stupa 



Buddhist stupa: — Cement point- 
ing. 

Carried over 



Rs. 



352 



237 



201 



105 



10 



10 



30 



15 



Allot- 
ment 
for 
the 
year 
1921- 
22. 



I 



Amount 

spent 

during 

the 

year 

1921- 

22. 



Rs. 



352 



237 



201 



105 



10 



10 



30 



15 



6 



Rs. 
549 



Remarks. 



203 The Executive En- 
gineer surrender- 
ed the balance. 



237 



Completed. 



201 



Do. 



103 



Do. 



1,293 



10 



10 



Da 



Do. 



20 



25 



15 



40 



Do. 



Do. 



223 



Appendix A—contd. 



District. 



(P. W. D.) 




Nasrat 
Canals. 

Eastern 
Nara. 



Do. 



Northern 
District 
Jamrao 
Canals. 



2 



Kubo Nur- 
mubamaci. 

Kabu-jo-daro, 
about J mile 
to tbe north 
of Mirpur- 
khas. 

Naokot 



Dalore 



Bombay Presidency in- -I 
eluding Sind. 



Name of work and description. 



Brought forward 

SIND— con^. 

(6) Current Repairs and Mainten^ 
ance (recurring charges) — contd. 

Tomb of Nur Muhammad 
Kalhora : — Lime plastering. 

Buddhist stupa 



Fort : — Jungle cutting, filling in 
rain " gharas"', cement point- 
ing to steps. 

Brahmbra-ka-thul : — do. do. 



Total (6) Indus Left Bank Division 



«^ 



Northern Division 



Central Division . . 



Southern Division 



Indus Right Bank Divieion 
Indus Left Bank Division 



Total 



Grand Total 



56 



203 



56 



218 





Allot- 


Amount 


Amount 


ment 


spent 


of 


for 


during 


sanction- 


the 


the 


ed esti- 


year 


year 


mate. 


1921- 


1921- 




22. 


22. 


! 4 

1 


5 


6 


! 

1 Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


• . 


• • 


40 


1 
1 







56 



203 



56 



218 



56 



192 



90 



220 



Remarks. 



Completed. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 




Special j 
repairs. 

Rs. 

28,506 


Current repairs and 
maintenance. 
Rs. 
9,500 


17,241 


7,420 


20,369 


10,978 


1,409 


1,293 


20 , 


598 



67,545 



29,789 



97,334 



224 



Appendix A — contd. 



SkUemerU of expenditure on Conservation Works executed during the year 1921-22 in the Southern Circle. 



District. 



Kistna 



Guntur . 



M 



Bellary . 



» 



Chittoor 



Malabar 



» 



Salem 



9* 



9» 



Locality. 



Name of work and deacription. 



Masulipatam 



Motupallc 



Undavalli 



Hampi Ruins 



»» 



Chandragiri 



Palghat 



>» 



Atur . 



Sankan'drug 



tt 



Madras Presidency. 

(a) Special Repairs {non-recurring 
charges. 

Bandar Fort indudinQ Armmtnj^ 
Belfry and Powder Magazine, — 
Restoration of walls where attack- 
ed by saline action ; removing 
and renewing damaged lintels 
over doors, stopping leaks in 
terrace, re-building compound 
wall at certain places, plastering 
and general clearance. 

Viral)harlra Chola fetnple. — The 
north-westeni wall, the terrace j 
and the floor of the temple have 
been repaired, the gopuram was 
grouted and plastered. 



Cave temple, — Decayed pillars re- 
i constructed and flight of steps 
' formed with cut stone. 

VUthala tewjtle, — Iron clamps flxed 
to cracked pillars in the south- 
east Kalyana Mandapa. Flooring 
in the Ooddess temple reset 
where damaged and buttresses 
provided where needed. 

Laying out a new approach road 
and acquisition of land. 

• Fort and Palace. — Clearing sur- 
I roundings and whitewashing. 

I 

Fort. — Removal of water hyacinth 
from the moat. 

i Fort, — Removing vegetation, 

grouting, pointing, plastering, 
sundry repairs to roadway, etc. 

Hill Fort, — Removing vegetation 
and repacking revetment. 

Hill Fort, — Forming pathways, re- 
moving trees and vegetation and 
repairs to Fort walls. 

Kahir mosque in the Hill Fori, — 
Clearance, plastering, pointing 
and rebuilding parapet wall 
where broken. 



Amount of 

sanctioned 

estimate. 



Carried over 



Allotment 

for 
the year 
1921-22 

(excluding 
P. W. D. 

charges). 



Rs. 



6,850 



940 



390 



600 



2,000 



730 

500 

240 



600 



330 



770 



1,140 



Rs. 



5,000 



200 



3J)0 



600 



2,000 



955 



240 



600 



330 



480 



1.000 



Amount 

spent during 

the year 

1921-22 

(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges) . 



6 



Rs. A. p. 



Remarks. 



4,552 The work is in progress. 



200 



345 , 



299 



336 ! The work is in progress. 



838 ' Work completed. 



239 14 6 Completed. 



469 1 6 Work in progress. 
23 11 



290 9 6 



392 2 



906 12 



8,892 2 6 



Work in progress. 



Appendix A — contd. 



DiBtriot. 


Locality. 




Amount of 
sanctioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 

for 
the vcar 
1921-22 
(excluding 
P. W. D. 
charge). 


Amount 

spent during 

the year 

1921.22 

(excluding 
P. W. D. 

charges). 


Behabks. 


1 


2 


3 


* 


fl 


« 


7 








Rs. 


Rs. 


Rb. a. p. 








Brought forward 
Madras— coitfd. 






S,8!l2 2 G 


















(a) Special Rtpairg (nod-recwrins 
e^nr^M)— contd. 










NoTthArcot . 


Walajapet . 


Maeiid to the wpb* of the oitadd. 
colour waehing. plastering the 
walb and general clearance. 


100 


100 


99 


Completed. 


.. 


Wandiwash . 


for^— Removing vegetation and 
underpinning liriekB-ork, 




10 


42 


Do. 


" 


Sliolavararo . 


Si.a /fiwpie.— Renewing the walls 
around the shrine and levelling 

ground. 


1,600 




23 


Work in prt^ress. R«. 
vitted estimate for 
Rs. 2,780 is Hubmit. 
ted for sanction. 


- 


SiyjMnangi- 


Repairing the rooL 


1.030 


400 


466 


EscesB dne to wtoal 
expenditara found 
necMuiy. Wotfc Id 
progroM. 


Chingltpul . 


Mahahali- 
punm. 


Planting of avenue trew from 
temple tank to Shore temple. 


190 


190 


285 


■ 




Waterinp Oaa;.rin» planto in front 
of the r> mlhiu. 


HO 


110 


92 




. 


.. . 


special repair to monument at — . 




" 


35 




" 


Sadraa 


D«lch rem f ff ri/. ^ lieconstin [.■ ( ing 




170 


144 




„ 


Pulicat 


n»lclt «ni</«T,.— Special repM»B 
to—. 


270 


119 


119 




., 


Alambarai . 




930 


930 


846 




„ 


Conjcovaram 


ilalhnrigi'svara Umpfe.Spocia.\ 


30 


30 


30 




Tsaion. 


Tanjore 


S(huKirl: cA«rcA.-Spccial repairs 


720 


BOO 


488 




,, - ■ 


Tranquobar . 


Danaborg ro««e.-^Special repairs 

to — . 


1.330 


7.10 


758 




Booth Aroot . 


Gingec 


Gitigee Fort 6«iMinff«.— Special re- 
pairs to — . 


21,600 


2,(100 


2,599 




..... . 


Porto-Novo . 


Roimn Catholic Porlugitest ckareh— 
Special rcpaira to — . 

Carried over 


4,000 


2.500 


497 






•■ 




16,28* 2 





Appendix A—cotUd. 



Dbtrlct. 


Lowlity. 


Name of « ork and deeci iption. 


Amount of 
sanctioned 
eatimate. 


Allotment 

(or 

the year 

1921-22 

P. W. D. 

charge*). 


■pent during 
the year 
1021-22 
(excluding 
P. W. D. 
chargea). 


Rexabks. 


' i 2 


3 


4 5 


6 


7 








Ba. R«. 


Ra. A. P. 








Brought forward 
Madiuh— «)»i.;. 




15,264 2 6 
















condd. 


1 






HKlun 


Dindigul 


Bock Fort.— Special repairs to the 
compound wall of — . 


leO 144 


41 14 


Completed. 


Tiim.v.nj . 


Anjengo 


Old for/.— Special repaini to — 


2,300 : 400 


63 10 


Debit«forRs.250onac. 
count of land charges 
by Travancore Gov- 
ernment will be 
adjusU-d in supple- 
mental accounts for 
March 1022. 


Tricbinopoly . 


Perarabalur- 
Villapuram 
Hamlet of 
Brahma- 


roklnar 3tatjid and Cudd^pah 
NauiA'a tomfc.— PointiiJB, plai- 

underpiiinini;. 


510 151 

i 


142 




" 


Valikonda- 
puram. 


ValUmra (empfe.— Point ini; with 

chunam, clearing prickly jicar 
and petty repaini to Mandapam, 
etc. 


460 22B 


l.-w 




- ■ 




Shamankfvin mosque. — Pointing, 
plantering the flowng and re- 
moving vegetation. 


143 143 


114 




, . 


Ksnjangudy. 


Fori. — Undeqiinning the arch work 
and minor repairs to walla. 


«| M 


67 




South Kaiura 


Karka] 


Pointing the ivdIlH and flooring 
of cut stone with <ciiii'ril , grout- 
ing with concrete and clearing 
the weed* from the walls. 


160 150 


94 3 3 








Total (a) Special Repairs 






17.031 13 9 





£27 



Appendix A — contd. 



District. 



Ganjam 



Kistna 



*» 



M 



GaQtar . 



Anantapar 



i» 



Bellary • 



Locality. 



Name of work and doBcription. 



Amount of 

sanctioned 

estimate. 



Jongoda 



Bezwada 



Madbi.9 — contd, 

(6) AnnutU Repairs {recurring 
charges), 

Asoka Rock inscription, — ^Annual 
repairs to — . The leak in the 
roof over the insoription was 
caulked with lead wool and the 
notice board were repainted. 

Two rockcut cave temples on Indra* 
kila hill, filling cracks, plastering 
and clearance of vegetation. 



Kondapalle . Hill Fort and ruined palace 



Gudivada 



Amgolanu . 



Amravati 



Mound containing Buddhist remains 
and ancient viUage Mto.-— Repairs 
to the notioe board 'and the 
Mound sooh as painting and fix- 
ing the denuuoatioii stoofls Rmnd 
the Mound. 

Mound containing Buddhiti 
remains. — ^putting up notice 
board. 

Buddhist stupa and other remains. — 
The carved stones stacked and 
proper drainage provided. 



Kalayanadrug I Siva temple. — ^Plastering, pointing 

and clearance. 



Penukonda . ; Citadel and ruined buildings on tht 

hUl. — Doors and windows and 
expanded sheets were provided. 



»> 



Gagan Mahal. — Doors and windows 
and expanded metal sheets were 
provided. 



Hampi Ruins , Queen's bath. — ^Plastering with 

lime mortar. Gravelling; the 
pathway, etc. 



• I 



t* 



f» 



Sarasvati temple. — ^Removing and 
stacking loose stones, etc., etc. 

Ranga temple. — Plastering the two 
mandapams, grouting and point- 
ing big voids on walls. Provid- 
ing lintel stones at the main en- 
trance with side walls. 



Carried over 



Allotment 
for 

the year 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



Rs. 



25 



80 



100 
40 



26 



470 



15 



250 



760 



85 



100 



190 



5 



Rs 



25 



42 



100 
50 



25 



15 



253 



300 



85 



100 



190 



Amount 

spent during 

the year 

1921-22 

(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



6 



Rs. ▲. p. 



16 12 4 



41 4 



97 

53 Work oompleted. 

I 

11 0* *The wock U In pio* 
gresi and wiD be 

onrvBot olHflial yBU* 

21 10 



60 The inoompleta 
i an estimate. 



ed in 1919-20 
ezeoated under pnn 
vinoial foodiv 
finished in 1921^21 



13 



234 I 



304 



63 



70 



162 



1,136 10 4 



228 

Appendix A — cotUd. 



DiMriot. 


hoethtj. 


Name of «oA rod dMoriptioa. 


Amount of 


Allotment 
for 

the year 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

ohargea). 


Amount apent 

diirijiK the 
Jfni IMi-jS 

P. W. D. 

charges). 


Reharks. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 










Ra. 


Re. 


Rs. .. P. 










Brought forward 






1,136 10 4 










Hadbas— conM. 
















(b) Annual Repairs [ntitrring 
cAorjM) — contd. 












Bellu; 


Hampi Ruina 


Removing and carrying carved 
stones to inspection bungalow at 
Kamalapur and filing them in 
masonry. 


26 


25 


20 










Haiara Ra,nar.handra femp(<.— Plas- 
tering the top of verandah. 

pound wail, providing a cut 
atone pillar for the ilipped 
beanlKtone in the west verandah, 
grouting am! |Kiiiitiiiw where 
neceasary. n-sottiiig in position 
the fallen atones, etc. 


215 


215 


164 






- 


.. 


the loose Btanen and atacking 
them. 


85 


85 


78 






- 




Ruined tank adjoining the .Soolai 
Bazaar removing rank vegeta- 
tion. 


220 


220 


24 






» 


H 


Provision of Xotlee Boards. 


65 


65 


66 






« 


ThimiDalapiir 


Siva temple .... 


100 


100 


5 


The work was con 
last year but 
amount of Rs. 
paid in this ye 


pleted 

the 

5 was 


Chittoor 


Msngspuram 


pairs and clearing v^^tation. 


10 


10 


10 


Work completed. 




" 


Melpadi 


Somanalii't le m ph. —Fointin^ in 
front vcrHTidah of leniplc and 
floor of the entrance. 


10 


15 


15 


Do. 




- 


Gnrramkonils 


for/.— Clearing pathway and re- 
aides of pathway, etc. 


100 


200 


172 


Do. 




CnddapAb 


Sidhoat 


Fort and anrienl buUdings therein. — 
Gearing vegetation, etc. 


165 


170 


147 






Coimbatore . 


PuBhpsgiri . 
Avanubi . 


refripifs.— Repnirs to notice board, 

etc. 
Siva temple .... 


35 


35 


24 
IB 






» 


Tirumuruga- 
napundi. 


Carried over 


48 


48 


45 












1.925 10 4 





229 



Afpbndix a — cofUd. 



District 



Malabar 
Sooth Canara 



*» 



Salem 



North Aroot 



f* 



ft 



The Nilgiris 



Ghinc^eput 



Tanjore 



t» 



Tfamevdly 



Locality. 



Name of work and detoription. 



Amount of 

sanctioned 

estimate. 



3 



Wynaad 
Bekal 



Mangalore 



Mudabidri . 



Nada 



Namakkal 

AbduOapuram 
Vellore 

Tirumalai 

Banagudi Shola 
3 miles south 
of Kotagiri. 



Mahabalipu- 
ram. 

Sadras 

Negapatam 

Tanjore 

Taticorin 



Brought forward 

MADBas-^eoaAf. 

{b) AtunuallUpain {natrring 
charges)'-ooDtd, 

SuUarCs Battery.— Gearing jungle. 

Fort. — ^Removing rank T^getation, 
earth work and pointuig with 
surki mortar. 

Sultan's Boftery.— Removing' rank 
vegetation, pointing and plaster- 
ing with siuki mortar and taning 
gate. 

Sevenifem Jain MaimBB. — Clearing 
rank vogotation. Fiinling 

notice boards^ eta 

JamaUbnd Rock Fort— Gfeaiing 
vegetation^ cutting and removing 
trees grown on walls and grass 
on steps. 

Iim Fart. — ^Removing vegetation 
on the walls. 

Mahal. — ^Removing vegetation 

Old Moaquf. — ^Whitewashing and 
patch plastering. 

Jain temple. — Clearing vegetation. 

Group of large dolmena. — ^Biaintain- 
ing the drain along the road, 
removing jungle growth in the 
road and round the dolmens. 



1 



Acquisition of land for roadways 



Dutch cemetery. — Annual repairs, etc. 



DutcJi cemetery . 

Arsenal Totcer tif Tanjore Palace 

Statue hall in Tanjore Palaee 



Dutch cemetery • 



Carried over 



Allotment | 

for 
the year 
1921 22 
(excluding 

P. w.p. 

charges). 



Rs. 



225 



60 



102 

170 
150 
880 
280 
75 



5 



Amount 
spent during 

the y«ar 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 
charges). 



6 



Rs. 



20 



225 



60 



Rs. A. p. 



1,925 10 4 





1 


50 


50 


SS5 


200 

• 


140 


100 


50 


50 


40 


65 


70 


70 


70 


. • 



102 

13 

180 
500 
260 



19 14 



205 1 1 



57 



39 



106 



86 1 



21 



61 



65 



45 



102 

13 

180 

501 

261 

71 8 



3,748 2 5 



This represents the oosi 
of repairs done idai* 
ing to the estimate for 
the 3rear 1920-21. Bill 
amounting to Bs. 08 
being the oosI of 
repairs for 1921 -22' 
paid in April 1922. 



Since deleted from Hbtb 
list. 
Since deleted. 



230 
Appendix A — contd. 



Distriot. 



Trichinopoly 

Ganjam 

Vizagapatam 



9» 



ft 



Kifitna 



ft 



»9 



Guntur 

NeUore 
Anantapur 



» 



»f 



f» 



Locality. 



Tandoni 
Kottakolla . 



Sankaram 



»9 



Ramatirtham 



Bezwada 



Mogalrajpu- 
ram. 

Adamalle 

Pedavegi 

Guntapalle . 

Amaravati . 



Udayagiri 
Tadpatri 



Gooty 



Anantapur 



Penukonda 



Sethutirtham 



Name and description of work. 



Amount of 
sanctioned 
estimate. 



3 



I 



Brought forward 

Madras — contd, 

(6) Annual Repairs (recurring 
charges) — contd. 

Rock cut carvings 

Siva temple on Brvdhakoila hill 

Maintenance of watcher to Buddhist 
remains. 

Repairs to Buddhist remains 

Maintenance of watcher to Buddhist 
remains. 

Akkanna Madanna caves. — Clear- 
ance of vegetation. 

Rock ciit cave temples an the hiU, — 
Clearance. 

Ancient mounds 

Ditto 

Buddhist monuments 

Maintenance of a watchman for 
the Buddhist stupa. 

Hill Fort with ancient buildings . 

Ramaswami temple. — Repairs to 
the gopnraro. 

Fort and its buildings including the 
fortifications at the foot of the A»tt.— 
Maintenance of watchmen. 

Sir Thomas Munro's house and Uoo 
wells. — Colour washing and white 
washing the building and repairs 
to doors and windows. 

Ancient monuments. — Maintenance 
of watchmen. 



Seihuiirlham well. — Clearance 
site around the well. 



Carried over 



of 



Allotment 

for 
the year 
1921-22 

(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



Rs. 



40 
100 
144 

70 
144 



10 

85 

65 

85 

100 



470 



685 



65 



150 



40 



5 



Rs. 



40 

80 

144 

50 
144 



65 



200 



40 



10 

10 

10 

50 

110 

470 
685 



Amount spent 
during the 

year 1921-22 

(excluding 

P.W.D. 

charges). 



6 



Rs. A. P. 



3,748 2 5 ' 



1 

78 4 5 

155 

50 

144 



5 

11 1 

10 14 

9 14 

49 15 

90 

27 

15 

315 



Remarks. 



Monument sinoe deleted 
from the list. 



48 



203 



40 



5,001 2 10 



231 

Appendix A — contd. 



Madns 



District. 


Locality. 


1 


2 


Malabar 


1 
1 
1 

< 

1 
Telb'cherry . 


$9 


1 

1 

Kodur 


n 


»• • 


NortliAioot . 


Vellore 


n 


»» • 


f» 


Aroot 


nelTilgim . 


Hulikaldnig 



Name of work and description. 



Amount 
of 

sanctioned 
estimate. 



Brought forward 

Madbas — eontd, 

(6) Annual Repairs {recurring 
charges) — oontd. 



and vegetation. 

Kannewara temple, — General clear- 
ance and petty repairs. 

Krishnamurihi temple, — General 

clearance. 
Fort, — Clearing v^etation from 

the inner and outer rampart 
I walls of the tank. 
Jalakan^esvam temple in the ForL — 

Maintaining two watofamen and 

pointing, etc, 
Ddki fltoffc— MaintwiMioe of a 

watchman. 

Ruined Fort, — Clearing heavy jun- 
gle inside. 



BatladaAch- | Group of sculptured dolmens, — Re- 
eni 3 miles S. ' moving rank vegetation. 
E. of Kota- I 
giri. 

Tondiyarpet R, S, Pillar No, J657.— Annual re- 
pairs to—. 



» 



Washerman- 
pet. 



»» 



»> 



R, 8, Pillar No. 1755.— Annual re- 
pairs to— . 

R. S, Pillar No, J7W.— Annual re- 
pairs to—. 

R. S, PiUar No. 15i6.— Annual re- 
pairs to — . 

Madras old town uxUL — Annual re- 
pairs to — . 



George Town Joseph Hymner's tomb in Law 

College compound. 



Cliinglcpot 



Mahabalipu- 
ram. 



»» 



Chingleput • 



ii#> 



Ancient monuments, — Conservation 
of—. 

Repairs to roads at Mahabalipu- 

ram. 
Ther Mahal, — Annual repairs to — 

Carried over 



Allotment 

for 
the year 
1921-22 
(excluding 
P. W. D. 
charges). 



Rs. 



150 

12 

15 
630 

400 

180 

25 



10 , 



10 



8 



15 



98 I 



25 



420 



1,175 



160 



Rs. 



150 

25 

25 
530 

400 

100 

25 



10 



10 



10 



10 



100 



25 



300 



1,175 
151 



Amount 
spent during 

the year 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



6 






Rs. 


A. 


p. 


6,001 


2 


10 



148 11 



11 9 



14 3 



535 



399 



100 



25 



5 



9 



10 



8 



11 



91 



19 



281 



1,129 



151 



Sijioe deleted, no ptori- 
sion to be mado m 
future. 



Since deieted* no provi- 
sion to be made in 
future. 



7,998 9 10 



232 



Appendix A — contd. 



IMrtriot* 



Tanjore 



Soatb Aicot • 



lladara 



Bellary 



Cooig 



Looafity. 



Tmneyelly 



Trichinopoly • 



f* 



Tanjore 



Gingee 



Dindigul 



Adichanallur 



Ranjangudi . 

Gangaikonda 
sholavaram. 



Hampi Ruins 



91 



Mercara 



Nalkanad 



Name and deaoription of work. 



Amount 

of 

sanctioned 

estimate. 



Brought forward 

Madras — condd, 

(6) Annval JRepairs {recurring 
charge s) — concld. 

Sivaganga little foot, — Maintenance 
of—. 

Oingee Fort, — Maintenance of 
watchman. 

Rock Fort. — Employment of watch- 
man from ist October 1920 to 
30th September 1922. 

Prehistoric remains, — ^Maintenance 
of a watchman. 



Fort, — Maintenance of a watch- 
man. 
Brihadlsvara temple . 



Maintenance of watchman and es- 
tabUshment charges for 1921. 

Maintenance of watchman and es- 
tabUshment charges for 1922. 

Total (6) Annual Repairs 

COORQ. 

Fort and Rajahs seat, — Repairs to 
roads, elephants. Raja's seat and 
clearing surroundings and keep- 
ing a watchman. 

Nalkanad Palace, — Repairs to 
doors and windows. White- 
washing and paying a watcher. 

Totel Coorg 



Total Madras (a) and (6) 



Grand Total 



Allotment 

for 
the year 

1921-22 
(excluding 

P. W. D. 

charges). 



Rs. 



240 



680 



180 



144 



144 



970 



970 



Amount 

spent during 

the year 

1921-22 

(excluding 

P. W. D. 

chaiges). 



6 



6 



Rs. 



Rs. A. p. 
7,998 9 10 



Remarks. 



240 



000 



144 



108 



36 



214 

676 

76 8 

92 3 10 

99 

10 

38 



960 



970 



240 



340 



699 



234 



10,037 5 8 



218 6 



406 6 6 



623 11 6 



27,969 3 6 



28,692 14 10 



In progress. 



No work was carried out 
this year but the 
amount spent the pre- 
vious year was paid 
from grant under 
urgent contingencies. 
The monument has 
now been ordered to 
be deleted. 



There is no sanctioned 
estimate for these 
works in this office. 



233 



Appkndix a — contd. 

Summary cf expenditure on talaries, establishmenU, excavations, etc. 



Ciioles. 



(a) Snperintendent, Muhainmadan and British Monuments, Northern Cirole 
(6) „ Hindu and Buddhist Monuments, Northern Cirole 



(c) 

(«) 
(f) 
(9) 
(*) 



Frontier Circle 
Western Circle 
Central Circle 
Eastern Circle 



Southern Circle (Provincial grant) 



Burma Circle 



do. 



da 



(i) Qovemment Epigraphist for India 
(j) Arohfldological Chemist in India 



(k) Director General of Archaeology including Epigraphist for Moslem In- 
scriptions. 



(I) Sb Amel Steip 



TqM 



Allotment. 



Rs. 
58,306 



Expenditure. 



Rs. 
70,093» 



34,939 


31,505 


28,350 


28,387 


38,806 


47,569 


47,832 


46,251 


21,061 


21,184 


28,592 


24,085 


32,200 


34,151 


23,560 


26,323 


22,082 


19,556 


1,49,090 


1,62,575 


39,000 


38,033 


5,22,818 


0»4O,712 



*Rs. 3,664 provided by Provinoial Qovemment for the Delhi Museum. 



234 



Appendix A — candd. 

Expenditure incurred on CansenxUion works by Provinces during the year 1921' 1922. 



Province. 



Allotment. ; Expenditure. 



United Provinces — 

Mn ham mad An and Britiah Monuments 
Hindu and Buddhiat Monuments 

Punjab— 

Muhammadan and British Monuments 
Hindu and Buddhist Monuments 



Delhi ..... 

North-West Frontier Province 

Bihar and Orissa . 

Central Provinces and Berar 

Bengal. 

Assam 

Bombay 

Madras 

Coorg . 

Burma 

Ajmere 

Chattarpur State (grant-in-aid) 

Dhar State (grant-in-aid) 

Reserve .... 



Rs. 


Rs. 


: 1 2,05,400 


r 1,73,682* 
( 12,239 


I 1,19,100 


( 99,895t 
i 42,706 


1,34,000 


l,32,035t 


; 38,200 

1 


, 14,998 


26,300 


13,475 


34,000 

1 


: 19,607 


21,000 


1 

1 16,847 

1 


7,500 

1 


9,458 


1,10,000 

1 


97,334 


54,000 ^ 
600J 


28.592 


62.700 

1 


56,363 


1 1 
' 7,200 

1 : 


7,200 


1 5,000 


5,000 


15,000 i 


15,000 


30,000 


• • 



Total 



8,70,000 



7,44,431 



* Includes Rs. 69,581 provided by Provincial Government for Gardens. 

t Includes Rs. 20,724 provided by Provincial Government for Gardens. 

X Includes Rs. 6,839 provided by Provincial Government for salary of caretaker and establishment at the 
Delhi Fort. 



235 

APPENDIX B. 
MUSEUMS. 
List of exhibits received in the Delhi Museum of Archaeology during 

the year 1921-22. 

Purchased. Bs. 

1. A specimen of calligraphy written in Naskh characters by Muhammad Afzal 

who records himself a servant of Dara Shikoh. It was written in Kabul 

on 15th Shawwal 1062 A. H. (19th September 1652) ... .26 

2. A specimen of calligraphy by the same scribe in Naskh characters. It was also 

written in Kabul in the month of Ramzan 1062 A. H. (August 1652) but the 
name of writer, date and place are transcribed in different style . . 25 

3. Ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto . 26 

4. A specimen of calligraphy in Naskh characters written by Asad Ali . . 16 
6. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Muhammad Ali, 

who was a court calligraphist of the late Mughal Emperors. It is dated 1196 
A.H. (1781-82 A. D.) 20 

6. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Safdar Ali . 15 

7. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Muhammad 

Subhan ............ 20 

8. A specimen of calligraphy written in Nastaliq characters by Muhammad Baqar 15 

9. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Ahmad Riza . 25 

10. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Shamsuddin 30 

11. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Muhammad 

Husain Ata Khan. It is dated 1192 A. H. (1778 A. D.) .... 25 

12. A Bpecimfin of calligraphy in Nastaliq ohaxacten written by Muhammad 

Maqim, who was one of tiie caDigraphists of Shahjahan's time and lived in 

the EaU Masjid at Delhi 20 

13. A specimen of calligraphy in Naskh characters written by Abdurrahman . 16 

14. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Arab Shirazi. It 

is dated 1041 A. H. (1631-32 A. D.) and contains a verse in praise of Abdullah 
Qutb Shahi, the king of (^olkanda 40 

16. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Sarab Sukh Rai, 
a pupil of Hafiz Nurullah who flourished during the time of Nawab Asif-ud- 
Daulah of Oudh (1775— 1797 A. D.) 20 

16. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characteis written by Tajammul Husain 

Khan, who was a pupil of Haflz Ibrahim and served Mr. Montague TumbuU 

of the Civil Service in 1828 20 

17. Seal impressions (more than one hundred) of European and Indian officers 

of the later Mughal period 100 

18. A specimen of calligraphy in Nastaliq characters written by Ustad Haider Ali 16 

Presented. 
Presented by C. J. Browny Esq,, Professor, Canning College, Lucknow, 

1. Sanad issued under the seal of Sayyid Amjad Khan Sadr-i-Jahan, an official of Shah 
Alam Bahadur Shah I addressed to the authorities of Pargana JuUander, Subab 
Punjab, granting 65 bighas of uncultivated land of the Pargana to one Niyaz Bano 
and others as assistance to their livelihood. It is dated 6th Zulhijja(1123 A. H.) 
of the 5th regnal year (16th January 1712). 

On Loan. 
Lent by the Director General of ArchcBohgy in India, 
1. Sanad marked with the seal impressions of Majd-ud-Daulah Abdul Majid Khan end 
Savvid TJmar Khan officials of the Emperor Aurangzeb and dated the 23rd Safar 



* 



236 
Appendix B — contd. 

the year 1068 A. H. (30th November 1657 A. D.). It was issued in favour of a 
lady named Sharif a Bano and others, pennitting them to retain possession of 50 
bighas of land in the Pargana of Mihrabad in the Province of the Punjab. 

2. Sanad marked with the seal impressions of Sayyid Shahmat Khan and Sayyid Mirak, 

officials of the Emperor Muhammad Shah, and dated the 14th Muharram the year 
1153 A. H. (11th April 1740). It was issued in favour of Sharifa Bano and others, 
permitting them to retain possession of 50 bighas of land in the Pargana of Mihrabad 
in the Province of tlve Punjab. 

3. Sanad marked with the seal impression of HidayatuUah, son of Sayyid Ahmad Qadiri, 

the Sadr-U8-Sadur (Chief Judge) of Shahjahan, and dated the 27th of Shawwal, the 
first year of Aurangzeb corresponding to 1069 A. H. (18th July 1659). It was issued 
in favour of Nizam-ud-Din, permitting him to retain possession of 85 bighas of land 
in the village of Baddhi Gharib Rao in the province of Dar-us-Saltanat, Lahore. 

4. Sanad marked with the seal impressions of Saadatmand Khan and Sayyid Ashraf 

Khan, officials of Shah Alam Bahadur Shah I, and dated the 19th Jamadi-ul-Awwal^ 
the year 1 121 A. H. (26th August 1709). It was issued in favour of Gul Muhammad, 
the son of Khan Muhammad, pennitting him to retain possession of 60 bighas of 
land in the village Mihri in the Punjab. 

5. Sanad issued under the seal impressions and signatures of Sadr-us-Sadur Sadr-i- Jahan 

Sayyid Muhammad Afzal Khan and Kutbu Mulk Sayyid Abdullah, the prime 
minister of t'le Emperor Farrukhsiyar, granting 40 bighas of land to Shaikh Ismail, 
the grandson of Makhdum Ilm-ud-Din Suharwardi in the pargana Kulanki in the 
Province of Multan. It is dated the 14th Rabi-ul-Awwal, the 4th year of the reign 
of Farrukhsiyar. 

6. Sale deed dated the 2nd Rabi-ul-Awwal the year 1177 A. H. (10th September 1764) 

and marked with the seal impressions of Shaikh Aziz, the Shaikhul Islam, and Faiz 
Muhammad and Abd-ur-Rahman, the Qaziz. respectively. It refers to the sale of 
a house at Lahore by Hafiz Muhammad Azam to Muhammad Zarif. 

• 

7. Parwana issued under the seal impression of Khan, the Sadr-us-Sadur of Timur 

Shah, the eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani, appointing Mir Mas.id as a Muazzin of 
the Jami Mosque of Lahore with an allowance of one rupee a day in supersession of 
Nazar Muhammai who ran away. It is dated 8th Ziqad the year 1170 A. H. 
(25th July 1757). 

8. Farman of Ahmad Shah Durrani, marked with his seal impression and Tughra. It 

is dated 1182 A. H. (1768 A. D.) and was issued in favour of MuUa Salih Muh- 
ammad the Shaikhul Islam of Peshawar. 

9. Farman of Mahmud Shah, the son of Timur Shah, issued in favour of Mulla Sharf- 

uddin of Peshawar : permitting him to retain possession of 20 Jaribs (chains) 
of land in the village of Pachki. It is dated 1216 A. H. (1801 A. D.). 

10. Farman of Shuja-ul-Mulk, the son of Timur Shah, marked with his seal impression and 

Tughra and dated the year 1218 A. H. (1803 A. D.). It was issued in favour of 
Bahram Khan Firoz Kohi, the chief of Afghanistan. 

11. Inscribed filter vessel of the Emperor Aurangzeb. It is dated 1080 A. H. 

(1669-70 A. D.) 

12. Specimen of calligraphy by Muhammad Husain. It is written on both sides and 

contains 12 small pictures of birds. Muhammad Husain was a resident of 
Kashmir and given the title of Zarrin Qilam (gold pen) by the Emperor Akbar. 



237 
Appendix B — contd. 

List of coim rec4n\H'i1 for the Delhi Musfum of ArchcBology during the year 1921-22. 



1 

From wlioni received. ■ 


Ruler's name. 


Dynasty. Gold. 

1 

1 


Silver. 


Copper. Billon. 

1 

1 ■ 


Total, 

• 


(Presented.) 




1 


1 1 
1 




Director General of 
Archaeology in 
India (from Dr. 
Taylor's collection). 

1 


Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah 


Khalji 


r 
1 


. . . . 

1 


2 

i 


2 


Do. 


Ghiyaauddin Tughlaq 


Tughlaq 

1 


• • 


1 
• • 


■ • 


I 1 


Do. 


Muhammad bin Tughlaq . 


Do. . i . . . . i 1 


3 4 


Do. 


Firoz Shah Tughlaq 


UOw • * • • • • o 

1 


17 20 


Do. 


Firoz Shah with Fath Khan 


Do. 


• • • • • • 

1 


1 ' 1 


Do. 


Muhammad Shah ihn Firoz 
Shah. 


Do. 


« ■ • • 1 

i 


1 


Do. 


Muhammad Adil Shah 


Sur 


• • • • 


3 


3 


Do. 


Akbar 


Mughal 


35 


• • 


35 


Do. 


Jahangir 


Do. 


i 1 

1 


1 


Do. 


SbahJahan 


Do. 


• • 


1 


• • 


I 


Do. 


Aurangzoh 


Do. 


« . 


2 


.. ' 2 


Do. 


Shah Alam I . 


Do. 


I 

..14 


4 


Do. 


Murtaza I . . . 


Nizam Shahi 


• • • • o 

1 1 


S 


Do. 


Murtaza 11 . 


Do. 


. . 


.. : 13 


.. 13 


Do. 


AH I ... 


Adil Shahi . 


. • 


1 

2 




'?. 


Do. 


AH 11 ... 


Do. 


! 

. . 1 . • ^ 
' 1 




4 


Do. 


Ibrahim 11 . 


Do. 

■ 


i 

1 


13 


■ • 


13 


Do. 


Muhammad 


Do.. 


. a 


• • 


7 


« • 


i 


Do. 


Ahmad Shah I 


Bahmani 


. . 


• • 1 tS 


• • 


3 


Do. 


Ahmad Shah 11 


Do. 


. • 


.. 1 3 


• • 


3 


Do. 


Muhammad Shah bin Hum- 
avun S!iah. 

ft 


Do. 


. . 




• • 


2 


Do. 


Kalimullah 


Do. 


. . 


1 2 

1 


2 


Do 


Ahmad Shah I 


King of Gujrat 


• 1 

• . . . o 

1 


.. ' s 


Do. 


Mahmud Shah I 


Do. 


.. 1 .. 11 .. 11 

1 i 


Do. 


Ahmad Shah II 


Do. 


• • 


3 

1 


:? 


Do. 


Muhammad Shah 11 


Do. 


2 

1 


2 

1 


• 


Carried over 


1 


39 93 

1 

1 

t 


24 156 

1 



238 
Appendix B — contd. 



From whom received. 


Ruler*s name. 


Dynasty. 


Gold. 

1 
1 


Silver. 


Copper. 


Billon. 


Total. 


« 


Brought forward . 
MuzafFarShab II 

Bahadur Shah . 


1 

• a . • 


39 


93 


24 


156 


(Presented. ) 
Director General of 
ArchsBology in 
India (from Dr. 
Taylor^s CoUeo- 
tion.) 
Do. 


1 

King of Guj- 
rat. 

Do. 


. . 


1 
1 


• • 

• • 


1 
1 


Do. 


MahmudShah II 


Do. 




1 j .. 


1 


Do. 


Ahmad Shah III 


Do. 




5 


. • 


5 


Do. 


MuzaffarShah III . 


Do. 




6 


6 


Do. 
Da 


Tippu Sultan . 
Krishna Raja . 


Rajas of 
Mahisur. 
Do. 


• 


• . 


16 
2 


• • 


16 
2 


Do. 


Muhammad Akbar Badshah 
Ghazi II. 


Mughal 






2 


• • 


2 


Do. 


SliahJahan II 


Do. 






2 


2 


Do. 


Sahibqiran probably Maha- 
raja Gwalior. 


Native State 






1 


• 


1 


Do. 


Bflhadiu-Shah II 


Mughal 






1 


.. i 1 


Government of the 
United Provinces. 
Do. 


ShahAlam II 
Muhammad Shah 


Do. 
Do. 




3 

i 


. . . . 


3 

7 


Do. 


Ahmad Shah . 


Do. 








• . 




Do. 


Muhammad Shah 


Do. 






1 
1 




Do. 


Alamgir II . . . 


Do. 






1 




Government of 
Bengal. 
Do. 


Akbar 
Jahangir 


Do. 

* 

Do. 








• • 

• • 




Do 


ShahJahan 


Do. 




116 




• • 


116 


Do. 


Aurangzeb 


Do. 






..;..: 2 

1 


Do. 


Famikhsiyar . 


Do. 




1 




1 

1 


Do. 


Muhammad Shah 


Do. 




2 


. . . • 


2 


Director of Industries, 
Central Provinces. 
Do. 


Aurangzeb 
Famiksiyar 


Do. 
Do. 




2 
2 




1 

•• i 2 

t 

1 

.. 1 2 


Do. 


Muhammad Shah 


Do. 




7 




• • 


7 


Do. 


Ahmad Shah . 


Do. 




3 




• • 


3 


Do. 


Shah Alam II . 


Do. 


6 






6 


Do. 


Akbar II . . . 
Total presented 


Do. 


2 




• • 


2 




• • 




197 


131 


24 


.352 






> • 






289 

Appendix B- condd. 



Wrom whom received. Ruler's name. 


Dynasty. 


Gold. 


Silver, 


Copper. 


Billon. 


1 

Total. 

t 
1 

1 




Brought forward . . 


. . 


. . 


197 


131 


24 


1 

352 


(On loan). 














Director General of 
Aich»ology in 
India. 
Do. 


Jahangir 
Aurangzeb 


Mughal 
Do. 


• • 
8 


1 
21 


• » 




1 
29 


Do. 


Shah Alam I . 


Do. . ; 


. . 


9 1 

i 




9 


Do. 


Jahandar Shah 


Do. . ' 


. . 


2 .. 

1 




2 


Do. 


Farrukhsiyar . 


Do. 


. . 


1 
7 




7 


Do. . 


Muhammad Shah 

Total on loan 
Akbar 


Do. 


1 


i 

1 






2 

50 




. . 


9 


41 i .. 




i 


(Purchased) 


Mughal 

1 


1 


• • 1 • • 

1 




1 V 




Do. 


Aurangzeb 


Do. . 1 

1 


3 


7 


• « 




10 




Da 


Shah Alam I . 


Do. 


. • 


3 


• . 




3 




Do. 


Jahandar Shah 


Do. 


. . 


2 


. . 




2 




Bo. 


Itoukhaiyar ^ 


Bo. 


• • 


11 


• • 




11 




Bo. 


Mnluuniiuid Sluih 


Ba 


• • 


1 


• • 




1 




Do. 

% 


Alamgirll 


Do. 


. • 


1 


. . 




1 




Do. 


Shah Alam 11 


Do. 


• • 


4 


• • 




4 




> 

Do. 


Muhammad Ali Shah 


N a w a b of 
Oudh. 


1 


1 


. . 




1 




Do. 


Wajid Ali Shah 

Total purchased 
Grand Total 


Do. 


. . 


2 


. . 




2 






. . 


4 


32 


. . 




36 




• . 


13 


270 


131 


24 


4 


38 



List of exhibits received in the Taj Museum, Agnu 

(Presented.) 

1. A picture of the Taj Mahal presented by the Right Hon'ble Marquis Curzon ol Kedlestoii, 

P.C., etc. 

2. An image of a Jaina Tirthankara found some 15 years ago in a stone quarry near Baiju- 

ki-6arahdari at Fatehpur Sikri. 



240 

APPENDIX C. 

List of antiquitiea found at Nalanda in 1921-22. 

Site No. I. 



Deacription of finds. 



A group of thrw Buddhaa aUnding aide 
byaideona!otua[>Lil<stal, with three 
amall BudciJianHtanding to leftof each 
Mid a BinaJl clepbant kneeling to left of 
the centre one. 



One votive terracotta plaque with 
Buddha seated on lotus throne in 
Bhumiapaisa Mudra, surrounded by 
many votive stnpaa. Three lines of 
inacriptjon occur under tiie lotus 
throne. 

Standing Buddha on lotus, an attendant 
standing to right with a votive stupa 
to left, prolHibly a portion of a larger 



One stone pedeetal nith one male and one 
female figure lying under the feet of a 
standing figure. May be Trailokyavj- 
jaya. 

One thiee-headed figure seated on a lion 
throne in a preaching attitude, hns 
ushnisha, like a Buddha. Inscription 
on back. 



I ring, five nails and 



One iron look, oi 
two pieces of ii 

Seated Avalokitesvara on a lotus throne. 
Left band rfittmii; on tho head of an 
attendant ami nylil arm lying on his 
knee ; a votive stupa to left, and a 
monkey kneeling to right side on pedes- 
tal. Inscription on back. 

I Small Buddha seated on a lotus throne 
I under the Bodhi tree in Bhumisparsa 
! Mudra. 

I Seated figure on a lotus throne with two 

attendants on each side standing on a 

lotus, and two other smaller atlen- 

I dante, one kneeling to right and one 

' Btandinf! to U'ft. Two lines of inscrip- 

I One double-faced round seal. One face 
I with the Samath emblems, Dharma- 
I ohakra and deer, with two lines 
of inBcriiiliun. The other with Siva 
I eeated on bull holding Trisula, with one 
I line of inscription. 

Lower portion of a small standing figure 



Find spot. 



Depth. 



More than baU 

of the ri|^ 
onegone. 



' Left hand broken. 



I 25 c2 18' 4' 



Standing figure 
is missing. 



17' tr 




16' 9* 


Si- „ 


U' T 


4*' » 



Broken ii 



H' height Upper portion 
misMng. 



Note: — All depths recorded as below the upper lerandah level, 



Serial 
No. 



649 



660 



661 



662 



dav. 



Terracotta 



99 



Stone 



ft 



663 



664 



666 



666 



667 



668 



Seal 



99 



Metal 



Stone 
Pottery 



241 
Appendix G-HxmcJd. 



Description of finds. 



Find spot. 



Votive terracotta plaque similar to I 26 62 
No. 639. 



Fragment of a votive terracotta plaque I 26 24 
similar to No. 639. 



Pedestal of a seated figure on lotus throne, 
one line of inscription at bottom. 



Fragment of a halo baok-gronnd, a votive 
stupa to right and a portion of inscrip- 
tion. 

Fragment with a standing female figure 
holding a chowri in her arm. 

One Nalanda Seal • • • . 



One smaU head, very rudely carved 



Seated Buddha in Bhumispana Mudra, in 
2 pieces. 



Depth. 



K 26 62 



K 26 64 



One votive stupa 



One earthen ohitagh • 



One smaU jar 



J 26 62 



J 24 64 
J 24 61 



27 a4 



N 26dl 



184 iM 
184 iM 



17' 6' 



17' 9-' 



17' 9* 



18' 



Measure. 



R 



Lower portion 
with a line of 
inscription gone. 



3}' height Right half mis- 
sing. 



44' 



18' 


3* 


16' 


or 


16' 


3' 


16' 


9' 


13' 


3^ 


ir 


(f 


ir 


(f 



ft 



l(f height 



10* 



irhdght 



NoTS :— All depths reoorded as below the upper verandah level. 



MlDaoU-«18.8.24— 60C^GIP8, 



I^S 



.Mom)o — xiaMHOTA 



uslH 



jonusBQliL 



diqeQ i Joqa boTi 



jBbaA \o aoiiqhoaoG 



.AMlO 






MVZ .oZ 



UI^C 



"* ixilimiR 



»t 



occ 



onotR I fit; 



I^S 



.Mom)o — xickhotA 



USLH .0111 8£0M 



.iliqoQ I Joqs boTi 



jBbaSi \o floiiqhoadG 



.aMAlO 






"•^ 1 a* lAlkafs ofrpAlq nJJoouiiai oviloV /ittooanoT Ul-ti 

.GP.a ,ov: 



"♦ inlimiR 



•« 



occ 



onot?. ICc. 





p 






■^■H 



1\HT OF SlUHl hAUWAZA, AH IIKSTOHKII. Ta.T. AC.HA. 




16) KOTLA PiBOz Shah; Entrance gateway of the mosql'e fhom tnhide the mosque, Delhi. 



1 




(o) Temple of Anandeswar, from north, at Lasur. Distkict Amraoti. r.l'. : »hu\mm; ni;\s facing of EAi 



4 








*^^ 


,-i^-V- 


y .- 

■■-,.■.■. 






% 


W 




'■^ 


-"' y*-""" 1 








1 





ia\ Karnath. Head of Avalokitesvara, 



(/') Sarnath. Femai-k ohauih-bearkk '■aiivej> in the 
HOUND. Back. 






1 


71 



.VATION AHOr 





B^WB^^8^*^BW 


W'^-^^'iJ.^S^Si 


sa 


'HB^^^-'^ 


WiM 




nS^ — , . - 


!..•%-». 


^ .^ 


^^^^ 




^^^ 





KfRt'KSHETUA, TllBNCH B-C FROM S.W. 




Plate XXII. 




[h] KTlirKSUK'HM- TRENfll I) THOM S.W. 



J 





i 








■ 

5:- 





I'll PiLi^iH wiTii i.vsiiiiiTKiN ov THE Chem riusc 
Kab.1. at Naihya\chat\-ar.\. Paikohe, Bikbhcm 




(.1 I«Ar;F. OK Masasa at Bmai.[«vaii. IItim 




/ 



Pt.ATK XKVII. 




ij 



Tt \vv. XXVTIT. 




,. »<;«« .A%M»«»'^ '*'-^«*-^*'*™*-'* 




u S 



\ 






mmj^^mm^iii^fA^Kf^iU a&' 




^''*|% 










(b) COLOB8AL HOdC-CTT HBAD OF 8IVA AJ-TBR JON«LE-0LEARAN(.l 



i-LATE xxxn. 




JlAfM,v\ V\:.\i!. S.\<\K His 



.» 



4 




• *• 



I'lATE XXXIV. 





i 




Plate XSXVl. 





Fresh ArQvisnioNs in thk Indian MrsEca. 




3< 



Pi-iiK XXXll. 




M.iVN'.v.A 1'J.^K, Na«ik Drr- 





Fresh Acijuisitions in the Indian Museum, 




^aiffiiBiAUfiada£&i 



I'tATE XXXTV 




^ 





(.1) ALr«l.\-ir.M THAME rSEl) IN MorM IMi 

sKiT[(.-j OK FMESfo snows ly Fi.;. li. 




[lA Sect my of rnEHn 

ON ITS AI.lIMlN-lfM 


""-"" 








1 




'.vr« ,'**i(*»^^^(fit)'i 


1 


3 


% 1 


i 





nutim ii«i t iffi'in 11 im nniriii m Tmninn iinmTiftMtiiinii'nPr 







Fresh AcQFiaiTiofjs lu mE Indian Mf( 




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